Polonaises Op. 40 (Chopin)
Polonaise in A major, Op. 40, No. 1
Performed by Romuald Greiss on an 1850 Budynowicz piano
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The beginning opens with an A major chord and continues in a typical polonaise rhythm. The key then changes into D major in the middle of the polonaise for a trio section, after which the opening is repeated. The piece is almost entirely played forte or louder, which makes for a bombastic performance.
During the September 1939 German invasion of Poland at the outset of World War II, Polskie Radio broadcast this piece daily as nationalistic protest, and to rally the Polish people.
Polonaise in C minor, Op. 40, No. 2
The second polonaise's main theme, a contrast to the majestic and joyful one in the first, features an even rhythm of semiquaver chords in the right hand starting with C minor, and a mournful melody played in octaves by the left, with occasional lines played by the right hand. It is interspersed with a more serene theme, before switching to the trio section in E♭ major, which incorporates typical polonaise rhythms. The main theme is then repeated, with an added dramatic melody in the right hand.
In Season 3 Episode 20 of Futurama, Bender plays the C minor Polonaise on a miniature piano while floating through space.
- Polonaises, Op.40: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Polonaises sheet music available at Musopen:
- Huneker, James. Chopin: The Man and His Music, Dover Publications, Inc., 1966.
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