Rumford, Maine

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Rumford, Maine
Town
Congress Street in downtown Rumford
Congress Street in downtown Rumford
Official seal of Rumford, Maine
Seal
Location of Rumford, Maine
Location of Rumford, Maine
Coordinates: 44°33′N 70°33′W / 44.550°N 70.550°W / 44.550; -70.550Coordinates: 44°33′N 70°33′W / 44.550°N 70.550°W / 44.550; -70.550
Country United States
State Maine
County Oxford
Settled 1782
Incorporated (town) February 21, 1800
Area[1]
 • Total 69.85 sq mi (180.91 km2)
 • Land 68.55 sq mi (177.54 km2)
 • Water 1.30 sq mi (3.37 km2)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 5,841
 • Estimate (2012[3]) 5,760
 • Density 85.2/sq mi (32.9/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 207

Rumford is a town in Oxford County, Maine, United States. The population was 5,841 at the 2010 census. Rumford is home to both an important paper industry and the Black Mountain of Maine ski resort.

History[edit]

Bird's-eye view of Rumford Falls in 1905

Originally called New Pennacook Plantation, the township was granted in 1779 to Timothy Walker, Jr. and associates of Concord, New Hampshire. Both Pennacook and Rumford are former names of Concord, from which many early settlers arrived. The first pioneers, however, were Jonathan Keyes and his son Francis in 1782 from Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Incorporated in 1800, the town would later annex land from Peru and Franklin Plantation.[4]

Located in the foothills of the White Mountains, Rumford is the site of Pennacook Falls, called by historian George J. Varney "the grandest cataract in New England," where the Androscoggin River drops 177 feet (54 m) over solid granite. Bands of St. Francis Indians once hunted and fished here, where salmon spawn in the 13-acre (53,000 m2) pool below Upper Falls, a barrier that fish cannot pass. Indians also came here to trade furs brought from the lakes region. Sawmills and gristmills were built to harness water power from the falls, although Rumford would remain primarily agricultural during its first 100 years.[5]

In 1882, industrialist Hugh J. Chisholm recognized the falls' potential for the manufacture of paper. The first paper mill began operation in 1893, drawing an infusion of people and money into the sleepy community of about 200 residents. Oxford Paper Company, owned by Chisholm, would dominate Rumford's riverfront and economy.[6]

Much of the mill town was built in the spurt of prosperity at the turn-of-the-century, and Rumford retains significant Victorian and Edwardian architecture. Most notable is Strathglass Park, perhaps the finest company housing in the nation. Wishing to avoid the stacked slums endemic at Lowell and Lawrence, Massachusetts, Hugh Chisholm commissioned Cass Gilbert in 1900 to plan a 30-acre (120,000 m2) site in his company town, instructing the prominent architect that "We will build of brick and stone and slate, and we will provide not merely for a house, but for comfort, elegance and social gratification."[7]

Strathglass Park District
Erchles Street, Strathglass Park.jpg
Strathglass Park c. 1912
Location Bounded by Lincoln Ave., Hancock St., Maine Ave., and York St., Rumford, Maine
Coordinates 44°33′N 70°33′W / 44.550°N 70.550°W / 44.550; -70.550
Area 16 acres (6.5 ha)
Built 1902
Architect Cass Gilbert; Gay,W. W.
Architectural style Shingle Style
NRHP Reference # 74000181[8]
Added to NRHP October 18, 1974

Named after the seat of Clan Chisholm at Strathglass Carries, Scotland, Gilbert in 1901 produced 5 designs for 51 duplexes, each with subtle differences. The same year, Chisholm founded The Rumford Realty Company to build the oval-shaped development, its entrance marked by an imposing granite gateway. With attractive lawns and broad, tree-lined streets, all maintenance was provided by the Oxford Paper Company. Even valet service was included. Tenants paid a rent of $9.00 per month, plus $1.00 per month to the Rumford Falls Power Company, also belonging to Chisholm. But in 1948, the incomplete development was no longer economically viable, and the houses were sold for between $3,400 and $3,900 per duplex. Recognized for unique architectural and social merit, in 1974 Strathglass Park was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district.[7] Today, much of the history of Rumford is preserved by the Rumford Historical Society.[9] Founded in 1961, under the sponsorship of prominent residents Louis Thibodeau, Minerva Anderson and Jonathan Mackenzie, the society pledges to preserve the rich history of the western mill town and encourage community involvement among all.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 69.85 square miles (180.91 km2), of which 68.55 square miles (177.54 km2) of it is land and 1.30 square miles (3.37 km2) is water.[1] Rumford is located where the Concord, Ellis, and Swift rivers drain into the Androscoggin river. Black Mountain, elevation 2,133 feet (650 m),[10] and Rumford Whitecap, elevation 2,197 feet (670 m), are in the north.

Climate[edit]

This climatic region has large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rumford has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.[11]

Climate data for Rumford, Maine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −3
(27)
−2
(29)
4
(39)
11
(51)
18
(65)
23
(74)
27
(80)
25
(77)
21
(69)
14
(58)
6
(43)
−1
(30)
11.9
(53.5)
Average low °C (°F) −13
(8)
−13
(9)
−7
(20)
0
(32)
6
(42)
11
(51)
14
(57)
12
(54)
8
(47)
3
(37)
−3
(27)
−10
(14)
0.7
(33.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 74
(2.9)
66
(2.6)
86
(3.4)
81
(3.2)
84
(3.3)
86
(3.4)
91
(3.6)
81
(3.2)
91
(3.6)
81
(3.2)
89
(3.5)
79
(3.1)
989
(39)
Source: Weatherbase [12]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1810 629
1820 871 38.5%
1830 1,126 29.3%
1840 1,444 28.2%
1850 1,375 −4.8%
1860 1,375 0.0%
1870 1,212 −11.9%
1880 1,006 −17.0%
1890 898 −10.7%
1900 3,770 319.8%
1910 6,777 79.8%
1920 8,576 26.5%
1930 10,340 20.6%
1940 10,230 −1.1%
1950 9,954 −2.7%
1960 10,005 0.5%
1970 9,363 −6.4%
1980 8,240 −12.0%
1990 7,078 −14.1%
2000 6,472 −8.6%
2010 5,841 −9.7%
sources:[13]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 5,841 people, 2,674 households, and 1,524 families residing in the town. The population density was 85.2 inhabitants per square mile (32.9 /km2). There were 3,287 housing units at an average density of 48.0 per square mile (18.5 /km2). The racial makeup of the town was 97.2% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.6% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population.

There were 2,674 households of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.0% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.76.

The median age in the town was 45.5 years. 20.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 21% were from 25 to 44; 30.6% were from 45 to 64; and 20.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 6,472 people, 2,876 households, and 1,754 families residing in the town. The population density was 94.3 people per square mile (36.4/km²). There were 3,280 housing units at an average density of 47.8 per square mile (18.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 98.67% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.06% from other races, and 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population.

There were 2,876 households, of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.4% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the town the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 21.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $27,639, and the median income for a family was $33,878. Males had a median income of $39,917 versus $20,632 for females. The per capita income for the town was $16,701. About 12.4% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over.

Education[edit]

The University College at Rumford/Mexico[15] is a learning center part of the University of Maine system. University College delivers courses and programs through a variety of modalities, including the traditional classroom, interactive television (ITV), video conferencing, online, and blended classes that use a variety of these modalities.

Mountain Valley High School is Rumford's public high school.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]