Scorpaeniformes

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Scorpaeniformes
Pterois antennata-3.jpg
Scorpaenidae: Pterois antennata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Scorpaeniformes
Greenwood et al., 1966
Suborders

Anoplopomatoidei
Cottoidei
Dactylopteroidei
Hexagrammoidei
Normanichthyiodei
Platycephaloidei
Scorpaenoidei
See text for families

The Scorpaeniformes are a diverse order of ray-finned fish, but have also been called the Scleroparei. It is one of the five largest orders of bony fishes by number of species with over 1,320.[1]

They are known as "mail-cheeked" fishes due to their distinguishing characteristic, the suborbital stay: a backwards extension of the third circumorbital bone (part of the lateral head/cheek skeleton, below the eye socket) across the cheek to the preoperculum, to which it is connected in most species.[2]

Scorpaeniform fishes are carnivorous, mostly feeding on crustaceans and on smaller fish. Most species live on the sea bottom in relatively shallow waters, although species are known from deep water, from the midwater, and even from fresh water. They typically have spiny heads, and rounded pectoral and caudal fins. Most species are less than 30 cm (12 in) in length, but the full size range of the order varies from the velvetfishes, which can be just 2 cm (0.79 in) long as adults, to the lingcod, which can reach 150 cm (4.9 ft) in length.[2]

Classification[edit]

The division of Scorpaeniformes into families is not settled; accounts range from 26[3][4] to 35 families.[5][6]

Setarchidae: Deepwater scorpionfish, Setarches guentheri
Sebastidae: Ocean perch, Sebastes marinus
Scorpaenidae: Longspine scorpionfish, Pontinus longispinis

Order Scorpaeniformes

Timeline of genera[edit]

Quaternary Neogene Paleogene Holocene Pleist. Plio. Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Zaniolepis Scorpaenichthys Ophiodon Eutrigla Cyclopterus Radulinus Prionotus Malacocottus Leptocottus Lepidocottus Icelinus Enophrys Chitonotus Artedius Sebastodes Lirosceles Achrestogrammus Hoplichthys Peristedion Neoplatycephalus Trigla Sebastes Pontinus Agonus Scorpaena Podothecus Notesthes Lepidotrigla Platycephalus Ctenopomichthys Eocottus Eosynanceja Quaternary Neogene Paleogene Holocene Pleist. Plio. Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Umich.edu [1]
  2. ^ a b Eschmeyer, William N. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 175. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  3. ^ Joseph S. Nelson. Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-54713-1. 
  4. ^ "Scorpaeniformes". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 31 March 2006. 
  5. ^ William N. Eschmeyer, Carl J. Ferraris, Mysi D. Hoang, Douglas J. Long (1998). Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-940228-47-5. 
  6. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Scorpaeniformes" in FishBase. February 2006 version.
  7. ^ Icelidae is described as a separate family by some sources [2], containing only the genus Icelus. However, this genus which is considered to be a member of Cottidae by most other sources [3]
  8. ^ Parabembridae is included in Bembridae in ITIS and Nelson, but split in FishBase and Eschmeyer.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Apistidae, Neosebastidae, Plectrogenidae, Sebastidae, and Setarchidae are included in Scorpaenidae in ITIS and Nelson, but split in FishBase and Eschmeyer.
  10. ^ Peristediidae is included in Triglidae in ITIS and Nelson, but split in FishBase and Eschmeyer.
  11. ^ Honma, Y., Imamura, H. & Kawai, T. (2013): Anatomical description of the genus Perryena, and proposal to erect a new family for it based on its phylogenetic relationships with related taxa (Scorpaeniformes). Ichthyological Research, DOI 10-1007/s10228-012-0321-z