Repetek Biosphere State Reserve

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Repetek Biosphere State Reserve
Karakum Desert.jpg
Map showing the location of Repetek Biosphere State Reserve
Map showing the location of Repetek Biosphere State Reserve
Map of Turkmenistan
Location Lebap Province, Turkmenistan
Nearest city Türkmenabat
Coordinates 38°36′22″N 63°12′50″E / 38.606°N 63.214°E / 38.606; 63.214Coordinates: 38°36′22″N 63°12′50″E / 38.606°N 63.214°E / 38.606; 63.214[1]
Area 346 km2 (134 sq mi)
Established 1928

Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, often referred to as Repetek Nature or Desert Reserve, (Turkmen: Repetek goraghanasy) is a desert nature reserve (zapovednik) of Turkmenistan, located in Lebap Province, East Karakum Desert, near Amu Darya. It is located approximately 70 km (43 mi) south from Türkmenabat and is known for its zemzen (desert monitor which is Varanus griseus). Established in 1928 for the study and preservation of a sand-desert ecosystem, it covers an area of 346 km2 (134 sq mi).

Geography[edit]

The landscape of the reserve is arid, with extensive ridged sand dunes some 15–20 m (49–66 ft) in height and 8–10 m (26–33 ft) in length in many areas, large areas of sand dune and valley-like depressions.[2] Black saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum), rare to most part of Central Asia covers more than 1,470 km2 (570 sq mi), approximately 4.5% of the territory of the reserve. The soils have sandy subsoils, but some "21 trees, 104 grasses, 8 mushrooms, 1 moss, 68 soil algae and 197 fungi" grow within the reserve.[2]

History[edit]

The Repetek sandy desert scientific station was organized in 1912 by the decision of the Russian Geographical Society, and the reserve was established in 1928 on the base of the scientific station.[3] During the Soviet period the reserve belongs to the Institute of Deserts of the Turkmen SSR Academy of Sciences. The list of scientific publications concerning with the Repetek sandy desert station and the biosphere reserve since 1982 to 1991 consists of about 250 papers (30% on landscape structure and geography, 20% on botany and 50% on zoology).[4]

The Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan was established in 1962 to study ways of reclaiming desert land for economic use in the reserve.[5]

Environmental protection[edit]

The Repetek Biosphere State Reserve is part of an Important Bird Area (IBA) and since 1979 has been a under the monitoring of UNESCO but "the site is under the administration of the Ministry of Nature Protection of Turkmenistan".[2] The reserve "supports the most complete assemblage of bird species typical of the sand desert of the Karakum" and "has an important population of Goitered Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) which is listed as Vulnerable (VU) in the IUCN Red List".[2]

Climate[edit]

Repetek Biosphere State Reserve has a desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk), with cool winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and autumn months.

Temperatures recorded in the reserve range from −31 °C (−24 °F) to 50.1 °C (122.2 °F), which is the highest reliably recorded temperature for Turkmenistan and the former Soviet Union.[6]

Climate data for Repetek Biosphere State Reserve
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
10.5
(50.9)
17.4
(63.3)
25.6
(78.1)
32.3
(90.1)
37.8
(100)
39.8
(103.6)
37.5
(99.5)
32.1
(89.8)
23.8
(74.8)
16.6
(61.9)
9.8
(49.6)
24.21
(75.56)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
4.1
(39.4)
10.3
(50.5)
18.1
(64.6)
24.3
(75.7)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
29.0
(84.2)
22.4
(72.3)
14.6
(58.3)
8.6
(47.5)
3.7
(38.7)
16.49
(61.68)
Average low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−1.1
(30)
4.3
(39.7)
10.9
(51.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.3
(64.9)
21.3
(70.3)
18.2
(64.8)
11.4
(52.5)
5.7
(42.3)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
8.48
(47.26)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19
(0.75)
14
(0.55)
27
(1.06)
20
(0.79)
9
(0.35)
1
(0.04)
0.2
(0.008)
0.2
(0.008)
0.4
(0.016)
5
(0.2)
10
(0.39)
17
(0.67)
122.8
(4.832)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 6 6 6 4 1 0 0 0 2 4 6 42
 % humidity 69 63 54 47 33 24 23 24 31 43 57 69 44.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 136.9 151.7 197.7 235.8 321.6 376.8 390.2 372.1 319.1 267.3 195.2 131.8 3,096.2
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[7]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • National Program for the Protection of the Environment, Ashgabat, 2002, pp. 149–151 (Russian)
  • Kuzmenko VD, Veiisov SV (1992). "List of scientific publications on the Repetek sandy desert station and biosphere reserve, 1982-1991". Probl. osvoenya pustyn (Ylym) (6): 76–85.  (Russian)
  • Sokolov, VE; Veiisov, SV & Gunin, PD (1990). "The Repetek Reserve". In Sokolov, Vladimir & Syroechkovsky, Eugeny. Reserves of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Mysl. pp. 183–197. ISBN 5244002732.  (Russian)


External links[edit]