Sophia Dorothea of Celle
|Sophia Dorothea of Celle|
|Electoral Princess of Hanover|
|Sophie-Dorothea of Braunschweig-Lüneburg with her children George and Sophia Dorothea.|
|Spouse||George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Hanover
m. 1682; div. 1694
Sophia, Queen in Prussia
|House||House of Hanover|
|Father||George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Mother||Eleonore Desmier d'Olbreuse|
15 September 1666|
|Died||13 November 1726
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick and Luneburg (Celle line) (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the wife and cousin of George Louis, Elector of Hanover, later George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II through an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of Duchess Sophia of Hanover. She is best remembered for her alleged affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life.
Parentage and marriage
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg was born on 15 September 1666, the only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg by his long term mistress, Eleonore d'Esmier d'Olbreuse (1639–1722), Countess of Williamsburg, a Huguenot lady, the daughter of Alexander II d'Esmiers, Marquess of Olbreuse. George eventually married his daughter's mother officially in 1676 (they had been married morganatically previously).
There was some talk of marriage between Sophia and the (then) future king of Denmark, but the reigning queen was talked out of it by Duchess Sophia (her future mother-in-law). Another engagement to the duke of Wolfenbüttel was broken off after Duchess Sophia convinced her brother-in-law of the advantage of having Sophia Dorothea marry her cousin. This occurred on the day the engagement between Sophia Dorothea and the duke was to be announced.
When told of the change in plans and her new future husband, Sophia Dorothea shouted that "I will not marry the pig snout!" (a name he was known by in Hanover), and threw a miniature of George Louis brought for her by Duchess Sophia against the wall. Forced by her father, she fainted into her mother's arms on her first meeting with her future mother-in-law. She fainted again when presented to George Louis.
On 22 November 1682, Sophia Dorothea married her cousin, George Louis, who inherited the Principality of Lüneburg after the death of his father-in-law and uncle, George William in 1705, and also later inherited the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland and became George I through his mother, Duchess Sophia, a granddaughter of King James I.
The marriage of George Louis and Sophia Dorothea was an unhappy one. The immediate family of George Louis, especially Duchess Sophia, hated and despised Sophia Dorothea. The desire for the marriage was almost purely financial, as she wrote to her niece Elizabeth Charlotte, "One hundred thousand thalers a year is a goodly sum to pocket, without speaking of a pretty wife, who will find a match in my son George Louis, the most pigheaded, stubborn boy who ever lived, who has round his brains such a thick crust that I defy any man or woman ever to discover what is in them. He does not care much for the match itself, but one hundred thousand thalers a year have tempted him as they would have tempted anybody else."
These feelings of contempt were shared by George himself, who was oddly formal to her. She was frequently scolded for her lack of etiquette, and the two had loud and bitter arguments. Things seemed better after their first two children, a son named George Augustus born in 1683 and a daughter named after her in 1686. But George Louis acquired a mistress Melusina von Schulenburg and started pointedly neglecting his wife. George Louis' parents asked him to be more circumspect with his mistress, fearful that a disruption in the marriage would disrupt the hundred thousand thalers, but he responded by going out of his way to treat his wife brutally.
It was under these circumstances that Sophia Dorothea re-made the acquaintance of Swedish count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, with whom her name is inseparably associated. The two first met in Celle when he was sixteen. They flirted innocently, and traced their names on the palace windows with the words "Forget me not". On 1 March 1688 he reminded her of their previous acquaintance, and the two renewed it. George Louis' younger brothers loved the count and brought him to Sophia Dorothea's salon in the evening to cheer her up. For the two years he stayed in Hanover, there was no reason to believe their relationship was anything but platonic. He left for a military expedition to the Peloponnese in 1690 — it was a disaster. On his return, the relationship between him and Sophia Dorothea intensified. They began sending each other love letters which suggest that their relationship was consummated.
In 1692, the early letters were shown to the newly appointed Elector Ernest Augustus (Sophia Dorothea's father-in-law). Since a scandal may have threatened his new status, the elector sent Königsmarck to fight with the Hanoverian army against Louis XIV. Other soldiers were given leave to visit Hanover, but he was not. One night Königsmarck deserted his post and rode for six days to visit Hanover. The day after arriving, he called on Field Marshal Heinrich and, confessing his breach of duty, begged for leave to stay in Hanover. It was agreed, though Heinrich suggested that the affair be ended or that Königsmarck leave the country. Ernest August exiled Königsmarck.
George Louis criticised his wife over her affair, and she criticised him for his. The argument escalated to the point that the prince threw himself on Sophia Dorothea and started tearing out her hair and strangling her, leaving purple bruise marks. He was pulled off her by her attendants.
Königsmarck presumably was killed while assisting her in a futile attempt to escape from Hanover. In 1694 the Count disappeared (several guards and the Countess Platen confessed on their deathbeds to being involved in his death); the princess was divorced by her husband and nevertheless imprisoned at the Castle of Ahlden. She remained in captivity until her death more than 30 years later on 13 November 1726. Sophia Dorothea is sometimes referred to as the "princess of Ahlden." Her two children were the British king, George II, and Sophia Dorothea, wife of Frederick William I of Prussia, and mother of Frederick the Great.
Sophia's infidelity to her husband is not absolutely proven, as it is possible that the letters which purport to have passed between Königsmarck and herself are forgeries. George II was very disturbed by the imprisonment of his mother, and it was one of a number of reasons that contributed to the relationship of mutual hatred between him and his father.
Death and burial
Sophia Dorothea became ill in August 1726 and had to stay in bed, which she never left again. Before dying, Sophia wrote a letter to her husband, cursing him from beyond the grave. Her cause of death was liver failure and gallbladder occlusion due to 60 stones. Sophia Dorothea was 60 years old and had spent 33 of these years imprisoned.
George would not allow mourning in Hanover or London. He was furious when he heard that his daughter's court in Berlin wore black. Sophie Dorothea's body was put into a casket and was deposited in the castle's cellar. It was quietly moved to Celle in May 1727 to be buried beside her parents in the Stadtkirche. George I died 4 weeks later, presumably shortly after receiving his deceased wife's final letter.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 15 September 1666 – 1682: Her Highness Duchess Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Celle
- 1682-October 1692: Her Highness The Hereditary Princess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
- October 1692 – 1694: Her Serene Highness The Electoral Princess of Hanover
- 1694-13 November 1726: Sophia Dorothea of Celle
|George II of Great Britain||10 November 1683||25 October 1760||Caroline of Ansbach||Frederick, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal
Prince George William
|Sophia, Queen of Prussia||26 March 1687||28 June 1757||Frederick William I of Prussia||Prince Friedrich Ludwig
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm
Frederick II of Prussia
Princess Charlotte Albertine
Princess Frederica Louise
Princess Philippine Charlotte
Prince Ludwig Karl Wilhelm
Princess Sophia Dorothea
Louisa Ulrika, Queen of Sweden
Prince Augustus William
Princess Anna Amalia of Prussia
|Ancestors of Sophia Dorothea of Celle|
- Herman, Eleanor: Sex with the Queen, page 100. William Morrow, 2006
- Weir, pp. 272–275.
- Haag et al., pp. 347–349.
- A Weir, Britain's Royal Families - The Complete Genealogy (2002)
- Herman, Eleanor. Sex with the Queen. New York, HarperCollins, 2006. ISBN 0-06-084673-9
- Haag, Eugène; Haag, Émile; Bordier, Henri Léonard (1877) La France Protestante. Paris: Sandoz et Fischbacher (French) online edition
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sophia Dorothea". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press This work in turn cites:
- W. F. Palmblad, ed., Briefwechsel des Grafen Königsmark and der Prinzessin Sophie Dorothea von Celle (Leipzig, 1847)
- A. F. H. Schaumann, Sophie Dorothea Prinzessin von Ahlden
- A. F. H. Schaumann, Kurfürstin Sophie von Hannover (Hanover, 1878)
- C. L. von Pöllnitz, Histoire secrette de la duchesse d'Hanovre (London, 1732)
- W. H. Wilkins, The Love of an Uncrowned Queen (London, 1900)
- A. Köcher, "Die Prinzessin von Ahlden," in the Historische Zeitschrift (Munich, 1882)
- Vicomte H. de Beaucaire, Une Mésalliance dans la maison de Brunswick (Paris, 1884)
- Alice Drayton Greenwood, Lives of the Hanoverian Queens of England, vol. i (1909)