Physalis alkekengi

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Physalis alkekengi
PhysalisAlkekengi-balloon.jpg
Physalis alkekengi fruit with the red husk
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Physalis
Species: P. alkekengi
Binomial name
Physalis alkekengi
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Alkekengi officinarum Moench
  • Boberella alkekengi (L.) E.H.L.Krause
  • Physalis alkekengi var. anthoxantha H. Lév.
  • Physalis alkekengi var. orientalis Pamp.
  • Physalis ciliata Siebold & Zucc.
  • Physalis halicacabum Crantz
  • Physalis hyemalis Salisb.
  • Physalis kansuensis Pojark.

Physalis alkekengi (bladder cherry, Chinese lantern,[2] Japanese lantern,[2] or winter cherry;[2] Japanese: hōzuki), is a relative of P. peruviana (Cape gooseberry), easily identifiable by the larger, bright orange to red papery covering over its fruit, which resemble paper lanterns. It is native from southern Europe east across southern Asia to Japan. It is an herbaceous perennial plant growing to 40–60 cm tall, with spirally arranged leaves 6–12 cm long and 4–9 cm broad. The flowers are white, with a five-lobed corolla 10–15 mm across, with an inflated basal calyx which matures into the papery orange fruit covering, 4–5 cm long and broad.

Cultivation[edit]

Physalis alkekengi, or the Chinese lantern, dries during spring. Once it is dried, the bright red fruit is seen.

It is a popular ornamental plant, though it can be invasive with its wide-spreading root system sending up new shoots some distance from where it was originally planted. In various places around the world, it has escaped cultivation.[3] It has food and medicinal uses.[3][4]

Traditional uses[edit]

The dried fruit of P. alkekengi is called the golden flower in the Unani system of medicine, and used as a diuretic, antiseptic, liver corrective, and sedative.[5]

Chemical constituents[edit]

Like a number of other species in the genus Physalis, it contains a wide variety of physalins.[6][7][8] When isolated from the plant, these have antibacterial[9] and leishmanicidal[10][11] activities in vitro.

It also contains caffeic acid ethyl ester, 25,27-dehydro-physalin L, physalin D, and cuneataside E.[12]

Cultural significance[edit]

In Japan, its seeds are used as part of the Bon Festival as offerings to guide the souls of the deceased. Also, an annual market is dedicated to the flower called hōzuki-ichi which occurs in Asakusa around Sensō-ji every year on July 9 and 10.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List
  2. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy, entry for Physalis alkekengi". 
  3. ^ a b "1. Physalis alkekengi Linnaeus". Flora of China. 
  4. ^ Azadeh Montaserti, Maryam Pourheydar, Mozafar Khazaei, and Rostam Ghorbani (Winter 2007), "Anti-fertility effects of physalis alkekengi alcoholic extract in female rat", Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 5 (1): 13–16, ISSN 1680-6433 
  5. ^ Rasheed N.M.A., Shareef M.A., Ahmad M., Gupta V.C., Arfin S., Shamshad A.K "HPTLC finger print profile of dried fruit of Physalis alkekengi Linn." . Pharmacognosy Journal 2010 2:12 (464-469)
  6. ^ Matsuura, T; Kawai, M; Makashima, R; Butsugan, Y (1970), "Structures of physalin A and physalin B, 13,14-seco-16,24-cyclo-steroids from Physalis alkekengi var. Francheti.", Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin transactions 1 5: 664–70, doi:10.1039/j39700000664, ISSN 0300-922X, PMID 5461642 
  7. ^ Qiu, L; Zhao, F; Jiang, Zh; Chen, Lx; Zhao, Q; Liu, Hx; Yao, Xs; Qiu, F (Apr 2008), "Steroids and flavonoids from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.", Journal of Natural Products 71 (4): 642–6, doi:10.1021/np700713r, PMID 18348534 
  8. ^ Kawai, M; Yamamoto, T; Makino, B; Yamamura, H; Araki, S; Butsugan, Y; Saito, K (2001), "The structure of physalin T from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetti.", Journal of Asian natural products research 3 (3): 199–205, doi:10.1080/10286020108041391, ISSN 1028-6020, PMID 11491395 
  9. ^ Silva, M.T.G.; Simas, S.M.; Batista, T.G.; Cardarelli, P.; Tomassini, T.C.B. (2005). "Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination". Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 100: 7. doi:10.1590/s0074-02762005000700018. 
  10. ^ leishmanicidal[dead link]
  11. ^ Choudhary M.I., Yousaf S., Ahmed S., Samreen , Yasmeen K., Atta-ur-Rahmang "Antileishmanial physalins from Physalis minima" Chemistry and Biodiversity 2005 2:9 (1164-1173)
  12. ^ YUAN Ye,XU Nan,BU Xian-kun,ZHAN Hong-li,ZHANG Meng-meng Chemical constituents of Physalis alkekengivar. franchetii(Ⅱ) "Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs" http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZCYO201012005.htm (Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Dalian 116600,China)