||This article possibly contains original research. (September 2007)|
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Rinkeby Swedish (Rinkebysvenska) is any of a number of varieties of Swedish spoken mainly in suburbs with a high proportion of immigrants and immigrant descendants, which emerged as a linguistic phenomenon in the 1980s. Rinkeby in Stockholm is one such suburb, but the term Rinkeby Swedish may sometimes be used for similar varieties in other Swedish cities as well. The Swedish Language Council recommends the term shobresvenska ("Sho Bre Swedish", from its expression "Sho bre!", meaning "Hey bro!"). The one magazine in Sweden published in these varieties, Gringo, proposes 'miljonsvenska' ("Million Swedish") based on the Million Programme. Swedish Language Council recommends "förortssvenska" (suburban Swedish).
Opinions among linguists differ on whether to regard Rinkeby Swedish as a sociolect, dialect, ethnolect, or maybe a "multiethnolect". Since the number of influencing languages involved is rather large, and extremely few speakers are likely to be fluent in more than a few of these, the definition of pidgin language may appear more accurate than that of mixed language. The varieties may also be characterized as a register for informal communication between peers, since the speakers often use them only in specific social contexts and switch to other varieties where appropriate.
Professor Ulla-Britt Kotsinas, a scholar frequently cited on Rinkeby Swedish, argues that these varieties primarily are spoken by teenagers from suburbs where immigrants and immigrant descendants are concentrated, and can be interpreted as expressions of youth culture: The language is a marker of belonging to a certain subculture and at the same time opposition to a perceived mainstream non-immigrant culture that seems not to value the immigrant descendants.
Rinkeby Swedish and similar varieties thus express belonging to the rather large group of youths with roots in other countries that have grown up in immigrant neighborhoods in a post-industrial society and with a disproportionately high unemployment rate for youths with immigrant background. Except for the fact that the linguistic distance is greater, Kotsinas sees in principle no difference from the suburban and urban working class varieties that followed industrial revolution and urbanization a century ago.
Many words from Rinkeby Swedish have now been incorporated into all kinds of other Swedish youth slang and are used by many young people without immigrant heritage as a marker of group solidarity and identity.
Variants of Rinkeby Swedish are reported from suburbs of Stockholm, Uppsala, Malmö, and Gothenburg with a predominantly immigrant population. These variants tend to be based on the local town accents, or on the variety of Standard Swedish taught in school. These varieties can be described as having a somewhat simplified version of the Swedish grammar and a richness of loanwords from the languages of the countries the speakers' parents or grandparents originated in: mainly Turkish, with traces of Kurdish, Arabic, Greek, Persian, Serbo-Croatian, Syriac, and to some extent Latin American Spanish. Many English words and some English grammar are also used, due to a fairly widespread identification with African Americans and the appreciation of rap and hip hop music and culture.
- Rinkeby Swedish; Aboow, checka den çokt tunga guzzen! Värsta teizen o bezzäzen!
- Swedish; Wow, kolla vilken fin tjej! Vilken fin rumpa och bröst!
- English; Wow, look at that beautiful girl! What beautiful ass and boobs!
In the translated sentence above the speaker of Rinkeby Swedes makes use of Turkish, English, Swedish, Turkish, Swedish, Turkish, Swedish, Arabic, Swedish and finally Arabic.
- Rinkeby Swedish; Yalla bre, aina kommer, çok loco!
- Swedish; Skynda er, polisen kommer, [de är] helt galna!
- English; Hurry up, the police are coming, [they're] completely crazy!
In the translated sentence above the speaker of Rinkeby Swedish makes use of Arabic, Serbian, Turkish, Swedish, Turkish again and finally Spanish. To exemplify further: The word aina is derived from Turkish slang for police, aynasız, which literally means without mirror.
Especially among younger speakers, the different varieties show a considerable variation in vocabulary and to some extent in grammar and syntax. However, they all share some grammatical similarities, such as discarding the Verb-second word order of Standard Swedish, instead using subject–verb–object word order after an adverb or adverbial phrase (as in English, compare Idag jag tog bussen ("Today I took the bus") to Standard Swedish Idag tog jag bussen ("Today took I the bus").
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
|aina||police (singular and plural)||Turkish aynasız (meaning mirrorless)|
|ajde||come on; let's go; okay; hurry up; affirmative||Serbo-Croatian hajde or Turkish haydi|
|axa||go; accelerate||Swedish accelerera, "to accelerate"|
|bak||check out; look||Turkish bak, imperative of "to look"|
have sex (Malmö)
|bazz||sexual intercourse||French, baise(r), "to fuck"|
|bre||expression for exaggeration of a sentence or word||Serbo-Croatian|
|brychan, brushan||my brother; my friend; "bro"||brorsan, colloquial Swedish familiar form of brodern, "the brother"|
|chilla (also softa)||(to) chill; take it easy; to be calm||both variants from English|
|çal (tjall)||to steal||Turkish çalmak (çal=steal, imperative)|
|çok (tjock, chok)||much, very||Turkish|
|ey, eo (ey yao)||hey you! (For attention)||English, Hey you|
|cool; nice; very||Literally Swedish for "fat" Used to emphasize a subsequent word. (noun)|
|gitta||go; get going||Turkish (gitmek) git (go, imperative)|
|guzz / guss||girl||Turkish kız|
|göt||ass; buttocks||Turkish Göt|
|Habibi||lit. darling (used as familiar addressing in Arabic)||Arabic|
|Idiit (Idi-it)||Idiot||Swedish word play|
|-ish/-isch||common word ending|
|jalla||hurry; get moving||Arabic (abbreviation of "ya Allah")|
|khalas (challas)||enough; stop; let's go||Arabic|
|knatch||small piece of cannabis||possibly from dialectal Swedish knerts, "small piece (of matter)"|
|len||friend; mate||Turkish lan|
|mannen||familiar addressing, "hey, man; my man; friend"||Swedish, possibly an English calque|
|para||money||Serbo-Croatian para < Turkish paralar|
|sho||greeting, can be used as "hello" or "goodbye" (means "what" in arabic).||Arabic|
|shishko||overweight||Turkish Şişko (fat)|
|shuno, shunne, shurda||guy; dude; bloke||From the Swedish word person|
|soft (adj.) / softa (verb)||cool, good, nice (or calm down if used as a verb)||English|
|tagga||get away||synonymous with gitta|
|wallah||I swear to God||Arabic|
|zingi||black person||Arabic zangi/zingi, originally "Zanzibar native", later evolved into term for black people|
Novels written partially or completely in Rinkeby Swedish include
- Till vår ära by Alejandro Leiva Wenger; ("To our honour")
- Ett öga rött by Jonas Hassen Khemiri; ("One eye red")
- Shoo Bre by Douglas Foley
- Kalla det vad fan du vill by Marjaneh Bakhtiari. ("Call it whatever the hell you want")
- "Veckans språkråd". Spraknamnden.se. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- Anastasia Nylund, "'Our local dialect' or 'the slang of suburban boys'? Public discourses of sociolinguistic authenticity, community and place in multicultural Sweden", Texas Linguistic Forum 53 (2009), 121-30, p. 121 (pdf)
- Ellen Bijvoet and Kari Fraurud,"Svenska med något utländskt", Språkvård 2006/3 pp. 4-10, p. 5 (pdf) (Swedish)
- Language and language use among young people in multilingual urban settings - a research project at Gothenburg University