|Harvard designation||1957 Beta 1|
|Mission duration||162 days|
|Launch mass||508.3 kilograms (1,121 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||November 3, 1957, 02:30:00UTC|
|Launch site||Baikonur 1/5|
|End of mission|
|Decay date||April 14, 1958|
|Semi-major axis||7,314.2 kilometres (4,544.8 mi)|
|Perigee||212 kilometres (132 mi)|
|Apogee||1,660 kilometres (1,030 mi)|
Sputnik 2 (Russian pronunciation: [ˈsputʲnʲək], Russian: Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or 'Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, Russian: Простейший Спутник 2 Elementary Satellite 2)), was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on November 3, 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. Sputnik 2 was a 4-metre (13 foot) high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 metres (6.6 feet). It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the dog Laika.
Engineering and biological data were transmitted using the Tral D telemetry system, which would transmit data to Earth for a 15 minute period during each orbit. Two photometers were on board for measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet and x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays. Sputnik 2 did not contain a television camera; TV images of dogs on Korabl-Sputnik 2 are commonly misidentified as Laika.
Sputnik 2, known to Korolev's design bureau as""Prosteyshiy Sputnik-2" means "Simple Satellite 2," was launched into a 212 × 1660 km (132 × 1031 mi) orbit with a period of 103.7 minutes on a modified ICBM R-7, similar to the one used to launch Sputnik 1. The R-7 was also known by its GURVO designation 8K71 as well as the "T-3, and M-104, and Type A. The R-7 modified for the PS-2 satellite launch was designated 8k71PS. After reaching orbit the nose cone was jettisoned successfully but the Blok A core did not separate as planned. This inhibited the operation of the thermal control system. Additionally some of the thermal insulation tore loose causing interior temperatures to reach 40 °C (104 °F). Laika survived for only a few hours instead of the planned ten days because of heat and stress. The orbit of Sputnik 2 decayed and it re-entered Earth's atmosphere on 14 April 1958 after 162 days in orbit.
|Dog Laika:||Biological data|
|Geiger counters :||Charged particles|
|Spectrophotometers:||Solar radiation (ultraviolet and
x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays
The first living creature (larger than a microbe) to enter orbit was a female part-Samoyed terrier originally named Kudryavka (Little Curly) but later renamed Laika ("Barker"). Laika was selected from ten candidates at the Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, because of her even temperament. She weighed about 6 kg (13 lb). The pressurized cabin on Sputnik 2 allowed enough room for her to lie down or stand and was padded. An air regeneration system provided oxygen; food and water were dispensed in a gelatinized form. Laika was fitted with a harness, a bag to collect waste, and electrodes to monitor vital signs. Early telemetry indicated Laika was agitated but eating her food. In October 2002 it was revealed by Russian sources that Laika had already died after a few hours from overheating and stress, not suffocation, as is commonly believed. If neither had taken place, Russian Mission Control had planned to euthanize Laika with poisoned food, as she would have burned up in the atmosphere during re-entry. The mission provided scientists with the first data on the behavior of a living organism in the space environment.
Sputnik 2 and the Van Allen radiation belt
Sputnik 2 detected the Earth's outer radiation belt in the far northern latitudes, but the significance of the elevated radiation was not realized. In Australia, Professor Harry Messel intercepted the signals but the Soviets would not provide the code and the Australians would not send the data. In 1958, with Sputnik 3, they began to cooperate and confirmed the findings of the U.S. satellites Explorer 1, 3, and 4.
- Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 155. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
- Zaloga, Stephen J.. The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword, Washington. The Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002, p. 232. ISBN 1-58834-007-4
- Cox, Donald & Stoiko, Michael, "Spacepower what it means to you," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The John C. Winston Company, p. 69, 1958
- Bilstein, Roger E., "Stages to Saturn a Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn launch Vehicles," Washington D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p.387. 1980, NASA SP 4206
- Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 163. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
- Harford, James.. Korolev how one man masterminded the Soviet drive to beat America to the Moon, New York. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997, p. 132. ISBN 0-471-14853-9
- Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 174. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
- Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 173. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
- Bilstein, Roger E., "Stages to Saturn a Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn launch Vehicles," Washington D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP 4206
- Cox, Donald & Stoiko, Michael, "Spacepower what it means to you," Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The John C. Winston Company
- Harford, James.. Korolev, New York. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-14853-9.
- Siddiqi, Asif A., Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, FL. The University of Florida Press, ISBN 0-8130-2627-X.
- Swenson, L, Jr, Grimwood, J. M. Alexander, C.C. This New Ocean, A History of Project Mercury, Washington D.C.. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Library of Congress Card No. 66-62424
- Zaloga, Stephen J.. The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword, Washington. The Smithsonian Institution Press, ISBN 1-58834-007-4.
- Sputnik: 50 Years Ago
- Anatoly Zak on Sputnik-2
- Sputnik 2 Diary
- NSSDC Master Catalog: Spacecraft Sputnik 2
- Sputnik 2 at Astronautix
- Usilaika - More about Laika