Jami` at-Tirmidhi

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Jami` at-Tirmidhi (Arabic: جامع الترمذي‎, Jāmi` at-Tirmidhī), popularly and mistakenly Sunan at-Tirmidhi (Arabic: سُـنَن الترمذي‎, Sunan at-Tirmidhī), is one of Kutub al-Sittah (the six major hadith collections). It was collected by Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi. He began compiling it after the year 250 A.H. and completed it on the 10 Dhu-al-Hijjah 270 A.H. It contains 3,956 Ahadith, and has been divided into fifty chapters. It is also classified as a Sunan, which implies that the book has been chapterised according to legal chapters, such as Purification, Prayer, Poor-due and Fasting, narrated on the authority of Islamic prophet Muhammad, while the opinions of the companions are usually not mentioned.

Tirmidhi's method was that of placing the heading first, then mentioning one or two Ahadith which were related to the heading. These Ahadith are followed by his opinion as to the status of the Hadith. Subsequently, he mentions the opinions of the different jurists. He also indicates if there were other narrations transmitted by other companions on the same subject. His principal aim was to discuss the legal opinions of early jurists. Tirmidhi mostly mentioned those Ahadith which the jurists used as the basis for their legal decisions and he mentioned which school used which tradition/s. Hence this book became an important source for the different view-points of the various legal schools. The Jami' thus bears the distinction of being one of the oldest texts dealing with the difference of opinion amongst the various jurisprudential schools. Although Shafi'i (b. 150-d.204 A.H.) wrote his Kitab al-Umm before Tirmidhi's Jami', the Kitab al-Umm is less comprehensive in comparison to the Jami' of Tirmidhi.

Title[edit]

The full title of the compilation is (Arabic: الجامع المختصر من السنن عن رسول الله ومعرفة الصحيح والمعلول وما عليه العمل, Al-Jāmi` al-Mukhtaṣar Min as-Sunan 'An Rasūl Allāh ﷺ Wa Ma'rifat al-Ṣaḥeeḥ Wal-Ma'lool Wa Mā 'Alaihil 'Amal)[1]

Al-Kattani said: "The Jami` of at-Tirmidhi is also named The Sunan, contrary to those thinking them to be two separate books, and [it is also named] Al-Jami` al-Kabir.[2]

Praise[edit]

Al-Hafidh Abu'l-Fadl Al-Maqdisi said: "I heard Al-Imam Abu Isma`il `Abdullah bin Muhammad Al-Ansari in Harrah - when Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi and his book was mentioned before him - saying: "To me, his book is more useful than the books of Al-Bukhari and that of Muslim. This is because only an expert can arrive at the benefit of the books of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, whereas in the case of the book of Abu `Isa, every one of the people can attain its benefit."[3]

Ibn Al-Athir said: "(It) is the best of books, having the most benefit, the best organization, with the least repetition. It contain what others do not; like mention of the different views, angles of argument, and clarifying the circumstances of the hadith as being sahih, da'if, or gharib, as well as disparaging and endorsing remarks (regarding narrators).

Authenticity[edit]

Sunnis regard this collection as fifth in strength of their six major hadith collections.[4]

Types of hadith included relating to their authenticity[edit]

Of the four Sunan books, al-Tirmidhi's alone is divided into four categories. The first, those hadith definitively classified as authentic, he is in agreement with Bukhari and Muslim. The second category are those hadith which conform to the standard of the three scholars, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa'i and Abu Dawood, at a level less than Bukhari and Muslim. Third, are the hadith collected due to a contradiction; in this case, he clarifies its flaw. And fourth, those hadith which some fiqh specialists have acted upon.[5]

Examples of some Hadith found in Tirmidhi[edit]

It is related by Abdullah bin Masud that Muhammad said, “A faithful believer neither attacks with his tongue nor utters a curse nor speaks ill of anyone nor calls names.” From Tirmidhi

Commentaries[edit]

  • Aridhat al-Ahwathi bi Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi written Ibn al-Arabi d. 543H (1148-49 CE)
  • Sharh Jaami' al-Tirmidhi of which only the last portion of remains - Sharh 'Ilal at-Tirmidhi - by Ibn Rajab
  • Commentary on al-Tirmidhi's Hadith Collection by al-Zayn al-Iraqi[disambiguation needed]
  • Footnotes, including explanation and verification, of approximately the first third of the Sunan by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir
  • al-`Urf al Shadhi Sharh Sunan Al-Tirmidhi by Anwar Shah Kashmiri
  • Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi Bi Sharh Jami` Al-Tirmidhi by 'Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman, 10 vols., Beirut

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Imam Tirmidhi and his Al-Jami’ al-Sunan: http://daruliftaa.com/node/7130
  2. ^ Al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah, pg. 11.
  3. ^ Shurut al-A'immah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 101.
  4. ^ Haddad, G. F. "Various Issues About Hadiths". 
  5. ^ Shurut al-A'immah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 92.

External links[edit]