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RAD9 homolog A (S. pombe)
Protein RAD9A PDB 3A1J.png
Rendering based on PDB 3A1J.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols RAD9A ; RAD9
External IDs OMIM603761 MGI1328356 HomoloGene32118 GeneCards: RAD9A Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE RAD9A 204828 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5883 19367
Ensembl ENSG00000172613 ENSMUSG00000024824
UniProt Q99638 Q9Z0F6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001243224 NM_011237
RefSeq (protein) NP_001230153 NP_035367
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
67.16 – 67.17 Mb
Chr 19:
4.2 – 4.2 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD9A gene.[1]

This gene product is highly similar to Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9, a cell cycle checkpoint protein required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This protein is found to possess 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, which may contribute to its role in sensing and repairing DNA damage. It forms a checkpoint protein complex with RAD1 and HUS1. This complex is recruited by checkpoint protein RAD17 to the sites of DNA damage, which is thought to be important for triggering the checkpoint-signaling cascade. Use of alternative polyA sites has been noted for this gene.[2]


RAD9A has been shown to interact with RAD17,[3][4][5][6] HDAC1,[7] TOPBP1,[8] RAD1 homolog,[3][6][9][10][11] BCL2-like 1,[12][13] Bcl-2,[13] Androgen receptor,[14] DNAJC7,[15] HUS1[3][9][10][11] and Abl gene.[16]


  1. ^ Lieberman HB, Hopkins KM, Nass M, Demetrick D, Davey S (January 1997). "A human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9+ checkpoint control gene". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93 (24): 13890–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.13890. PMC 19459. PMID 8943031. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: RAD9A RAD9 homolog A (S. pombe)". 
  3. ^ a b c Dufault, Vanessa M; Oestreich Andrea J, Vroman Benjamin T, Karnitz Larry M (Dec 2003). "Identification and characterization of RAD9B, a paralog of the RAD9 checkpoint gene". Genomics (United States) 82 (6): 644–51. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(03)00200-3. ISSN 0888-7543. PMID 14611806. 
  4. ^ Bermudez, Vladimir P; Lindsey-Boltz Laura A, Cesare Anthony J, Maniwa Yoshimasa, Griffith Jack D, Hurwitz Jerard, Sancar Aziz (February 2003). "Loading of the human 9-1-1 checkpoint complex onto DNA by the checkpoint clamp loader hRad17-replication factor C complex in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 100 (4): 1633–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0437927100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 149884. PMID 12578958. 
  5. ^ Rauen, M; Burtelow M A, Dufault V M, Karnitz L M (September 2000). "The human checkpoint protein hRad17 interacts with the PCNA-like proteins hRad1, hHus1, and hRad9". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (38): 29767–71. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005782200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10884395. 
  6. ^ a b Lindsey-Boltz, L A; Bermudez V P, Hurwitz J, Sancar A (September 2001). "Purification and characterization of human DNA damage checkpoint Rad complexes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 98 (20): 11236–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.201373498. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 58713. PMID 11572977. 
  7. ^ Cai, R L; Yan-Neale Y, Cueto M A, Xu H, Cohen D (September 2000). "HDAC1, a histone deacetylase, forms a complex with Hus1 and Rad9, two G2/M checkpoint Rad proteins". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (36): 27909–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M000168200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10846170. 
  8. ^ Mäkiniemi, M; Hillukkala T, Tuusa J, Reini K, Vaara M, Huang D, Pospiech H, Majuri I, Westerling T, Mäkelä T P, Syväoja J E (August 2001). "BRCT domain-containing protein TopBP1 functions in DNA replication and damage response". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (32): 30399–406. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102245200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11395493. 
  9. ^ a b Volkmer, E; Karnitz L M (January 1999). "Human homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1, hus1, and rad9 form a DNA damage-responsive protein complex". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (2): 567–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.2.567. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9872989. 
  10. ^ a b Griffith, Jack D; Lindsey-Boltz Laura A, Sancar Aziz (May 2002). "Structures of the human Rad17-replication factor C and checkpoint Rad 9-1-1 complexes visualized by glycerol spray/low voltage microscopy". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (18): 15233–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200129200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11907025. 
  11. ^ a b Hirai, Itaru; Wang Hong-Gang (July 2002). "A role of the C-terminal region of human Rad9 (hRad9) in nuclear transport of the hRad9 checkpoint complex". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (28): 25722–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203079200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11994305. 
  12. ^ Rual, Jean-François; Venkatesan Kavitha, Hao Tong, Hirozane-Kishikawa Tomoko, Dricot Amélie, Li Ning, Berriz Gabriel F, Gibbons Francis D, Dreze Matija, Ayivi-Guedehoussou Nono, Klitgord Niels, Simon Christophe, Boxem Mike, Milstein Stuart, Rosenberg Jennifer, Goldberg Debra S, Zhang Lan V, Wong Sharyl L, Franklin Giovanni, Li Siming, Albala Joanna S, Lim Janghoo, Fraughton Carlene, Llamosas Estelle, Cevik Sebiha, Bex Camille, Lamesch Philippe, Sikorski Robert S, Vandenhaute Jean, Zoghbi Huda Y, Smolyar Alex, Bosak Stephanie, Sequerra Reynaldo, Doucette-Stamm Lynn, Cusick Michael E, Hill David E, Roth Frederick P, Vidal Marc (October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature (England) 437 (7062): 1173–8. doi:10.1038/nature04209. PMID 16189514. 
  13. ^ a b Komatsu, K; Miyashita T, Hang H, Hopkins K M, Zheng W, Cuddeback S, Yamada M, Lieberman H B, Wang H G (January 2000). "Human homologue of S. pombe Rad9 interacts with BCL-2/BCL-xL and promotes apoptosis". Nat. Cell Biol. (ENGLAND) 2 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1038/71316. ISSN 1465-7392. PMID 10620799. 
  14. ^ Wang, Liang; Hsu Cheng-Lung, Ni Jing, Wang Peng-Hui, Yeh Shuyuan, Keng Peter, Chang Chawnshang (March 2004). "Human Checkpoint Protein hRad9 Functions as a Negative Coregulator To Repress Androgen Receptor Transactivation in Prostate Cancer Cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 24 (5): 2202–13. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.5.2202-2213.2004. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 350564. PMID 14966297. 
  15. ^ Xiang, S L; Kumano T, Iwasaki S I, Sun X, Yoshioka K, Yamamoto K C (October 2001). "The J domain of Tpr2 regulates its interaction with the proapoptotic and cell-cycle checkpoint protein, Rad9". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (United States) 287 (4): 932–40. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5685. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 11573955. 
  16. ^ Yoshida, Kiyotsugu; Komatsu Kiyoshi, Wang Hong-Gang, Kufe Donald (May 2002). "c-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates the Human Rad9 Checkpoint Protein in Response to DNA Damage". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 22 (10): 3292–300. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.10.3292-3300.2002. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 133797. PMID 11971963. 

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