In grammar, ablative case (abbreviated abl) is a grammatical case (a type of noun inflection) in various languages that is used generally to express motion away from something, although the precise meaning may vary by language. The name "ablative" derives from the Latin ablatus, the (irregular) perfect passive participle of auferre "to carry away". There is no ablative case in modern Germanic languages, such as English.
The ablative case in Latin ([casus] ablativus) has various uses, including following various prepositions, in an ablative absolute clause, and adverbially. The ablative case was derived from three Proto-Indo-European cases: ablative (from), instrumental (with), and locative (in/at).
In Ancient Greek, there was no ablative case; some of its functions were taken by the genitive and others by the dative; the genitive had functions belonging to the Proto-Indo-European genitive and ablative cases. The genitive case with the prepositions ἀπό apó "away from" and ἐκ/ἐξ ek/ex "out of" is an example.
German does not have an ablative case in native words, but Latin ablative case-forms were used from the 17th till 19th century after some prepositions, for example after von in von dem Nomine (ablative of the Latin word Nomen). Grammarians in that time, like Justus Georg Schottel, Kaspar von Stieler ("der Spate"), Johann Balthasar von Antesperg and Johann Christoph Gottsched, listed an ablative case (as the sixth case after nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and vocative) for German words. They considered the dative case after prepositions to be an ablative, as in von dem Mann[e] ("from" or "of the man") and mit dem Mann[e] ("with the man"), while they considered the dative case without a preposition dem Mann[e] to be a dative.
Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian
As in Ancient Greek, the functions of the ablative case in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian are performed by the genitive case. Of three forms of genitive in Serbian, as well in Croatian and Bosnian, namely partitive, possessive and ablative, the noun in the ablative genitive marks the origin of something, so as departure or detachment from it.
The ablative case is found in Albanian where it is the fifth case and is called rasa rrjedhore.
The ablative case, known as apādāna (अपादान) in Sanskrit, is the fifth case (panchami) in the grammar, and has similar function to that of Latin.
Sanskrit nouns in this case often refer to a subject "out of" which or "from" whom something (an action, an object) has arisen or occurred—e.g., patram vṛkṣāt patati "the leaf falls from the tree".
This case is also used for nouns in several other senses, e.g., where the action occurs "because of" or "without" a certain noun; nouns indicating distance or direction. When it appears with a comparative adjective, e.g. śreṣṭhatamam, "the best," the ablative is used to refer to that which the adjective is comparing, "better than X".
In the Western Armenian language, the ablative case is rendered by the suffix -e (indefinite) or -en (definite).
- Mart - man
- Marten - from the man
- Marte - from (a) man
- Doon - house
- Doonen - from the house
- Doone - from (a) house
In Eastern Armenian, the suffix -its is used for both definite and indefinite nouns.
Mard- man Mardits- from man
Toon- house T'nits- from house
Both suffixes derive from Classical Armenian. The Western suffix -e is from the Classical singular and the Eastern suffix -its is from the Classical plural; both have been generalized for singular and plural in the dialects that use them.
In Armenian, the ablative case has several uses.
- Its principal function is to show motion away from a point in space or time.
- KAGHAKEN katsi. - I came FROM THE CITY. (Eastern Armenian; KAGHAKITS gnets)
- AYSDEGHEN heroo g'abrei. - I used to live far FROM HERE. (Ea. AYSTEGHITS heroo ei b'nakvoom)
- The case also shows the agent when used with the passive voice of the verb.
- INTZME misht g'sirveir. - You were always loved BY ME. (Ea. INDZNITS misht eir sirvoom)
- AZADICHNEREN azadetsank. - We were freed BY THE LIBERATORS. (Ea. AZATOGHNERITS azatvetsink)
- The ablative case is also important to comparative statements in colloquial Armenian.
- Inch MEGHREN anoosh eh? - "What is sweeter THAN HONEY?" (proverb) (Ea. Inch MEGHRITS e anoosh?)
- Mariam YEGHPORMEN b'zdig eh. - Mary is smaller (younger) THAN HER BROTHER. (Ea. Maro AKHBERITS e pokr)
- In this use, the ablative can also be used with infinitives and participles.
- Tooz hamdesel DESNALE aveli lav e. - Figs are better to taste THAN TO SEE. (Ea. T'zner hamtesel TESNELUTS lav e)
- The ablative case is also important to case government with postpositions.
- INTZME var - Below ME (Ea. INDZNITS var)
- KEZME ver - Above YOU (Ea. KEZNITS ver)
- ANONTSME yedk - After THEM (Ea. N'RANITS heto)
- MEZME arach - Before US (Ea. MEZNITS araj)
In Finnish, the ablative case is the sixth of the locative cases with the meaning "from, off, of", e.g. pöytä – pöydältä "table – off from the table". It is an outer locative case, used just as the adessive and allative cases to denote both being on top of something and "being around the place" (as opposed to the inner locative case, the elative, which means "from out of" or "from the inside of"). In the locative meaning, the receding object was near the other place or object, not inside it.
The Finnish ablative is also used in time expressions to indicate start times (e.g. kymmeneltä "at ten") as well as with verbs expressing feelings or emotions.
The Finnish ablative has the ending -lta or -ltä according to the regular rules of vowel harmony.
- away from a place
- katolta: off the roof
- pöydältä: off the table
- rannalta: from the beach
- maalta: from the land
- mereltä: from the sea
- with the verb lähteä (stop)
- lähteä tupakalta: stop smoking (in the sense of putting out the cigarette one is smoking now; literally 'leave from the tobacco')
- lähteä hippasilta: stop playing the game of tag (hippa=tag, olla hippasilla=playing tag)
- to smell/taste/feel/look/sound like something
- haisee pahalta: smells bad
- maistuu hyvältä: tastes good
- tuntuu kamalalta: feels awful
- näyttää tyhmältä: looks stupid
- kuulostaa mukavalta: sounds nice
The ablative case in Hungarian is used to describe movement away from a solid object. For example, if one is walking away from a friend one could say: a barátomtól jövök - I am coming (away from) my friend.
Use of this case implies movement from next to the solid object, and not from inside it. So a postától jövök would mean one had been standing next to the post office, and not inside the building.
The application of vowel harmony gives two different suffixes: -tól and -től. These are applied to back- and front-vowel words respectively.
In contrast, the cases used to express movement towards a solid object and for being next to that solid object are the allative case and the adessive case respectively. The cases for movement away from, or out of, something are the delative case (for movement from a surface or from a Hungarian city) and the elative case (for movement out of a container or from out of a foreign city).
The ablative in Azeri (çıxışlıq hal) is expressed through the suffixes -dan or -dən. Examples:
Ev - evdən
House - from/off the house
Aparmaq - aparmaqdan
To carry - from/off carrying
The ablative in Turkish (-den hali or uzaklaşma hali) is expressed through the suffixes -den, -dan, -ten, or -tan. Examples:
Ev - evden
House - from/off the house
At - attan
Horse - from/off the horse
Taşımak - taşımaktan
To carry - from/off carrying
Ses - sesten
Sound/volume - from/off sound/volume
In some situations simple ablative can have a ”because of” meaning, in these situations ablative can be optionally followed by ”dolayı” (because of) preposition.
Yüksek sesten (dolayı) rahatsız oldum. / I was uneasy because of high volume.