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The Pulayar, also Pulayar, Pulaya, or Pulayas or Holeya or Cherumar, are an untouchable caste forming one of the main social groups in modern day Kerala and Karnataka as well as in historical Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam.
Pulayars are noted for their music, craftsmanship, and for certain dances which include Kōlam-thullal, a mask dance which is part of their exorcism rituals, as well as the Mudi-āttam or hair-dance which has its origins in a fertility ritual.
Snake worship (nagaradhana) was prevalent among many Pulaya families all over Kerala.
Arts of Pulayar caste:
- "PRIMAL ELEMENTS:THE ORAL TRADITION".
- "Early Evidence for Caste in South India, p. 467-492 in Dimensions of Social Life: Essays in honor of David G. Mandelbaum, Edited by Paul Hockings and Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, Amsterdam, 1987".