|This article relies on references to primary sources. (July 2011)|
Rotary International emblem
|Motto||Service above Self|
|Headquarters||Evanston, Illinois, United States|
|Official languages||English, Swedish, Portuguese, Italian, French, Spanish, German, Korean, and Japanese.|
|President||Sakuji Tanaka (2012–13)|
|Key people||Paul P. Harris (Founder)|
Rotary International (also known as the Rotary Club) is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. It is a secular organization open to all persons regardless of race, colour, creed, religion, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 clubs and over 1.2 million members worldwide. The members of Rotary Clubs are known as Rotarians. Members usually meet weekly for breakfast, lunch or dinner, which is a social event as well as an opportunity to organize work on their service goals.
Rotary's primary motto is "Service above Self"; an earlier motto, "One profits most who serves best".
The object of Rotary is to encourage & foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster:
- The development of acquaintance as an opportunity for service;
- High ethical standards in business and professions, the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, and the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society;
- The application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal, business, and community life;
- The advancement of international understanding, goodwill, and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service.
This objective is set against the "Rotary 4-way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942. It is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management:
The 4-Way Test considers the following questions in respect to thinking, saying or doing:
- Is it the truth?
- Is it fair to all concerned?
- Will it build goodwill and better friendships?
- Will it be beneficial to all concerned?
The first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. Harris called together a meeting of three business acquaintances in downtown Chicago, at Harris' friend Gustave E. Loehr's office in the Unity Building on Dearborn Street on February 23, 1905. In addition to Harris and Loehr (a mining engineer), Silvester Schiele (a coal merchant), and Hiram E. Shorey (a tailor) were the other two who attended this first meeting. The members chose the name Rotary because initially they rotated subsequent weekly club meetings to each other's offices, although within a year, the Chicago club became so large it became necessary to adopt the now-common practice of a regular meeting place.
The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States, beginning with San Francisco, then Oakland, Los Angeles, and Seattle. The National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910. On 22 February 1911, the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Dublin, Ireland. This was the first club established outside of North America. In April 1912, Rotary chartered a club in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, the name was changed to the International Association of Rotary Clubs in 1912.
In August 1912, the Rotary Club of London received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America. It later became known that the Dublin club in Ireland was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered.
In Germany, no club had been formed before 1927, because of "opposition from the continental clubs". For a while after 1933, Rotary Clubs 'met with approval' of the Nazi authorities and were considered to offer 'opportunity for party comrades ... to provide enlightenment regarding the nature and policy of the National Socialist movement'. The Nazis, although they saw international organizations as suspect, had authorised NSDAP members to be members of the Rotary through the Nazi Party's court rulings issued in 1933, 1934 and 1936. In 1937, more than half the Rotarians were Nazi Party members.
Six German clubs were formed after Hitler came to power. They came under pressure almost immediately to expel their Jewish members.
Rotary clubs do not appear to have had a unified policy towards the Nazi regime: while several German Rotary Clubs decided to disband their organizations in 1933, others practised a policy of appeasement or collaborated. In Munich the club removed from its members' list a number of Rotarians, Jewish and non-Jewish, who were politically unacceptable for the regime, including Thomas Mann (already in exile in Switzerland). Twelve members resigned in "sympathy with the expelled members".
Beginning in 1937, however, hostile articles were published in the Nazi press about Rotary, comparing Rotary with Freemasonry. Soon after that, the perceived connection resulted in two decisions which would jeopardize the existence of Rotary in Germany. In June 1937, the ministry of the interior forbade civil servants to be members of the Rotary; in July 1937, the NSDAP's party court reversed its previous rulings and declared Party and Rotarian membership incompatible as from January 1938.
However, Rotary's cause was advocated before the NSDAP party court by Dr. Grill, Governor for the Rotary 73d district, arguing that the German Rotary was compliant with the goals of the Nazi government, had excluded Freemasons in 1933 and non-Aryans in 1936. Other attempts were made, also by foreign Rotarians, but appeasement failed this time, and, in September 1937, the 73rd district dissolved itself. Subsequently, the charter of German clubs was withdrawn by Rotary International.
World War II Europe
Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows:
- Austria (1938)
- Italy (1939)
- Czechoslovakia (1940)
- Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Yugoslavia and Luxembourg (1941)
- Hungary (1941/1942)
- In The Netherlands, Rotary was forbidden after the occupation by the German troops in 1940 and could only be reinstalled after the liberation in 1945
From 1945 onwards
Rotary clubs in Eastern Europe and other communist-regime nations were disbanded by 1945-46, but new Rotary clubs were organized in many other countries, and by the time of the national independence movements in Africa and Asia, the new nations already had Rotary clubs. After the relaxation of government control of community groups in Russia and former Soviet satellite nations, Rotarians were welcomed as club organizers, and clubs were formed in those countries, beginning with the Moscow club in 1990.
In 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunize all of the world's children against polio. As of 2011, Rotary has contributed more than 900 million US dollars to the cause, resulting in the immunization of nearly two billion children worldwide.
As of 2006[update], Rotary has more than 1.2 million members in over 32,000 clubs among 200 countries and geographical areas, making it the most widespread by branches and second largest service club by membership, behind Lions Club International. The number of Rotarians has slightly declined in recent years: Between 2002 and 2006, they went from 1,245,000 to 1,223,000 members. North America accounts for 450,000 members, Asia for 300,000, Europe for 250,000, Latin America for 100,000, Oceania for 100,000 and Africa for 30,000.
Rotary International Presidents 2001–2013
- Richard D. King (2001–2002)
- Bhichai Rattakul (2002–2003)
- Jonathan B. Majiyagbe (2003–2004)
- Glenn E. Estess, Sr. (2004–2005)
- Carl-Wilhelm Stenhammar (2005–2006)
- William Boyd (2006–2007)
- Wilfrid J. Wilkinson (2007–2008)
- Dong Kurn Lee (2008–2009)
- John Kenny (2009–2010)
- Ray Klinginsmith (2010–2011)
- Kalyan Banerjee (2011–2012)
- Sakuji Tanaka (2012–2013)
- Ron D. Burton (2013–2014)
Organization and administration
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2011)|
In order to carry out its service programs, Rotary is structured in club, district and international levels. Rotarians are members of their clubs. The clubs are chartered by the global organisation Rotary International (RI) headquartered in Evanston, Illinois. For administrative purposes, the more than 32,000 clubs worldwide are grouped into 529 districts, and the districts into 34 zones.
The Rotary Club is the basic unit of Rotary activity, and each club determines its own membership. Clubs originally were limited to a single club per city, municipality, or town, but Rotary International has encouraged the formation of one or more additional clubs in the largest cities when practical. Most clubs meet weekly, usually at a mealtime on a weekday in a regular location, when Rotarians can discuss club business and hear from guest speakers. Each club also conducts various service projects within its local community, and participates in special projects involving other clubs in the local district, and occasionally a special project in a "sister club" in another nation. Most clubs also hold social events at least quarterly and in some cases more often.
Each club elects its own president and officers among its active members for a one-year term. The clubs enjoy considerable autonomy within the framework of the standard constitution and the constitution and bylaws of Rotary International. The governing body of the club is the Club Board, consisting of the club president (who serves as the Board chairman), a president-elect, club secretary, club treasurer, and several Club Board directors, including the immediate past president and the President Elect. The president usually appoints the directors to serve as chairs of the major club committees, including those responsible for club service, vocational service, community service, youth service, and international service.
A district governor, who is an officer of Rotary International and represents the RI board of directors in the field, leads his/her respective Rotary district. Each governor is nominated by the clubs of his/her district, and elected by all the clubs meeting in the annual RI Convention held in a different country each year. The district governor appoints assistant governors from among the Rotarians of the district to assist in the management of Rotary activity and multi-club projects in the district.
Approximately 15 Rotary districts form a zone. A zone director, who serves as a member of the RI board of directors, heads two zones. The zone director is nominated by the clubs in the zone and elected by the convention for the terms of two consecutive years.
Rotary International is governed by a board of directors composed of the international president, the president-elect, the general secretary, and 17 zone directors. The nomination and the election of each president is handled in the one- to three-year period before he takes office, and is based on requirements including geographical balance among Rotary zones and previous service as a district governor and board member. The international board meets quarterly to establish policies and make recommendations to the overall governing bodies, the RI Convention and the RI Council on Legislation.
The chief operating officer of RI is the general secretary, who heads a staff of about 600 people working at the international headquarters in Evanston and in seven international offices around the world.
According to its constitutions ("Charters"), Rotary defines itself as a non-partisan, non-sectarian organization. It is open to business and professional leaders aged 18 and upwards, with no regard to economic status.
One can contact a Rotary club to inquire about membership but can join a Rotary club only if invited; there is no provision to join without an invitation as each prospective Rotarian requires a sponsor who is an existing Rotarian. Some clubs, though not all, have exclusivist membership criteria: reputation and business or professional leadership may be a specific evaluation criterion for issuing invitations to join, and representation from a specific profession or business may be limited to a percentage of a specific club's membership.
Active membership is by invitation from a current Rotarian, to professionals or businesspersons working in diverse areas of endeavour. Each club may limit up to ten percent of its membership representing each business or profession in the area it serves. The goal of the clubs is to promote service to the community they work in, as well as to the wider world. Many projects are organised for the local community by a single club, but some are organised globally.
Honorary membership is given by election of a Rotary Club to people who have distinguished themselves by meritorious service in the furtherance of Rotary ideals. Honorary membership is conferred only in exceptional cases. Honorary members are exempt from the payment of admission fees and dues. They have no voting privileges and are not eligible to hold any office in their club. Honorary membership is time limited and terminates automatically at the end of the term, usually one year. It may be extended for an additional period or may also be revoked at any time. Examples of honorary members are heads of state or former heads of state, famous scientists or other famous people.
From 1905 until the 1980s, women were not allowed membership in Rotary clubs, although Rotarian spouses, including Paul Harris' wife, were often members of the similar "Inner Wheel" club. Women did play some roles, and Paul Harris' wife made numerous speeches. In 1963, it was noted that the Rotary practice of involving wives in club activities had helped to break down female seclusion in some countries. Clubs such as Rotary had long been predated by women's voluntary organisations, which started in the United States as early as 1790.
The first Irish clubs discussed admitting women as members in 1912, but the proposal floundered over issues of social class. Gender equity in Rotary moved beyond the theoretical question when in 1976, the Rotary Club of Duarte in Duarte, California admitted three women as members. After this club refused to remove the women from membership, in 1978 Rotary International revoked the club's charter. The Duarte club filed suit in the California courts, claiming that Rotary Clubs are business establishments subject to regulation under California's Unruh Civil Rights Act, which bans discrimination based on race, gender, religion or ethnic origin. Rotary International then appealed the decision to the U.S. Supreme Court. The RI attorney argued that "... [the decision] threatens to force us to take in everyone, like a motel". The Duarte Club was not alone in opposing RI leadership; the Seattle-International District club unanimously voted to admit women in 1986. The United States Supreme Court, on May 4, 1987, confirmed the Californian decision. Rotary International then removed the gender requirements from its requirements for club charters, and most clubs in most countries have opted to include women as members of Rotary Clubs. The first female club president to be elected was Silvia Whitlock of the Rotary Club of Duarte, California, USA in 1987. By 2007, there was a female trustee of Rotary's charitable wing The Rotary Foundation while female district governors and club presidents were common. Women currently account for 15% of international Rotary membership (22% in North America).
The change of the second Rotarian motto in 2004, from "He profits most who serves best" to "They profit most who serve best", 99 years after its foundation, illustrates the move to general acceptance of women members in Rotary.
The first Rotary Clubs in Asia were Manila, in the Philippines, and Shanghai, in China, each in July 1919. Rotary's office in Illinois immediately began encouraging the Rotary Club of Shanghai to recruit Chinese members, “believing that when a considerable number of the native business and professional men have been so honoured, the Shanghai Club will begin to realize its period of greatest success.” As part of considering the application of a Club to be chartered in Kolkata (then Calcutta), in India in January 1920 and Tokyo, in Japan in October 1920, Rotary formally considered the issue of racial restriction in membership and determined that the organization could not allow racial restrictions to the organization's growth. In Rotary's legislative deliberations in June 1921, it was formally determined that racial restrictions would not be permitted. Non-racialism was included in the terms of the standard constitution in 1922, required to be adopted by all member Clubs.
Rotary and other service clubs in the last decade of the 20th century became open to homosexual membership. Other minorities, in the face of general changes in demographics and declining membership, are also encouraged to join.
Interact is Rotary International’s service club for young people ages 12 to 18. Interact clubs are sponsored by individual Rotary clubs, which provide support and guidance, but they are self-governing and self-supporting.
Club membership varies greatly. Clubs can be single gender or mixed, large or small. They can draw from the student body of a single school or from two or more schools in the same community.
Each year, Interact clubs complete at least two community service projects, one of which furthers international understanding and goodwill. Through these efforts, Interactors develop a network of friendships with local and overseas clubs and learn the importance of
- Developing leadership skills and personal integrity
- Demonstrating helpfulness and respect for others
- Understanding the value of individual responsibility and hard work
- Advancing international understanding and goodwill
As one of the most significant and fastest-growing programs of Rotary service, with more than 33,000 clubs in more than 200 countries and geographical areas, Interact has become a worldwide phenomenon. Almost 340,000 young people are involved in Interact.
The most notable current global project, PolioPlus, is contributing to the global eradication of polio. Sergio Mulitsch di Palmenberg (1923–1987), Governor of RI District 204 (1984–1985), founder of the RC of Treviglio and Pianura Bergamasca (Italy), was the man who inspired and promoted the RI PolioPlus vaccination campaign. Mulitsch made it possible shipping the first 500,000 doses of antipolio vaccine to the Philippines at the beginning of 1980. This project later gave rise to the NGO “Nuovi Spazi al Servire” co-ordinated by Luciano Ravaglia (RC Forlì, Italy). Since beginning the project in 1985, Rotarians have contributed over US$850 million and hundreds of thousands of volunteer-hours, leading to the inoculation of more than two billion of the world's children. Inspired by Rotary's commitment, the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution in 1988 to eradicate polio by 2000. Now a partner in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) with WHO, UNICEF and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rotary is recognized by the United Nations as the key private partner in the eradication effort.
In 2008, Rotary received a $100 million challenge grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Rotary committed to raising $100 million. In January 2009, Bill Gates announced a second challenge grant of $255 million. Rotary again committed to raising another $100 million. In total, Rotary will raise $200 million by June 30, 2012. Together, the Gates Foundation and Rotary have committed $555 million toward the eradication of polio. At the time of the second challenge grant, Bill Gates said:
- "We know that it’s a formidable challenge to eradicate a disease that has killed and crippled children since at least the time of the ancient Egyptians. We don’t know exactly when the last child will be affected. But we do have the vaccines to wipe it out. Countries do have the will to deploy all the tools at their disposal. If we all have the fortitude to see this effort through to the end, then we will eradicate polio."
There has been some limited criticism concerning the program for polio eradication. There are some reservations regarding the adaptation capabilities of the virus in some of the oral vaccines, which have been reported to cause infection in populations with low vaccination coverage. As stated by Vaccine Alliance, however, in spite of the limited risk of polio vaccination, it would neither be prudent nor practicable to cease the vaccination program until there is strong evidence that "all wild poliovirus transmission [has been] stopped". In a 2006 speech at the Rotary International Convention, held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Bruce Cohick stated that polio in all its known wild forms would be eliminated by late 2008, provided efforts in Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India all proceed with their current momentum. As of October 2012, Nigeria, Afghanistan, and Pakistan still had wild polio, but it had been eliminated in India.
Exchanges and scholarships
Some of Rotary's most visible programs include Rotary Youth Exchange, a student exchange program for students in secondary education, and the Rotary Foundation's oldest program, Ambassadorial Scholarships. Today, there are six different types of Rotary Scholarships. More than 38,000 men and women from 100 nations have studied abroad under the auspices of Ambassadorial Scholarship, and today it is the world's largest privately funded international scholarships program. In 2006-07 grants totaling approximately US$15 million were used to award some 800 scholarships to recipients from 69 countries who studied in 64 nations. The Exchange Students of Rotary Club Munich International publish their experiences on a regular basis on Rotary Youth Exchange with Germany. In July 2009 the Rotary Foundation ended funding for the Cultural and Multi-Year Ambassadorial Scholarships as well as Rotary Grants for University Teachers.
Rotary Fellowships, paid by the foundation launched in honor of Paul Harris in 1947, specialize in providing graduate fellowships around the world, usually in countries other than their own in order to provide international exposure and experience to the recipient. Recently, a new program was established known as the Rotary peace and Conflict Resolution program which provides funds for two years of graduate study in one of eight universities around the world. Rotary is naming about seventy five of these scholars each year. The applications for these scholarships are found on line but each application must be endorsed by a local Rotary Club. Children and other close relatives of Rotarians are not eligible.
Rotary Centers for International Studies
Starting in 2002, The Rotary Foundation partnered with eight universities around the world to create the Rotary Centers for International Studies in peace and conflict resolution. The universities include International Christian University (Japan), University of Queensland (Australia), Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) (France), University of Bradford (United Kingdom), Universidad del Salvador (Argentina), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (U.S.), Duke University (U.S.), Chulalongkorn University (Thailand) and University of California, Berkeley (U.S.) Since then, the Rotary Foundation's Board of Trustees has dropped its association with the Center in France at the Paris Institute of Political Studies and is currently ending its association with the University of California, Berkeley.
Rotary World Peace Fellows complete two-year masters level programs in conflict resolution, peace studies, and international relations. The first class graduated in 2004. As with many such university programs in "peace and conflict studies", questions have been raised concerning political bias and controversial grants. As of August 2006, the Rotary Foundation had spent $18 million on its "peace and conflict" Centers, and the average grant was about $60,000 per enrollee in the two-year program.
In 2004, Fellows established the Rotary World Peace Fellows Association to promote interaction among Fellows, Rotarians, and the public on issues related to peace studies.
Rotary clubs worldwide place a focus on increasing literacy. Such importance has been placed on literacy that Rotary International has created a “Rotary Literacy Month” that takes place during the month of March. Rotary clubs also aim to conduct many literacy events during the week of September 8, which is International Literacy Day. Some Rotary clubs raise funds for schools and other literacy organizations. Many clubs take part in a reading program called "Rotary Readers," in which a Rotary member spends time in a classroom with a designated student, and reads one-on-one with them. Some Rotary clubs participate in book donations, both locally and internationally. As well as participating in book donations and literacy events, there are educational titles written about Rotary Clubs and members, such as Rotary Clubs Help People and Carol is a Rotarian by Rotarian and children's book author Bruce Larkin.
Rotaract: a service club for young men and women aged 18 to 30 with around 215,000 members in 9,388 clubs in 176 countries. Rotaract clubs are either community or university based, and they are sponsored by a local Rotary club. This makes them true "partners in service" and key members of the family of Rotary.
Rotary Community Corps
The Rotary Community Corps (RCC) is a volunteer organization with an estimated 157,000 non-Rotarian men and women in over 6,800 communities in 78 countries.
Rotary International publishes an official monthly magazine named The Rotarian in English (first published in 1911 as The National Rotarian). Other periodicals are independently produced in more than 20 different major languages and distributed in 130 countries.
- "Meet the president, Sakuji Tanaka". Rotary.org. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
- Modified by the 2010 "RI Council on Legislation", from the original "He profits most who serves the best" — see Rotary International manual, Part 5 (Rotary Marks), online at Rotary Marks.
- "Manual of Procedure" (PDF). 2010.
- Russell, Jeff. "Can You Survive Rotary's Four-Way Test?" Journal of Management in Engineering, May/Jun2000, Vol. 16 Issue 3, p13
- De Grazia, Victoria (2005). Irresistible Empire: America's Advance Through 20th-Century Europe. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-674-01672-6. and Arnone Sipari, Lorenzo (2006). Spirito rotariano e impegno associativo nel Lazio meridionale: i Rotary Club di Frosinone, Cassino e Fiuggi, 1959-2005. Cassino: University of Cassino Press. p. 15.
- "Rotary Timeline".
- Wikle, Thomas A. (Summer 1999). "International Expansion of the American-Style Service Club". Journal of American Culture 22 (2): 45. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.1999.2202_45.x.
- "About the Rotary Club of London".
- Lewis, Basil (2003-07-03). "Rotary in World War 1". Rotary Global History Fellowship. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13.
- Wikle, 1999 p. 47.
- "History of Rotary International - History of Rotary International". Rotary.org. 1905-02-23. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- De Grazia, Victoria (2005). Irresistible Empire: America's advance through 20th-century Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-674-01672-6.
- "Protestant Unity Pressed by Hitler". New York Times. 11 July 1933. p. 12.
- Fabrice d'Almeida, La vie mondaine sous le nazisme ("High-class life under Nazism"), Paris, Perrin, 2006, ISBN 978-2-262-02162-7, p.155
- Wiesen, S. Jonathan (2007) . "The Modern Guild". In Frank Biess. Conflict, Catastrophe and Continuity, Essays on Modern German History. Mark Roseman, Hanna Schissler. Berghahn Books. p. 299. ISBN 1-84545-200-3.
- Unschuld, Paul U. "On the History of the rotary Club of Munich". Rotary Global History Fellowship. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30.
- Brennan, Joseph Gerard (October 1985). "Thomas Mann and the Business Ethic". Journal of Business Ethics 4 (5): 401. doi:10.1007/BF02388594.
- Fabrice d'Almeida, ibid., p. 155
- Such as the governor of the Belgian Rotary district, who insisted, in a letter to the NSDAP party court, on the fact that Rotary respects established authority. See d'Almeida, ibid., p. 156.
- De Grazia, p. 71.
- Lewis, Basil (2003-03-16). "The Onset of War Closed Clubs in the 1930s and 1940s". Rotary Global History Fellowship. Archived from the original on 2008-05-30.
- "Today and tomorrow, an history of Rotary". Rotary.org. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- "Against Polio". One.org. Retrieved 2012-06-17. Text "Progress " ignored (help)
- "Current membership 2006". Rotary.org. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- "List of Rotary International Presidents".
- Rotary International. "Joining Rotary is by invitation only". Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- Examples can be found all around the world, such as Albert I, King of the Belgians, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Winston Churchill, Hassan II of Morocco, John F. Kennedy, Angela Merkel, Augusto Pinochet and Prince Rainier III, but although for instance a majority of presidents of the United States appear to have been honorary members, it is difficult to say as a rule that all heads of state receive—or accept—honorary membership.
- Such as Thomas A. Edison and Thor Heyerdahl
- Such as astronauts (Neil A. Armstrong), military (Douglas MacArthur) or entertainment (Walt Disney) people. See Famous Honorary Rotarians for more examples.
- Bird, John "The Wonderful, Wide, Backslapping World Of Rotary." Saturday Evening Post 2/9/1963, Vol. 236 Issue 5, p58–62
- Wikle 1999, p 50.
- Stuart Taylor Jr. (1987-05-05). "High Court Rules that Rotary Clubs Must Admit Women". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- Rotary International California District website . Retrieved 17 June 2006.
- "Board of Directors, Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte". Rotary International v. Rotary Club. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "ABCs of Rotary" website . Retrieved 17 June 2006.
- Susan Hanf, Donna Polydoros, "Historic Moments: Women In Rotary", Rotary International Website, 1 October 2009 . Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- The Rotary Club of Manila sponsored the establishment of the Philippine Council of the Boy Scouts of America in 1923.
- Quittner, Jeremy. "Join the Club." Advocate, 4/16/2002, Issue 861
- David C. Forward, "A Century of Service. The story of Rotary International", Evanston, 2009.
- Franco Pellaschiar, “Corrispondenza, atti, attestati e stralci di documenti sull’impegno di Sergio Mulitsch per l’Operazione PolioPlus”, In “Realtà Nuova”, anno LXVII, n.3, Milano, 2003.
- Luciano Ravaglia, "L’eredità di Sergio Mulitsh: “Nuovi spazi al servire”, l’Istituto Ong fra rotariani italiani” In “Realtà Nuova”, anno LXVII, n.3, Milano, 2003.
- "Bill Gates – Rotary International - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation". Gatesfoundation.org. 2009-01-21. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- Brown, Phyllida (December 2002). "Polio: can immunization ever stop?". Immunization Focus. Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. Archived from the original on 2003-02-03. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
- Rotary International Polio Facts 2006 Accessed 24 January 2007. This document appears to be updated quarterly.
- Global Polio Eradication Initiative
- Rotary.org: Announcements
- Bird, 1963. p62.
- "Rotary Times: Rotary Literacy Month". Rotarytimes1280.typepad.com. 2007-03-29. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- "United Nations – International Literacy Day – 8 September". Un.org. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- "Rotary Reader Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- Literacy Project Award Guide
- "Rotaract - Home". Rotary.org. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
- Charles, Jeffrey A. (1993). Service Clubs in American Society: Rotary, Kiwanis, and Lions. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0252020155. In his 2008 thesis, Brendan Goff notes that this book is "the only complete treatment of service clubs in academic literature".
- Goff, Brendan M. (2008). The heartland abroad: The Rotary Club's mission of civic internationalism.. ProQuest, UMI Dissertation Publishing. Goff's 2008 doctoral dissertation, which departs from Charles' earlier work in its emphasis on the international aspects of Rotary International.
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