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The Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht, Fasnacht (in Switzerland) or Fasnat/Faschnat (in Vorarlberg), is the pre-Lenten carnival in Alemannic folklore in Switzerland, southern Germany, Alsace and Vorarlberg.
Popular etymology often links Fastnacht (in Mainz also Fassenacht, in Switzerland Fasnacht, in Swabia Fasnet, Fasent) with fasten ("to fast") – allegedly from celebrations on the eve preceding fasting. Comparison of dialect variants however yields an OHG *fasanaht, with an element fasa- of unclear meaning. A likely derivation looks to PIE pwo- "purify" (cognate to pava-mana), or alternatively to Middle High German vaselen "prosper, bud", and interprets the festival as a fertility rite.
Fasching (MHG vaschanc or vaschang) is related, probably originally with a second element -gang instead of -nacht.
Fastnacht is held in the settlement area of the Germanic tribes of the Swabians and Alemanns, where Swabian-Alemannic dialects are spoken. The region covers German Switzerland, the larger part of Baden-Württemberg, Alsace, south-western Bavaria and Vorarlberg (western Austria).
The festival starts on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, known as Schmotziger Donnerstag. In Standard German, schmutzig means "dirty", but in the Alemannic dialects schmotzig means "lard" (Schmalz), or "fat"; "Greasy Thursday", as remaining winter stores of lard and butter used to be consumed at that time, before the fasting began. Elsewhere the day is called "Women's Carnival" (Weiberfastnacht), being the day when tradition says that women take control. In particular regions of Tyrol, Salzburg and Bavaria traditional processions of the Perchten welcome the springtime. The Schönperchten (beautiful Perchts) represent the birth of new life in the awakening nature, the Schiachperchten ("ugly Perchts") represent the dark spirits of wintertime. Farmers yearn for warmer weather and the Perchtenlauf (Run of Perchts) is a magical expression of that desire. The nights between winter and spring, when evil ghosts are supposed to go around, are also called Rauhnächte (rough nights).
The Fastnacht cycle
Although in some places the Fastnacht celebrations already begin on November 11th, as is common in the Rhenish regions, in Swabian-Allemanic areas, Fastnacht events typically only start off after the festive days following Christmas - on January 6th, which is also Epiphany.
Drawing on an old custom, this is the day when the masks get a dusting and the first events and parades can begin. Strictly speaking, Fastnacht only begins with Fat Thursday (the Thursday before Ash Wednesday), which is the climax of the celebrations and the time when the parades and other celebrations become more frequent. There are also a number of recipes that are traditionally cooked.
Old Fastnacht, Buurefasnacht
Even though the reformation through the Konzil von Benevent advanced the beginning of Lent by six days, the original date (Tuesday, six weeks before eastern) still was not forgotten. Especially in rural areas as well as in protestant areas, the Konzil von Benevent was not accepted.
Development into modern Fastnacht
Up until the 20th century Fastnacht was only a local event that was celebrated solely at one’s hometown. At the beginning of the 20th century the jester guilds started to organize and form jester’s unions. This led to the founding founding of the Vereinigung Schwäbisch-Alemannischer Narrenzünfte (VSAN) in 1924. Forming this nationwide umbrella organization was necessary because of the unstable political situation and many regional Fastnacht bans. By creating the VSAN the jesters wanted to actively represent their political interests. Furthermore they wanted to foster and preserve their culture, which is the main task of the organization today. After its establishment the VSAN quickly became popular to such an extent, that it had to stop accepting new members.
In protestant Basel, Fasnacht astonishingly begins on the Monday after Ash Wednesday, since it has been existing since its many re-inventions before and after the Reformation, in its current form since about 1835. Since then, it is considered to be a civil Fasnacht, quite contrary to the other large Fasnacht events in the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, mainly the one in Lucerne. The Basler Fasnacht starts with the Morgestraich when, at 4am, all the lights go out in the city and carnival participants walk through the streets with beautifully painted lanterns, costumes and typically big-nosed masks, accompanied by drummers and pipers playing piccolos. The festival continues for three days with events for children and displays of floats.
The Lucerner Fasnacht, based on religious, Catholic backgrounds, starts every year on the Thursday before Aschermittwoch (Ash Wednesday) with a big bang at 5am called Morgenwacht (Morning Watch). There are big parades in the afternoon on Schmotzige Donnerstag (literally: Lardy Thursday) and the following Monday, called Güdismontag (literally: Paunch Monday), which attract tens of thousands of people. Lucerne's Carnival ends with a crowning finish on Güdisdienstag (literally: Paunch Tuesday) evening with a tremendous parade of big bands, lights and lanterns with even a larger audience. Quite contrary to the Basler Fasnacht, a large part of the audience are also dressed up in costumes, especially in the evenings.
- Carnival of Basel
- Carnaval (in the Netherlands)
- Der Überlinger Hänsele
- Pre-Christian Alpine traditions
- "Woher hat der Schmutzige Donnerstag seinen Namen?". Regionalzeitung Rontaler AG (in German). 17 February 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-07.
- Mask of an "ugly Percht"
- "Geschichte der Basler Fasnacht" (in German). Altbasel.ch. 24 January 2009. Retrieved 2015-02-07.
Pierre Farine sieht ihre Geburtsstunde mit dem Beginn der fasnächtlichen Berichterstattung durch die Presse 1835
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- Basler Fasnacht The official site of Fasnacht in Basel
- Fasnachts Comité The Basel Fasnachts Committee
- Konstanzer Fasnacht Pictures of the Swabian–Alemannic Carnival in and nearby Constance
- Lucerne Carnival Lucerne Carnival overview about events in the city and region
- Luzerner-Fasnacht The official website of the Lucerner Fasnacht
- Typical pictures of the Alemannic folklore Fasnacht
- Oltner Fasnacht The official site of Fasnacht in Olten
- Winterthur Fasnacht The official site of Fasnacht in Winterthur
- Weil der Stadt Fasnet The official site of Fasnet in Weil der Stadt