Bridge over the Soar next to the Navigation, Barrow upon Soar
|Country within the UK||England|
|- left||Soar Brook, Thurlaston Brook, River Biam, Rothley Brook, Black Brook|
|- right||Whetstone Brook, River Sence, River Wreake, Kingston Brook|
|- location||Wibtoft, Warwickshire|
|- elevation||134 m (440 ft)|
|- location||Trent Lock, Leicestershire|
|- elevation||30 m (98 ft)|
|Length||95 km (59 mi) |
|Basin||1,386 km2 (535 sq mi) |
|- average||1.36 m3/s (48 cu ft/s) |
|- max||37.19 m3/s (1,313 cu ft/s) |
|Discharge elsewhere (average)|
|- Kegworth||11.73 m3/s (414 cu ft/s)|
|Wikimedia Commons: River Soar|
|Progression : Soar — Trent — Humber|
The River Soar is a major tributary of the River Trent in the English East Midlands, and is the principal river of Leicestershire. The source of the river is midway between Hinckley and Lutterworth, it then flows north through Leicester where it is joined by the Grand Union Canal, and continues through the Leicestershire Soar Valley, passing Loughborough, and Kegworth until it reaches the Trent at the county boundary.
In the 18th century the Soar was made navigable, initially between Loughborough, and the Trent, and then through to Leicester. It was not until the early 19th century, that it was linked by the Grand Union Canal to the wider network to the south and to London.
According to a legend, the body of King Richard III of England was thrown into the Soar sometime after his death, having been first interned in Leicester. King Richard's body being thrown into the river has now been shown to be incorrect as his body was recovered from a site in Leicester City and identified by University of Leicester experts in cooperation with Leicester City Council and the King Richard III Society in 2013. The bridge carrying the A47 across the Soar at Leicester is known as 'King Richard's Bridge'. King Richard III crossed the Soar on his way to battle at Bosworth Field in the county of Leicestershire in 1485 and after his death in that battle, his body was carried back across the river to be buried in Leicester.
It is believed the name "Leicester" is derived from the words castra (camp) of the Ligore, meaning dwellers on the 'River Legro' (an early name for the River Soar). In the early 10th century it was recorded as Ligeraceaster ("the town of the Ligor people"). The Domesday Book later recorded it as Ledecestre.
Course of the river
The Soar rises near Wibtoft in Warwickshire, and flows north to join the Soar Brook near Sharnford, it then continues in a north-easterly direction, passing through Croft and between Narborough and Littlethorpe, until on the outskirts of Leicester it is joined by the Sence near Enderby. Before flowing through the centre of the city it meets the Grand Union Canal at Aylestone, where it is also joined by the River Biam. After passing over Freemens Weir, the river splits and recombines with the canal, creating an area of Leicester called Bede Island. The navigable arm that runs to the east has been canalised with parallel banks and is known as ‘The Mile Straight’. Beyond Blackfriars, the river splits again to form Frog Island and Abbey Park, it recombines at Belgrave where it passes beside the National Space Centre.
Once out of the city the Soar passes Birstall and threads its way through the lakes of Watermead Country Park, until it reaches Wanlip. The river then meets the once navigable River Wreake, near Cossington Mill, with another tributary the Rothley Brook, joining the river just downstream. The Soar continues north-east to reach Mountsorrel then passes between Quorn and Barrow-on-Soar, at which point an arm of the canal extends into Loughborough, although the river passes to the East of the town at Cotes. Downstream of Stanford on Soar the river forms the county boundary between Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire. Between Stanford and Normanton on Soar, the canal rejoins the river, which then continues to Zouch, passing the ‘Devils Elbow’ to reach Kegworth. Downstream of Kegworth, it meets the Kingston Brook, near the village of the same name, passing Ratcliffe-on-Soar and its power station, before flowing into the Trent at Trent Lock.
Chronology of the River Soar in Leicestershire
- Leir of Britain is said to have been buried by his daughter Cordelia in an underground chamber beneath the River Soar near Leicester.
- ca. 1536 Following the dissolution of the Church of the Grey Friars in Leicester, it was claimed that the remains of Richard III were thrown into the Soar, since he was believed to have been interred in the church. In 2013, however, it was confirmed that the skeleton discovered in a 2012 archaeological dig at the site was that of Richard III and thus proved the claim to be false.
- 1634 Thomas Skipworth of Cotes obtained a grant from Charles I to make the river Soar "portable for barges and boats", though the scheme was never completed.
- 1794 The Leicester Canal was opened, making the Soar navigable for almost 40 miles (64 km). The western line was also opened- this was known as the Charnwood Forest Branch. However, most of the branch was made up of rail tracks rather than a waterway. This included a 2½-mile uphill climb from Loughborough Basin. At the western end of the branch, rail lines travelled towards Coleorton and Swannington. A track to Cloudhill, which would have connected to similar lines on the Ashby Canal, was proposed but never built.
- 1795 Another branch line (operated by a separate company) opened from the main line of the Leicester Canal (between Cossington and Syston) to Melton Mowbray. The line was 15 miles (24 km) long and used the River Wreake for virtually the whole of its course. The line was sometimes known as the Wreake Navigation, though it is better known as the Melton Mowbray Navigation. This new line was so successful that within a year William Jessop was appointed to survey another new line which would extend the Melton Mowbray Navigation to Oakham in Rutland, a further 15 miles (24 km). The extension would be called the Oakham Canal. An Act of Parliament was passed and work began.
- 1796 While the lines to Leicester and Melton Mowbray were doing very well, trade on the Charnwood Forest Branch was very slow to pick up. The company even put on demonstrations in an attempt to encourage its use. With no real success being gained from this the company went into the coal carrying and selling business itself.
- 1797 A proposal to extend the main line of the Leicester Canal much further south was announced. A new canal, the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union Canal, would link the river Soar with the River Nene. However, like many great ideas, the money ran out before the imagination did and the line reached just 17 of the proposed 44 miles (71 km), coming to a stop at Debdale Wharf near Kibworth Beauchamp. Thus the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Canal never even got close to Northamptonshire. In fact, the whole project had proved to be something of a failure, the company having spent thousands of pounds building a waterway which passed nowhere in particular and ended in the middle of the countryside miles from any major town. Meanwhile, the Charnwood Forest Branch was still struggling to attract any trade. Water supply was one reason for lack of use, so the company built Blackbrook Reservoir. Following this, trade picked up but only very slightly.
- 1802 The Oakham Canal opened after costing almost £70,000 to build. It was 15 miles (24 km) long, with 19 broad locks. Boats could now travel onto the River Soar from Rutland.
- 1809 The main line of the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Canal was extended from its resting place near Kibworth Beauchamp to Market Harborough where once again the work came to a stop. All the same, it was now a considerable navigation, linking the south of Leicestershire to the river Trent. However, there was still no link to the Grand Junction Canal.
- 1810 By now ideas of connecting Leicester to Northampton seemed pointless. The Grand Junction Canal was running a tramway into Northampton and would surely soon convert this to a full navigation. The obvious thing to do now was to connect the Leicester navigations to the Grand Junction Canal.
- 1814 The new link between the Leicester navigations and the Grand Junction Canal opened and was named the Grand Union Canal (not to be confused with the later canal route of the same name).
- 1832 The Leicester and Swannington Railway opened from the Leicestershire coalfield to a wharf alongside the canal at West Bridge, Leicester. This allowed Leicestershire coal to be cheaply carried on southwards for sale in London.
- 1848 The owners of the River Soar Navigation were finally able to officially abandon the Charnwood Forest Branch which had stood idle since 1801.
- 1877 After 80 years, the Melton Mowbray (or Wreake) Navigation also closed, leaving Melton Mowbray with no waterway outlet to the main canal system.
- 1886 Mr. Fellows of Fellows Morton and Clayton (who were the main carriers on the Grand Union link) pushed the company to convert the canal to wide beam. When this was not done he tried to encourage the Grand Junction Company to buy the link.
- 1894 – The Grand Union and the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union canals were purchased by the Grand Junction Canal Company. By now, though, even the Grand Junction Company wasn't whole-heartedly in favour of widening the link. Instead they looked into methods of making the lock flights more efficient. The simple answer was to make a duplicate flight alongside the existing locks to make two-way traffic but this would cause other problems, especially water supply, which was already a major headache.
- 1931 – The whole stretch of waterway from Norton Junction through to Leicester and on to Long Eaton was merged with the Grand Junction Canal to form the Grand Union Canal.
History of the industry and development along the river
The River Soar before the late 1700 was too small and shallow to allow navigation of barges; however this was partially solved by the construction of the Leicester canal which allowed the Soar to be navigable for almost about 40 miles (64 km).
The expansion of the canal meant that industry could start to develop along the canal side, with the transport provided by the canal being “vital to the industry” (Grand Union Canal Company). This included buildings and industries like “wind and watermills; brewing and malting; bridges; canal and railway structures; public utilities.” (Neaverson 2001)
“By 1895, there were 231 listed hosiery manufacturers in the county. In Leicester, the industry employed 10% of the population in 1851, and around 7% in 1881 and 1911” (Neaveson, 2001). This shows the importance of hosiery to Leicester’s economy. This industry needed a consistent supply of water and needed transport links, so was located alongside the canal. Due to the excellent transport links provided by the Grand Union Canal, the Hosiery industry was able to expand rapidly.
Many of these factories however soon outgrew themselves, moving to new larger sites, which vacated space for other trades such as boot and shoe manufacture, printing or box making.
Railway competition in the nineteenth century reduced canal profits. This was the beginning of the end for many of the companies who owned the canals; several of these companies converted their canals to railways while many of the others were bought out by railway companies looking to expand their businesses.
With the decline of industry in the 1960s, the warehouses and factories which were once the core of Leicester’s economy had fallen into dereliction. Leicester City Council has made a move towards re-developing the waterfront. “Offering one of the most exciting waterside regeneration opportunities in the country” (Leicester Regeneration Company, 2005). The company is currently building luxury waterside apartments. This will enhance the areas aesthetic values. Research conducted by Newcastle University suggests that people’s desire to reside on the waterfront and enjoy recreation offered by the canal is upset by “visually unattractive features, such as run-down derelict areas and poor design” (Fisher 2003).
The re-development plan has included the building of the Walkers stadium, home to Leicester City F.C., along the canal in 2002, “from a barren, desolate piece of waste-ground has risen a stunning futuristic collaboration of steel and glass that dominates the skyline of Leicester” (www.lcfc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/StadiumOverview/0, 10274,00.html). Old warehouses have also been converted into student accommodation for De Montfort University increasing the value of the area.
On the eastern bank of the Soar in central Leicester are the premises of Donisthorpe and Company, a producer of textiles. The Donisthorpe Mill, also known as Friars' Mill, is one of the oldest mills in the East Midlands, and manufacturing activity has occurred on its site since the 1730s. The Mill was awarded listed status in 1975. A number of surrounding buildings, including a Victorian pump house, were also listed at this time. The Donisthorpe Company left the factory in 1983, which led to immediate concerns about the mill's conservation. The building stood empty for a number of years, and fell into a state of disrepair. In July 2012, a fire destroyed its roof, clocktower and most of the interior. In November 2012, Leicester City Council announced its decision to purchase and restore the Donisthorpe Mill building.
The Soar is now a hive of tourism rather than of industry. Holiday narrowboat cruises are extremely popular as it is a relaxing way to visit the country and get ‘in-touch’ with nature. The tow-paths next to the canal are used for “cycling, rambling, horse-riding and picnicking” (Leicester City Council, 2005).
The waterway is a popular location for match and occasional fishing. There are large carp, chub, bream, roach, and perch in the canal, plus dace and barbel on some stretches (www.waterscape.com/River_Soar).
The stretch of the River Soar which passes through the centre of Leicester known as the 'Mile Straight' is home to Leicester Rowing Club a rowing and sculling club formed in 1882. The club hosts their annual Regatta on the River Soar typically held in mid-April which sees competitors from all over the UK race over a 700 metre course. The club insignia is based on the mythical Wyvern, which has historical connections to Leicester and rowers compete in the club's colours of black and white. The club is located in a custom built boathouse, which also houses some of the boats and equipment of De Montfort University Rowing Club and University of Leicester Boat Club. The universities annual varsity boat race takes place on the River Soar in March and a large amount of their boat training for competition takes place on the Soar throughout the academic year.
A canalised section of the River Soar in Leicester runs along the outer area of De Montfort University campus, and is where the Varsity Rowing Race between De Montfort University and Leicester University is held every year, with students from the two universities and the public lining the route.
The River Soar is rich in wildlife with thriving bird, fish and plant populations being popular with wildlife enthusiasts. The river was once notorious for its unusual pink colour - a result of discharges from Leicester's prosperous textile industries. However the end to textile industries near the river in Leicester and clean-up work by the Environment Agency has now restored it to its natural state.
Industry now wanting to attempt to discharge any sewage waste into the river must now obtain an agreement from the Environment Agency. Several consents have been granted to companies to use the River Soar, however the quantity and quality of the sewage is strictly controlled to a preset amount that is agreed on with the Environment Agency.
The quality of any water is determined by what is able to contaminate the river upstream, the River Soar is constantly monitored by the Environment Agency which keeps check on the level of pollution. The pollution in the water running through the Soar in the city of Leicester is low and the water is generally of good quality; however there is a significant decrease in the quality just downstream of the city, where the Wanlip sewage treatment works enters the river.
Unfortunately though new tourism industry has caused environmental problems; Barge hulls and propellers may cause “physical damage and uprooting” of plants and turbulence may increase water turbidity to the extent that light may not reach underwater plants, reducing photosynthesis (Murphy et al. 1983). Sewage works have an adverse effect on water life. (Alabaster, 1960)
- Alabaster, J (1960) The Effect of a Sewage Effluent on the Distribution of Oxygen and Fish in a Stream,
- British Waterways, (2006) River Soar <http://www.waterscape.com/River_Soar>
- Fisher (2003), Waterside Properties, <www.waterways.org.uk/library/restoration/tech_handbook/Chap5.pdf>
- Grand Union Canal Company (1932) Arteries Of Commerce: Grand Union Canal, Gloucester Printers, Gloucester
- Hardcastle, P (2003), Leicester and Soar Navigations, <http://web.archive.org/web/20061004025634/http://www.canals.btinternet.co.uk/canals/leicesterandsoar.htm>
- LCFC Ltd (2006), Walkers Stadium Overview; History of the Build, <http://www.lcfc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/StadiumOverview/0,,10274,00.html>
- Leicester City Council, <http://www.leicester.gov.uk/>
- Murphy, K., Eaton, J (1983), Effects of Pleasure-Boat Traffic on Macrophyte Growth in Canals, Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 713-729.
- Nicholls, D (2004) Leicester Environmental Partnership <http://www.environmentcity.org.uk/docs/les_master_apr05.pdf>
- Neaverson, P. (2001) An Archeological Resource Assessment Of Modern Leicestershire And Rutland (1750 onwards)
- Leicester Regeneration Company, (2005) Development Framework in Place and Two Projects on Site, <http://www.leicesterregeneration.co.uk/project_waterfront.html
- "WFD Surface Water Classification Status and Objectives 2012 csv files". Environment-agency.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "28082 - Soar at Littlethorpe". The National River Flow Archive. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "Hi Flows UK - AMAX for Littlethorpe". Environment-agency.gov.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "Get-a-map online". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Donisthorpe and Company Limited Factory Building Overlooking River Soar". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "English Heritage: limited range of three Donisthorpe buildings". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Pump House, Friar's Mill". Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- 'Oldest factory 'must be preserved', Leicester Mercury, 1983
- Fire at Leicester's former Donisthorpe and Co factory, BBC News, 23 July 2012.
- Photographs of the pre-fire interior
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