Rafael Núñez (politician)
|Rafael Núñez Moledo|
|1891 oil painting by Epifanio Garay|
|1st President of Colombia|
April 1, 1886 – September 18, 1894
|Vice President||Miguel Antonio Caro (1892–1894)
Eliseo Payán Hurtado (1886–1892)
|Preceded by||Office established*|
|Succeeded by||Miguel Antonio Caro|
|14th President of the United States of Colombia|
August 11, 1884 – April 1, 1886
|Preceded by||José Eusebio Otálora Martínez|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished*|
|10th President of the United States of Colombia|
April 8, 1880 – April 1, 1882
|Preceded by||Julián Trujillo Largacha|
|Succeeded by||Francisco Javier Zaldúa|
|15th President of the Sovereign State of Bolívar|
|Preceded by||Benjamin Noguera|
|Succeeded by||Benjamin Noguera|
|12th President of the Sovereign State of Bolívar|
|Preceded by||Eugenio Baena|
|Succeeded by||Manuel González Carazo|
|Born||Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo
September 25, 1825
Cartagena de Indias, Magdalena, Colombia
|Died||September 18, 1894
Cartagena de Indias, Bolívar, Colombia
|Resting place||El Cabrero Hermitage,
Cartagena de Indias
|Independed Liberal Party|
|Spouse(s)||María de los Dolores Gallegos Martínez(1851-1872)
Soledad Román Polanco
|Alma mater||University of Cartagena|
|Allegiance||Colombia (Liberal Party)|
|Service/branch||National Army of Colombia|
|Battles/wars||War of the Supremes|
|*See succeeding office’s officeholder José María Campo Serrano|
Rafael Wenceslao Núñez Moledo (September 28, 1825 – September 18, 1894) was a Colombian author, lawyer, journalist and politician, who was elected President of Colombia in 1880 and in 1884. Rafael Núñez was born in Cartagena de Indias, on September 28, 1825. He died in Cartagena on September 18, 1894.
In 1848, Núñez founded in Cartagena, Colombia, the newspaper La Democracia, with the intention of promoting the presidential election of General José María Obando, as successor to José Hilario López. That same year he was appointed as Chief of Staff in Cartagena's government, and thus beginning his political life.
In 1853 he was elected as MP to the Colombian Congress. In 1854 he was elected Governor of the department of Bolívar. Between 1855-1857, during the government of Manuel María Mallarino, he served as Minister of the Treasury and Minister of War (nowadays called Minister of Defense).
In 1855 he published his first volume of political essays, under the name of La Federación. Later, under the government of Mosquera, he served as Minister of the Treasury.
After representing Colombia in the Ríonegro Treaty, he travelled abroad. He first lived in New York City for two years. Than he represented Colombia as a Diplomat in Le Havre and later he was appointed as the Colombian Consul in Liverpool.
He returned to Colombia in 1876 at the center of a political fight. He had been nominated as a candidate for the presidency that year, but did not win the election. Four years later he was elected President of Colombia for the 1880-1882 presidential term. Again, in 1884, he was re-elected President of Colombia, with the support of the Conservative Party.
He was the force behind La Regeneración (Regeneration) movement of 1884 and the new Constitution for Colombia of 1886.
The Constitutional reform of 1886, carried out with the collaboration of Miguel Antonio Caro, is possibly the most outstanding political performance of Núñez. This constitution, with some later modifications, was essentially in effect until the proclamation of a new one in 1991.
From 1878 to 1888 he wrote hundreds of influential articles related to the constitutional reform for the newspapers La Luz and La Nación of Bogota, and 'El Porvenir' and El Impulso of Cartagena. He also wrote the lyrics for the Colombian national anthem.
He was again re-elected to be President of Colombia in 1886 and in 1892, although he did not take office for his last term. Rather, his Vice-President, Miguel Antonio Caro was sworn in as President for the presidential tern of 1892-1898.
During his first administration, Núñez restores peace and order. He allowed the Catholic Bishops, who were in exile, to return to the country. He created the Military Academy and the National Academy of Music. He inaugurated the international telegraph service. He re-established diplomatic relationships with Spain, which had been severed since the War of Independence. And he signed international treaties of commerce and cultural exchange with France and Great Britain.
During his second administration, Núñez sponsored, championed and enacted a mayor and fundamental overhaul of the nation’s political structure, which ended with the adoption and enactment of the new Constitution of the Republic of Colombia, which came to be known as the Constitution of 1886.
In 1874, while in Europe, many of the most important writings of Núñez were published.
Núñez is mentioned in Gabriel García Márquez's 1985 novel, Love in the Time of Cholera (Amor en los tiempos del cólera).
- Gobernantes Colombianos, Ignacio Arismendi Posada, Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición, Page 111, Bogotá, Colombia, 1983
- Gobernantes Colombianos, Ignacio Arismendi Posada, Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición, Pages 112, Bogotá, Colombia, 1983
- Froysland, Hayley (2006) "The regeneración de la raza in Colombia" a chapter in Doyle, Don and Pamplona, Marco (eds.) (2006) Nationalism in the New World University of Georgia Press, Athens, Ga., ISBN 0-8203-2654-2
- Gobernantes Colombianos, Ignacio Arismendi Posada, Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición, Page 262, Bogotá, Colombia, 1983
- Gobernantes Colombianos, Ignacio Arismendi Posada, Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición, Page 112, Bogotá, Colombia, 1983
- Gobernantes Colombianos, Ignacio Arismendi Posada, Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición, Page 114, Bogotá, Colombia, 1983
- "Colombia: Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia (¡Oh gloria inmarcesible!)". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
Julián Trujillo Largacha
|President of United States of Colombia
Francisco Javier Zaldúa
|President of United States of Colombia
José María Campo Serrano
|President of Colombia
Carlos Holguín Mallarino