Sputnik 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sputnik 2
Sputnik2 vsm.jpg
Sputnik 2
Mission type Bioscience
Operator OKB-1
Harvard designation 1957 Beta 1
SATCAT № 00003
Mission duration 162 days
Orbits completed ~2,000
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer OKB-1
Launch mass 508.3 kilograms (1,121 lb) (Payload only)
Start of mission
Launch date November 3, 1957, 02:30:00 (1957-11-03UTC02:30Z) UTC
Rocket Sputnik 8K71PS
Launch site Baikonur 1/5
End of mission
Decay date April 14, 1958 (1958-04-15)
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Semi-major axis 7,306 kilometres (4,540 mi)
Eccentricity 0.0990965
Perigee 211 kilometres (131 mi)
Apogee 1,659 kilometres (1,031 mi)
Inclination 65.3 degrees
Period 103.73 minutes
Epoch 3 November 1957[1]

Sputnik 2 (Russian pronunciation: [ˈsputʲnʲək], Russian: Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, Russian: Простейший Спутник 2 Elementary Satellite 2)) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. Sputnik 2 was a 4-metre (13 foot) high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 metres (6.6 feet) that weighed around 500 kg, though it was not designed to separate from the rocket core that brought it to orbit, bringing the total mass in orbit to 7.79 tons.[2] It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the dog Laika.

Engineering and biological data were transmitted using the Tral D telemetry system, which would transmit data to Earth for a 15 minute period during each orbit. Two photometers were on board for measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet and x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays. Sputnik 2 did not contain a television camera; TV images of dogs on Korabl-Sputnik 2 are commonly misidentified as Laika.[3]

Mission profile[edit]

Postage stamp of the USSR, «Спутник-2»

Sputnik 2, known to Korolev's design bureau as""Prosteyshiy Sputnik-2" means "Simple Satellite 2,"[4] was launched into a 212 × 1660 km (132 × 1031 mi) orbit with a period of 103.7 minutes on a modified ICBM R-7, similar to the one used to launch Sputnik 1. The R-7 was also known by its GURVO designation 8K71[5] as well as the "T-3, and M-104,[6] and Type A.[7] The R-7 modified for the PS-2 satellite launch was designated 8k71PS.[8] Unlike Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2 was not designed to detach from the R-7 sustainer core, since Sputnik 1's core stage had demonstrated an acceptable orbital lifespan. This allowed the core's Tral D telemetry system to be used to transmit data, but would lead to speculation that Sputnik 2 had failed to separate.[9] After reaching orbit interior temperatures rapidly climbed to over 40 °C (100 °F), and Laika survived for only a few hours instead of the planned ten days.[10] The orbit of Sputnik 2 decayed and it re-entered Earth's atmosphere on 14 April 1958 after 162 days in orbit.

Instruments
Dog Laika: Biological data
Geiger counters : Charged particles
Spectrophotometers: Solar radiation (ultraviolet and
x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays

Passenger[edit]

Main article: Laika

The first living creature (larger than a microbe) to enter orbit was a female part-Samoyed terrier originally named Kudryavka (Little Curly) but later renamed Laika ("Barker"). Laika was selected from ten candidates at the Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, because of her even temperament.[11] She weighed about 6 kg (13 lb). The pressurized cabin on Sputnik 2 allowed enough room for her to lie down or stand and was padded. An air regeneration system provided oxygen; food and water were dispensed in a gelatinized form. Laika was chained in place and fitted with a harness, a bag to collect waste, and electrodes to monitor vital signs. Early telemetry indicated Laika was agitated but alive and well, though the cabin temperature had already reached 43 °C by the third orbit. Biometric telemetry failed sometime after the fourth orbit.[12] While it was initially claimed Laika had survived in orbit for a week, decades later Russian sources revealed that Laika likely lived only a few hours in orbit before dying from overheating.[13] The mission provided scientists with the first data on the behavior of a living organism in the space environment.[14]

Sputnik 2 and the Van Allen radiation belt[edit]

Sputnik 2 detected the Earth's outer radiation belt in the far northern latitudes, but the significance of the elevated radiation was not realized. In Australia, Professor Harry Messel intercepted the signals but the Soviets would not provide the code and the Australians would not send the data. In 1958, with Sputnik 3, they began to cooperate and confirmed the findings of the U.S. satellites Explorer 1, 3, and 4.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  2. ^ "Russian Space Web". 
  3. ^ "Sputnik-2". 2007. 
  4. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 155. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  5. ^ Zaloga, Stephen J.. The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword, Washington. The Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002, p. 232. ISBN 1-58834-007-4
  6. ^ Cox, Donald & Stoiko, Michael, "Spacepower what it means to you," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The John C. Winston Company, p. 69, 1958
  7. ^ Bilstein, Roger E., "Stages to Saturn a Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn launch Vehicles," Washington D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p.387. 1980, NASA SP 4206
  8. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 163. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  9. ^ "Russian Space Web". November 3, 2012. 
  10. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 174. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  11. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 173. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  12. ^ "Sputnik-2". 
  13. ^ "Russian Space Web". 
  14. ^ Chernov, V. N., and V. I. Yakovlev, Scientific research during the flight of an animal in an artificial earth satellite, Artif. Earth Satell., No. 1, 80-94, 1958

References[edit]

  • Bilstein, Roger E., "Stages to Saturn a Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn launch Vehicles," Washington D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP 4206
  • Cox, Donald & Stoiko, Michael, "Spacepower what it means to you," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The John C. Winston Company
  • Harford, James.. Korolev, New York. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-14853-9.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A., Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, FL. The University of Florida Press, ISBN 0-8130-2627-X.
  • Swenson, L, Jr, Grimwood, J. M. Alexander, C.C. This New Ocean, A History of Project Mercury, Washington D.C.. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Library of Congress Card No. 66-62424
  • Zaloga, Stephen J.. The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword, Washington. The Smithsonian Institution Press, ISBN 1-58834-007-4.

External links[edit]