Slavic vocabulary

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The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages. The word list is based on the Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, a tool to study the evolution of languages via comparison, containing a set of 207 basic words which can be found in every language and are rarely borrowed. However, the words given as the modern versions are not necessarily the normal words with the given meaning in the various modern languages, but the words directly descended from the corresponding Proto-Slavic word (the reflex). The list here is given both in the orthography of each language, with accent marks added as necessary to aid in pronunciation and Proto-Slavic reconstruction. See below for a capsule summary of how to pronounce each language, as well as some discussion of the conventions used.

Table[edit]

Slavic languages
Translation Late Proto-Slavic class Russian Bulgarian Czech Polish Serbo-Croatian Slovenian
Cyrillic Latin Cyrillic Latin standard
(Shtokavian)
Chakavian
I *(j)azъ, (j)ā prn. я ja аз az ja jå̃ jàz
thou *ty prn. ты ty ти ti ty ty
he *onъ prn. он, она, оно on, oná, onó ((той)) ((toj)) on, ona, ono ȍn/ôn, òna, òno õn, onȁ, onȍ òn, óna, onộ/ónọ
we *my prn. мы my mi (dial.) my my
ye *vy prn. вы vy (ви́е) (víe) vy wy
they *oni, *ony, *ona prn. они́ on'í те te oni, ony, ona oni, one oni
this, that *tъ prn. то tot, ta, to (това́) (tová) ten, ta, to tâj, tâ, tô tȁ, tâ, tô/tȍ tâ, tâ, tộ
there *tamъ там tam там tam tam tam tam
who *kъto prn. кто kto ((кой)) ((koi)) kdo kto tkȍ; ki kdọ́
what *čьto prn. что čto /što/ što co co štȍ (Vrg.) ča kaj
where *kъde prn. где gd'e где gde kde gdzie gdjȅ kadȅ (Orb.) kjẹ́
when *kogъda; *kogъdy adv./conj. когда́ kogdá кога́ kogá (kdy); OCz. kehdy kiedy kàda kǝdá(j); kdá(j); kadá; kadaj
how; what (kind of) какъ adv.; prn. как kak; kakój как kak (jak) (OCz. kaký) (jak) (arch. kaki) kàko, kakav káko, kakšen
not *ne adv. не n'e не ne ne nie ne
all *vьśь, *vьśja, vьśe prn. весь, вся, всё v'es', vs'a, vs'o (вси́чки) (vsíčki) (všichni); OCz. veš, všě, vše (wszyscy); OPl. wszy, wsza, wsze sȁv, svȁ, svȅ svȁs, svȁ, svȅ vǝ̀s, vsà, vsè
many *mъnogъ adj. o мно́гий mnógij мно́го mnógo (adv.) mnohý mnogi mnȍgī mnǫ̂gi
some *ne + *koliko не́сколько n'éskol'ko ня́колко njákolko několik kilka nekoliko
few *malъ ма́ло málo ма́лко málko málo mało malo
other *drûgъ adj. o (c) друго́й drugój друг drug druhý drugi drûg drȕgī drûg
other *jь̀nь prn. (a) ино́й inój --- --- jiný inny ȉn
one *(j)edìnъ, *(j)edьnъ num. o оди́н, одна́ od'ín, odná еди́н edín jeden jeden jèdan, jȅdna jedå̃n, jednȁ, jednȍ eden, ena, eno
two *d(ъ)va num. два dva, dve, dva двa dva dva, dvě, dvě dwa, dwie, dwa dvâ, dvȉje, dvâ dvå̂, dvî, dvå̂ dvâ
three *trьje, *tri num. три tr'i три tri tři trzy trî trî triję̂, trî, trî
four *četỳre num. (a) четы́ре č'etýr'e че́ти́ри čétíri čtyři cztery čètiri četȉri štiri
five pę̂tь num. i (c) пять p'at' пет pet pět pięć pêt pêt pę̂t
big, great *velìkъ; velьkъ adj. o вели́кий v'el'ík'ij вели́к velík velký wielki vȅlikī, vȅlikā, vȅlikō vȅlik, velikȁ, velikȍ vélik, velíka
long *dь̀lgъ adj. o (a) до́лгий dólg'ij дъ́лъг dǝ́lǝg dlouhý długi dȕg dȕg dôļg, dółga
wide *širokъ широ́кий širók'ij широ́к širók široký szeroki širok
thick *tъlstъ то́лстый tólstyj тлъст tlǝst tlustý tłusty debel, tolst
heavy *tęžъkъ adj. o тя́жкий t'ážkij те́жък téžǝk těžký ciężki téžak, téška tȅžak, tēškȁ téžǝk, téžka; težâk
small *màlъ adj. o (a) ма́лый mályj (ма́лък); мал (málǝk); mal malý mały mȁo må̃lī mâli, majhen
short *kortъ̀kъ adj. o (b) коро́ткий korótk'ij кра́тък krátǝk krátký krótki krátak, krátka krå̂tak, krå̄tkȁ, krå̂tko;
krãtak, krãtka, krãtko
krátǝk
narrow *ǫzъkъ adj. o у́зкий úzk'ij; úzok, uzká, úzko ((те́сен)) ((tésen)) úzký wąski ȕzak, ȕska/uskȁ ȕsak, uskȁ, ȕsko ǫ́zǝk, ǫ́zka
thin *tь̏nъkъ adj. o (c) то́нкий tónk'ij; tónok, tanká, tónko тъ́нък tǝ́nǝk tenký cienki tȁnak, tànka/tánka tȁnak, tankȁ, tânko tǝnǝ́k, tǝnkà
husband *mǫ̂žь m. jo (c) муж muž мъж mǝž muž mąż mûž (mûža) mǫ̂ž (možâ)
woman/wife *ženà f. ā (b) жена́ ž'ená /žená/ жена́ žená žena żona žèna (acc. žènu) ženȁ (acc. ženȕ) žéna
man (human) *čelověkъ m. o челове́к č'elov'ék чове́к čelovék; čovék člověk człowiek čòvjek (čòvjeka); čȍvjek (čovjèka) čovȉk (čokȉka) člóvẹk (človẹ́ka)
child *dětę дитя́ d'it'á дете́ deté dítě dziecko otrok, dete
mother *mati мать mat' ма́йка májka matka matka mati
father *otьcь оте́ц ot'éc баща́, та́тко baštá, tátko otec ojciec oče
wild animal *zvě̂rь m. i (c) зверь zv'er' zvjar zvěř zwierz zvȉjer f. (i) zvîr (zvîri) f. (i) zvę̂r (zverî)
fish *ryba ры́ба rýba ри́ба ríba ryba ryba riba
bird *pъtica, *pъtъka пти́ца pt'íca пти́ца ptíca pták ptak ptica
dog *pьsъ соба́ка, пёс sobáka, p'os пес, ку́че pes, kúče pes pies pes
louse *vъ̂šь f. i (c) вошь voš' /voš/ (vš'i) въ́шка vǝ́ška veš wesz vâš (vȁši); ûš (ȕši) ùš (ušî); ûš
snake *zmьjà f. iā змея́ zm'ejá змия́ zmijá zmije[1] żmija[2] zmìja zmijȁ kača
worm *čьrvь червь č'erv' че́рвей čérvej červ czerw, robak črv
tree *dervo, *dьrvo де́рево d'ér'evo дърво́ dǝrvó strom drzewo drevo
forest *lěsъ лес l'es гора́ gorá les las gozd, les, šuma, hosta
stick *palica, *palъka па́лка pálka пръ́чка prǝ́čka hůl laska / pałka / kij palica
fruit *plodъ плод plod плод plod ovoce (plod) owoc (płód) sadež, plod
seed *sěmę се́мя s'ém'a се́ме séme semeno ziarno seme
leaf *listъ лист l'ist листо́ listó list liść list
root *korenь ко́рень kór'en' ко́рен kóren kořen korzeń koren, korenina
bark (of a tree) *kora кора́ korá кора́ korá kůra kora skorja
flower *květъ цвето́к cv'etók цве́те cvéte květ kwiat cvet, cvetlica
grass *trava трава́ travá трева́ trevá tráva trawa trava
rope *ǫže верёвка v'er'óvka въже́ vǝžé provaz sznur, lina vrv, konop
skin *koža ко́жа kóža ко́жа kóža kůže kożuch[3] koža
meat *męso мя́со m'áso ме́со méso maso mięso meso
blood *kry кровь krov' кръв krǝv krev krew kri
bone *kostь кость kost' кост, ко́кал kost, kókal kost kość kost
fat (noun) *sadlo са́ло sálo слани́на slanína tuk tłuszcz, sadło mast, tolšča, maščoba, salo
egg *âje; *ajьce n. jo (c); n. jo яйцо́ jajcó яйце́ jajcé vejce jajo; jajko jáje; jájce jå̂je jájce
horn *rôgъ m. o (c) рог rog рог rog roh róg (rogu) rôg (rȍga) rộg (rộga/rogâ)
feather *però n. o (b) перо́ p'eró перо́ peró péro pióro pèro perȍ pérọ (pérạ); perộ (perę̂sa)
hair *vôlsъ m. o (c) во́лос vólos (vólosa) --- --- vlas włos vlâs (vlâsa) vlå̂s (vlå̂sa) lâs (lâsa/lasû)
hair, braided hair *kosà f. ā (c) kosá (kósu)[4] коса́ kosá OCz. kosa OPl. kosa[5] kòsa (acc. kȍsu) (Novi) kosȁ (acc. kosȕ/kȍsu) lasje
head *golvà f. ā (c) голова́ golová (acc. gólovu) глава́ glavá hlava głowa gláva (acc. glâvu) glå̄vȁ (acc. glå̂vu) gláva
ear *ûxo n. o (c) у́хо úxo, pl. úš'i /úšy/ ухо́ uxó, pl. uší ucho ucho ȕho/ȕvo, pl. f. ȕši ȕho (ȕha), pl. m. ȕši uhộ (ušę́ša)
eye *ȍko n. o (c) глаз, о́ко óko (poet.) око́ okó oko oko ȍko okộ (očę̂sa)
nose *nôsъ m. o (c) нос nos нос nos nos nos nôs (nȍsa) nộs (nộsa/nọsâ/nọsû)
mouth *ūstà pl. n. o (b) уста́ ustá (poet.) уста́ ustá ústa usta ústa ũstå̄; ũsta ústa
tooth *zǫ̂bъ m. o (c) зуб zub зъб zǝb zub ząb zûb (zûba) zǫ̂b (zǫ̂ba, zobû)
tongue *ęzỳkъ m. o (a) язы́к jazýk ези́к ezík jazyk język jèzik jazȉk jézik (jezíka)
nail (of finger/toe), claw *nȍgъtь m. i/io (c) но́готь nógot' (nógt'a) но́кът nókǝt nehet paznokieć, pazur nȍkat (nȍkta); nogat (nokta) nȍhat (nȍhta) nộhǝt (nộhta); nǫ̂hǝt/nǫ̂gǝt (nǫ̂hta); nohǝ̀t (nohtà)
foot, leg *noga f. ā (c) нога́ nogá (nógu) nogá noha noga nòga (nȍgu) nogȁ (nȍgu) nóga
knee *kolě̀no n. o (a) коле́но kol'éno коля́но kol'áno koleno kolano kòljeno kolȉno kolẹ́nọ
hand *rǭkà f. ā (c) рука́ ruká ръка́ rǝká ruka ręka rúka (rûku) rūkȁ (rûku) róka
wing *krīdlò n. o (b) крыло́ kryló крило́ kriló křídlo skrzydło krílo (Orb.) krīlȍ krílọ
belly *bŗûxo, *bŗûxъ m./n. o (c) брю́хо br'úxo --- --- břicho brzuch --- --- trebuh
guts *červo вну́тренности, кишки́ vnútr'ennost'i, k'išk'í въ́трешности, черва́ vǝ́trešnosti, červá vnitřnosti, střeva wnętrzności črevo, drobovje
neck *šija, *šьja ше́я š'éja /šéja/ ши́я šíja krk szyja, kark vrat
shoulder *pletjè n. jo (b) плечó plečó pléšti/pleští pl. plec plecy pl.[6] pléće (Novi) plećȅ pléče, rame
breast *grǫ̂dь f. i (c) грудь grud' гръд grǝd prsa, hruď pierś; OPl. grędzi (pl.) grûd prsi, grod
heart *sь̏rdьce n. jo (c) се́рдце s'érdc'e /s'érce/ сърце́ sǝrcé srdce serce sȑce (sȑca) srcę̂
liver *ę̄trò n. o (b) játro/jatró[7] jatró játra (pl.) (wątroba) jȅtra (pl.) (Orb.) jiẽtra (pl.) ję́tra (pl.)
to drink *pìti v. пить p'it' пи́я píja píti pić pȉti (pȉjēm) pȉti (pījȅš) píti (píjem)
to eat *ě̀sti v. есть jest' ям jam jísti jeść jȅsti (jȅdem) ȉsti/ĩsti (3sg. idẽ) jẹ́sti (jẹ́m)
to gnaw *grỳzti v. (c) грызть gryzt' --- --- hryzat gryźć grȉsti (grízēm) grȉsti (2sg. grīzȅš) grísti (grízem)
to suck *sъsàti v. соса́ть sosát' (sosú, sos'ót) (су́ча) (súča) sát (saji) ssać (ssę) sȁti (sêm) sǝsáti (sǝsâm)
to spit *pjь̀vati v. (a) плева́ть pl'evát' (pljujú, plujót) плю́я pljúja; pljúvam plivat (plivu) pluć (pluję) pljùvati (pljȕjēm) pljúvati (pljújem)
to vomit *bljьvàti v. блева́ть bl'evát' (bljujú, bljujót) bǝ́lvam blít (bliju) bluć (bluj̨ę) bljùvati (bljȕjēm) (Orb.) bljȕvat (3sg. bljûje/bljȕva) bljǝváti/bljuváti/bljúti (bljúvam/bljújem)
to breathe *dyxati v. дышать dyshat' (dial.) ди́шам díšam dýchat (dýchám) dychać (colloq.) díjati (dîšēm/dîhām) dȉhati (2sg. dȉšeš) díhati (dîham)
to laugh *smьjàti sę v. (c) смея́ться sm'eját's'a (smejús', smejóts'a) сме́я се sméja se smát se (směju se) śmiać się (śmieję się) smìjati se (sjìjēm se) (Vrg.) smījȁti se (smijȅš se) smẹ́jati/smẹjáti se (smẹ́jem/smẹ́jam/smẹjím se)
to see *vìděti v. (a) ви́деть v'íd'et' (1sg. v'ížu, 3sg. v'íd'it) ви́ждам vídja, víždam vidět (vidím) widzieć vȉdjeti (vȉdīm) vìti (2sg. vȉdīš) vídẹti (vîdim)
to hear *slušati слу́шать slúšat' слу́шам, чу́вам slúšam, čúvam slyšet (slyším) słyszeć slišati (slišim)
to know *znàti v. (a) знать znat' (znáju) зна́я; знам znája; znam znát (znám) znać znȁti (znâm) znȁti (2sg. znå̂š) znáti (znâm)
to know *věděti v. ведать v'édat'[8] --- --- vědět (vím) wiedzieć (wiem) --- vẹ́dẹti (vẹ́m)
to think *mysliti мы́слить mýsl'it' ми́сля míslja myslet (myslím) myśleć misliti (mislim)
to smell *čuti ню́хать, чу́ять n'úkhat', čújat' мири́ша, ду́ша miríša, dúša vonět (voním), čichat (čichám) czuć vohati
to fear *bojati sę боя́ться boját's'a страху́вам се straxúvam se bát se bać się bati se
to sleep *sъpati спать spat' спя spja spát spać spati
to live *žìti v. (c) жить ž'it' /žyt'/ живе́я živéja žít żyć žívjeti, 1sg. žívīm žīvȉti, 2sg. žīvȅš živeti
to die *merti умира́ть um'irát' уми́рам umíram umírat umierać umreti
to kill *ubiti убива́ть ub'ivát' уби́вам ubívam zabíjet zabijać ubiti
to fight *boriti sę боро́ться borót's'a бо́ря се, би́я се bórja se, bír se bojovat walczyć boriti se, biti se, bojevati se
to hunt *loviti охо́титься oxót'it's'a лову́вам lovúvam lovit polować loviti
to hit *udariti v. ударя́ть udar'át' у́дрям údrjam udeřit uderzać ùdariti, 1sg. ùdarīm udariti
to cut *sěkti, *strigti, *rězati ре́зать, руби́ть r'ézat', rub'ít' ре́жа, сека́ réža, seká řezat ciąć rezati
to split разделя́ть razd'el'át' разде́лям razdéljam rozdělit podzielić razdeliti
to stab *bosti, *kolti коло́ть kolót' буча́, прому́швам, пробо́ждам bučá, promúšvam, probóždam píchnout pchnąć zabosti, prebosti
to scratch *česati, *drapati цара́пать carápat' че́ша, дра́скам čéša, dráskam škrábat skrobać praskati
to dig *kopati копа́ть kopát' копа́я kopája kopat kopać kopati
to swim, sail *pluti; *plỳti v.; v. (a) плыть plyt' (plyvú, plyv'ót) плу́вам plúvam plout (pluju) (pływać) plȉti (plȉjēm) plúti (plújem/plóvem)
to swim, sail *plàvati v. (a) пла́вать plávat' пла́вам plávam plavat OPl. pławać plávati (plâvam)
to fly *letěti лета́ть l'etát' летя́ letjá létat latać leteti
to walk *xoditi v. ходи́ть xod'ít' хо́дя xódja chodit chodzić hòditi (hȍdīm) hodȉti hóditi (hǫ́dim)
to go *jьti v. идти́ idt'í (idú, id'ót) ída jít (jdu) iść ìći (ȉdēm) íti (ídem)
to come приходи́ть, прийти́ pr'ixod'ít', pr'ijt'í и́двам ídvam přicházet, přijít przychodzić, przyjść priti
to lie (as in a bed) *ležati лежа́ть l'ežát' лежа́ ležá ležet leżeć ležati
to sit *sěsti сиде́ть s'id'ét' седя́ sedjá sedět siedzieć sesti
to stand *stati стоя́ть stoját' стоя́ stojá stát stać vstati
to turn *vьrtě̀ti v. (c) верте́ть v'ert'ét' (1sg. v'erčú, 3sg. v'ért'it) въртя́ vǝrtjá vrtět wiercić vŕtjeti (vŕtīm) vrtȉti (2sg. vrtĩš) vrtẹ́ti (vrtím)
to turn, return *vortìti v. (b) воротить, вернуть vorot'ít' (1sg. voročú, 3sg. vorót'it)[9] vernut' --- --- vrátit wrócić vrátiti (1sg. vrâtīm) vrå̄tȉti (2sg. vrå̃tīš) vrniti
to fall *pasti па́дать pádat' па́дам pádam padat padać, spadać pasti
to give *dati дава́ть davát' да́вам dávam dávat dawać dati
to hold *dьržati держа́ть d'eržát' държа́ dǝržá držet trzymać držati
to squeeze *tiskati; *žęti v. (b) сжима́ть sž'imát' /žžymát'/ сти́скам, ма́чкам stískam, máčkam mačkat ściskać žȅti, 1sg. žmêm stiskati
to rub *terti тере́ть t'er'ét' три́я, тъ́ркам tríja, tǝ́rkam třít trzeć treti, drgniti
to wash *myti мыть myt' ми́я, пера́ míja, perá mýt myć umiti, oprati
to wipe вытира́ть vyt'irát' бъ́рша, три́я bǝ́rša, tríja vytírat wycierać brisati, otreti
to pull *pьxati тяну́ть t'anút' дъ́рпам, те́гля, вла́ча dǝ́rpam, téglja, vláča táhnout ciągnąć vleči, potegniti
to push толка́ть, пиха́ть tolkát', p'ixát' нати́скам, бу́там natískam, bútam tlačit pchać potistniti, poriniti
to throw *kydati, *mesti, *vergti v. броса́ть, кида́ть brosát', k'idát' хвъ́рлям xvǝ́rljam házet; OCz. vrci (1sg. vrhu) rzucać vȑći, 1sg. vȑgnēm "put, throw" veȑć, 2sg. veȑžeš vreči
to tie *vę̄zàti v. (b) вяза́ть v'azát' връ́звам vrǝ́zvam vázat wiązać vézati, 1sg. véžēm vēzȁti, 2sg. vēžeš vezati
to sew *šiti шить š'it' /šyt'/ ши́я šíja šít szyć sejati
to read, count *čitati v. чита́ть č'itát' --- --- číst (čtu) czytać čìtati (čìtām) čȉtati (2sg. čȉtå̄š) brati (berem), čítati (čítam)
to speak, talk *govorìti v. говори́ть govor'ít' govórja mluvit, hovořit OPl. goworzyć govòriti (gòvorīm) govȍrīti (2sg. govȍrīš) govoríti (govorím)
to show *kāzàti v. каза́ть kazát' káža ukázat kazać kázati (kâžēm) kå̄zȁti (2sg. kå̃žeš) kázati (kážem)
to sing *pěti v. (c) петь p'et' (pojú, pojót) пе́я péja (2sg. péeš) zpívat (zpívám) piać (pieję) pòjati (pòjēm); pȅti (pêm) pẹ́ti (pójem); pójati (pójam/pójem)
to play *jьgrati игра́ть igrát' игра́я igrája hrát grać igrati
to flow *tekti течь t'eč' тека́ teká téct ciec teči
to freeze *mьrznǫti замерзáть zam'erzát' замръ́звам zamrǝ́zvam zamrznout marznąć zamrzniti
to swell *puxnǫti пу́хнуть púxnut' подпу́хвам, оти́чам, поду́вам се podpúxvam, otíčam, podúvam se opuchnout, otéct puchnąć oteči
sun *sъlnьce со́лнце sólnc'e /sónce/ слъ́нце slǝ́nce slunce słońce sonce
moon *luna, *měsęcь луна́, ме́сяц luná, m'és'ac луна́ luná měsíc księżyc mesec
star *gvězda звезда́ zv'ezdá звезда́ zvezdá hvězda gwiazda zvezda
water *vodà f. ā (c) вода́ vodá (acc. vódu) вода́ vodá voda woda vòda (acc. vȍdu) vodȁ (acc. vȍdu) vóda
rain *dъždь дождь dožd' /došš', došt'/ дъжд dǝžd déšť deszcz dež
river *rěka река́ r'eká река́ reká řeka rzeka reka
lake *(j)ezero о́зеро óz'ero е́зеро ézero jezero jezioro jezero
sea *more, *morě мо́ре mór'e море́ moré moře morze morje
salt *solь соль sol' сол sol sůl sól sol
stone *kamy ка́мень kám'en' ка́мък kámǝk kámen kamień kamen
sand *pěsъkъ песо́к p'esók пя́сък pjásǝk písek piasek pesek
dust *porxъ пыль pyl' прах prax prach pył, kurz prah
earth *zemľà f. jā (b/c) земля́ z'eml'á (acc. z'éml'u) земя́ zemjá země ziemia zèmlja (acc. zȅmlju) zemļȁ (acc. zȅmļu) zémlja
cloud *tǫča ту́ча, о́блако túča, óblako о́блак óblak oblak chmura oblak
fog мгла, туман mgla, tuman мъгла́ mǝglá mlha mgła megla
sky *nebo не́бо n'ébo небе́ nebé nebe niebo nebo
wind *vě̀trъ m. o (a) ве́тер v'ét'er вя́тър vjátǝr vítr wiatr vjȅtar (vjȅtra) vȉtar (vȉtra) vệtǝr
snow *sněgъ снег sn'eg сняг snjag sníh śnieg sneg
ice *ledъ лёд l'od лед led led lód led
smoke *dymъ дым dym дим, пу́шек dim, púšek dým dym dim
fire *ognь ого́нь ogón' о́гън ógǝn oheň ogień ogenj
ash *pepelъ пе́пел p'ép'el пе́пел pépel popel popiół pepel
to burn *gorěti, *paliti горе́ть, пыла́ть gor'ét', pylát' горя́, паля́ gorjá, paljá hořet palić goreti
way *pǫ̃tь m. i (b) путь put' път pǝt pout' (fem.)[10] droga (arch. pąć) pût (púta) pũt (pũta) pǫ́t
mountain *gorà fem. ā (c) гора́ gorá гора́ gorá[11] hora góra gòra (gȍru) gorȁ (gȍru) góra
red *čьrmьnъ adj. o č'er'emnój/č'er'ómnyj (dial.)[12] --- --- čermný/črmný (Kott) czermny (dial.) crman (arch.) črmljen
red *čьrv(j)enъ adj. o č'er'evl'onyj (obs.)[13] черве́н červén červený czerwony cr̀ven rdeč
green *zelẽnъ adj. o (b) зелёный z'el'ónyj зеле́н zelén zelený zielony zèlen, zelèna, zelèno zelẽn, zelenȁ, zelenȍ zelèn, zeléna
yellow *žьltъ adj. o жёлтый ž'óltyj /žóltyj/ жълт žǝlt žlutý żółty žût, f. žúta žût, f. žūtȁ, n. žûto rumen, žôłt, žółta
white *bělъ бе́лый b'élyj бял bjal bílý biały bel
black *čьrnъ чёрный č'órnyj че́рен čéren černý czarny črn
night *noktь ночь noč' нощ nošt noc noc noč
day *dьnь день d'en' ден den den dzień dan
year *godъ, *rokъ год god годи́на godína rok rok leto
warm *teplъ, *toplъ тёплый t'óplyj то́пъл tópǝl teplý ciepły toplo
cool, cold *xoldьnъ adj. o (c) холо́дный xolódnyj хла́ден xláden chladný chłodny hládǝn hlå̂dan hládǝn
full *pьlnъ по́лный pólnyj пъ́лен pǝ́len plný pełny poln
new *novъ но́вый nóvyj нов nov nový nowy nov
old *starъ ста́рый stáryj стар star starý stary star
good *dobrъ хоро́ший, добрый xoróš'ij, dobryj добъ́р dobǝ́r dobrý dobry dober
bad *zъlъ adj. o злой zloj; zol, zla, zlo[14] лош loš zlý zły zȁo, zlȁ, zlȍ zǝ̀ł, zlà; zâl
rotten *gnjilъ гнило́й gn'ilój гнил gnil shnilý zgniły gnil
dirty гря́зный gr'áznyj мръ́сен mrǝ́sen špinavý brudny umazan
straight *prostъ, *pravъ прямо́й pr'amój прав prav přímý prosty raven
round *krǫglъ кру́глый krúglyj кръ́гъл krǝ́gǝl kulatý / okrouhlý okrągły okrogel
sharp *bridъkъ о́стрый óstryj о́стър óstǝr ostrý ostry oster
dull *tǫpъ тупо́й tupój тъп tup tupý tępy top
smooth *gladъkъ гла́дкий, ро́вный gládk'ij, róvnyj гла́дък, ра́вен gládǝk, ráven hladký gładki gladek
wet *mokrъ мо́крый mókryj мо́кър mókǝr mokrý mokry moker
dry *suxъ сухо́й suxój сух sux suchý suchy suh
correct пра́вильный práv'il'nyj пра́вилен právilen správný poprawny pravilen
near *blizъ бли́зкий bl'ízk'ij бли́зък blízǝk blízký bliski blizu, blizek
far *dalekъ далёкий dal'ók'ij дале́чен daléčen daleký daleki deleč, daljni
right *pravъ пра́вый právyj де́сен désen pravý prawy desen
left *lěvъ ле́вый lévyj ляв ljav levý lewy levi
at *po, *u prep./pref. при, у pr'i, u при, у, на pri, u, na při, u przy, u u; u- pri
in(to) *vъ(n) prep. в v; vn- в v v; v(n)- w(e); wn- u; va- v
with *sъ(n) с s с(със) s(sǝs) s z s, z
and (j)ь, *a и, а i, a и, а i, a a, i i, a in
if *(j)ako е́сли jésl'i ако́ akó jestli jeśli, jeżeli če, ako
because *dělja, *dьlja, děljьma потому́ что potomú čto /što/ защо́то zaštóto protože bo, dlatego że, ponieważ zato, zato ker
name *(j)ьmę и́мя ím'a и́ме íme jméno imię ime

Conventions in the table[edit]

  • Common Slavic accents follow Serbo-Croatian conventions: á (long rising), à (short rising), â (long falling), ȁ (short falling), ā (length in unstressed syllable). The Late Common Slavic neoacute is indicated as ã. This was pronounced as short rising in ь̃ ъ̃; long rising in ẽ õ in most languages, but short rising in Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian; and consistently long rising over other vowels.
  • The accent pattern (a, b or c) of Common Slavic nouns, verbs and adjectives is indicated. These patterns are as follows: a = consistent root accent; b = predominant suffix accent; c = mobile accent.
  • Nouns are given in the nominative singular; a form in parentheses is genitive singular except as indicated (acc. = accusative singular, pl. = nominative plural).
  • Verbs are given in the infinitive (but the first singular present in Bulgarian, which has no infinitives). A form in parentheses is first singular present except as indicated (2sg. = second singular, 3sg. = third singular). A second form in parentheses is third singular present.
  • When multiple forms of an adjective are given, the order is masculine, feminine, neuter.
  • Chakavian forms are given in the Vrgada dialect except as indicated (Novi = Novi dialect, Orb. = Orbanići dialect).

Transcription of Russian and Bulgarian[edit]

Transcription of Bulgarian follows the standard conventions for academic transliteration of Cyrillic, with the exception that Cyrillic ъ is represented as ǝ instead of ă for ease of reading, particularly when combined with a stress mark (ǝ́ instead of ). This is a one-to-one transliteration that directly represents the spelling of Cyrillic. This transliteration also represents Bulgarian phonology quite well (unlike the situation in Russian).

Transcription of Russian is based on the same standard, but deviates from it in order to consistently represent palatalization (always written with a following apostrophe, e.g. l', n', t', v') and the phoneme /j/ (always written j), both of which are spelled in multiple ways in Cyrillic. The following indicates how to convert between the two:

Cyrillic letters Letter class Academic transliteration This article's transcription
а э ы о у Non-palatal vowels a è y o u a e y o u
я е и ё ю Palatal vowels ja e i ë ju If following a consonant, a e i o u with preceding apostrophe ('); if following another letter, ja je ji jo ju; if word-initial, ja je i jo ju.
й ў Semivowels j ŭ same
ь Soft sign ' same
ъ Hard sign '' not written
щ A consonant sign šč šš'

The result is that this article's transcription is almost directly phonemic, making it significantly easier for readers not familiar with the complications of Cyrillic spelling. Note that the transcription used here continues the standard practice of representing the Cyrillic letters ы и as y i, although they are normally considered allophones of each other. This is because the pronunciation of the two letters is significantly different, and Russian ы normally continues Common Slavic *y [ɨ], which was a separate phoneme.

The letter щ is conventionally written št in Bulgarian, šč in Russian. This article writes šš' in Russian to reflect the modern pronunciation [ɕɕ].

Both transcriptions indicate stress with an acute accent (á é í ó ú ý ǝ́). Stress is indicated in Cyrillic in the same fashion, except with the letter ё, which is always stressed.

Pronunciation[edit]

Capsule summary of Russian pronunciation[edit]

The transcription used in this article is morphophonemic rather than strictly phonemic, i.e. it writes the underlying phonemes rather than the phonemes actually heard when pronounced. The difference occurs particularly in the representation of unstressed vowels, where multiple underlying phonemes merge. For example, underlying e and i merge into the same sound when unstressed, but the difference is revealed in related forms based on the same root: e.g. z'eml'á [zʲɪmˈlʲæ] "land" has accusative z'éml'u [ˈzʲemlʲʉ], but z'imá [zʲɪˈma] "winter" has accusative z'ímu [ˈzʲimu]. When the transcription (which is derived from the spelling) disagrees with the actual morphophonemic pronunciation, the latter is indicated specially, e.g. čto /što/; š'it' /šyt'/; ž'óltyj /žóltyj/; ž'ená /žená/ [ʐɨˈna]; sólnc'e /sónce/ [ˈsont͡sǝ]. This occurs mostly with the letters š, ž, c, which are normally written palatal but pronounced non-palatal; but it is also due to occasional assimilations. Note that the rules for unstressed vowels still need to be applied (see below).

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • š [ʂ], ž [ʐ] and c [t͡s] are never palatal, while č [t͡ɕ] and šš [ɕɕ] are always palatal, regardless of spelling.
  • y [ɨ]: allophone of i [i] after non-palatal consonants, but written differently by convention. Written i sounds as y after š, ž, c, regardless of whether indicated as palatal in the spelling: ž'it [ʐɨtʲ] "to live".
  • Vowel mergers in unstressed syllables are extensive, but not written.
    • After palatal, vowels a, o, e, i all merge as [ɪ]: t'až'ólyj [tʲɪˈʐolɨj] "heavy", v'el'ík'ij [vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj] "big".
    • After non-palatal, vowels a and o merge as [ɐ] directly before the stress and absolutely word-initially, [ǝ] elsewhere: molokó [mǝlɐˈko] "milk", sobáka [sɐˈbakǝ] "dog", č'elov'ék [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲek] "man (human)".
    • After non-palatal, vowels e and i/y merge as [ɨ]: ž'ená [ʐɨˈna].
    • Exception: Absolutely word-finally after a palatal, e, i merge as [ɪ] but a, o merge as [ǝ]: s'ém'a [ˈsʲemʲə] "seed".
  • Obstruents are devoiced word-finally, and agree in voicing in a cluster before another obstruent: muž [muʂ] "husband", vs'o [fsʲɵ] "everything", vokzál [vɐɡˈzal] "railway station". But v does not trigger voicing of preceding obstruent, nor is it devoiced.
  • The reflexive suffix -s'a and reflexive infinitive -t'-s'a are pronounced without palatalization, i.e. as if written -sa and -t-sa.

Capsule summary of Bulgarian pronunciation[edit]

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • Stressed ǝ is actually [ɤ]; unstressed a and ǝ tend to merge as [ɐ].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian.

Capsule summary of Czech pronunciation[edit]

  • á, é, í etc. indicates vowel length.
  • ů [uː] < . ou [oʊ̯] < .
  • h [ɦ], ch [x].
  • č [tʃ], š [ʃ], ž [ʒ], ř [r̝] (a palatal fricative trill, sounding a bit like [rʑ]).
  • ď [ɟ], ť [c], ň [ɲ]. Also indicated by d, t, n before i, í or ě.
  • y = i but indicates normal rather than palatal pronunciation after d t n.
  • ě = short e but signals palatal nature of previous consonant: dě, tě, ně = ďe, ťe, ňe; vě, fě, bě, pě = vje, fje, bje, pje; = mňe.
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian. ř after obstruent is itself devoiced rather than trigger voicing: přímý [pr̝̊iːmiː] "straight".

Capsule summary of Polish pronunciation[edit]

  • Retroflex consonants: sz [ʂ], cz [t͡ʂ], ż [ʐ], rz [ʐ] < (as in Czech), [d͡ʐ].
  • Alveolopalatal consonants: ś or si [ɕ], ć or ci [t͡ɕ], ź or zi [ʑ], or dzi [d͡ʑ], ń or ni [ɲ].
  • All consonants are palatalized before i. Note that alveolar s, z, n become alveolopalatal when palatalized, absorbing the i before another vowel: chodzić [ˈxɔd͡ʑit͡ɕ] "to walk", siedzieć [ˈɕɛd͡ʑɛt͡ɕ] "to sit".
  • h or ch [x], w [v], ł [w].
  • y [ɨ], ó [u] < *, ę [ɛ̃], ą [ɔ̃].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian and Czech. However, w and rz do not voice a preceding voiceless obstruent, but instead are devoiced: kwiat [kfʲat] "flower", przyjść [pʂɨjɕt͡ɕ] "to come" < *prʲijtʲ (cf. Russian pr'ijt'í).

Capsule summary of Serbo-Croatian pronunciation[edit]

  • Accents: á (long rising), à (short rising), â (long falling), ȁ (short falling), ā (length in unstressed syllable), ã (long rising in Chakavian dialect = Common Slavic neoacute).
  • š [ʃ], č [tʃ], ž [ʒ], [dʒ], ć [tɕ], đ [dʑ], nj [ɲ], lj [ʎ].
  • Russian-style obstruent voicing/devoicing does not occur.

Dialectal differentiation[edit]

After the three palatalizations of Proto-Slavic, dialectal variation became more apparent. Some dialects (such as Proto-East Slavic), applied the second regressive palatalization across an intervening *v.[15]

  • Russian: *gwojzda > *gwězda > zvězda > [zʲvʲɪˈzda] ('star')
  • Polish: *gwojzda > *gwězda > gwiazda > [ˈɡvʲazda] ('star')

Also, the realization of the palatalizations' sibilants varied a little amongst dialects. Belić (1921) argues that the phonetic character of the palatalizations was uniform throughout Common Slavic and that West Slavic languages developed *š later on by analogy.[16] In all dialects (except for Lechitic), [dz] was deaffricated to [z]:[15]

The final cutoff point for the Proto-Slavic period was the change of *ě to *a after palatal consonants and *j, which then created *ča/*ka contrasts.[17] This, and the shortening and elision of weak yers (*ь/ĭ and *ъ/ŭ) (see Havlík's law) that created newly formed closed syllables[18] ended the period of syllabic synharmony characteristic of Common Slavic.

For many Common Slavic dialects—including most of West Slavic, all but the northernmost portions of East Slavic, and some western parts of South Slavic— *g lenited from a voiced velar plosive to a voiced velar fricative ([ɡ] > [ɣ]). Because this change was not universal and because it did not occur in a number of East Slavic dialects (such as Belarussian and South Russian) until after the application of Havlík's law, Shevelov (1977) calls into question early projections of this change and postulates three independent instigations of lenition, dating the earliest to before 900 AD and the latest to the early thirteenth century.[19]

Because the reflexes for the nasal vowels *ę and *ǫ differ so widely, it's very likely that their phonetic value in Late Proto-Slavic was not uniform.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "adder"
  2. ^ "venomous snake, adder"
  3. ^ "sheepskin coat"
  4. ^ "braid, plait"
  5. ^ "braid, mane"
  6. ^ "back"
  7. ^ "entrails, eggs"
  8. ^ "manage"; "know" (obs.)
  9. ^ "bring back"
  10. ^ "pilgrimage, journey"
  11. ^ "woods"
  12. ^ "red-haired, ginger"
  13. ^ "dark red"
  14. ^ "angry"
  15. ^ a b Channon (1971:9)
  16. ^ Belić (1921:31)
  17. ^ Channon (1971:12)
  18. ^ Bethin (1997:13)
  19. ^ Shevelov (1977:137, 145)
  20. ^ Schenkdar (2002:74)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Belić, Aleksandar (1921), "Најмлађа (Трећа) Промена Задњенепчаних Сугласника k, g и h у Прасловенском Језику", Јужнословенски Филолог II: 18–39 
  • Bethin, Christina Yurkiw (1998), Slavic Prosody: Language Change and Phonological Theory, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59148-1 
  • Channon, Robert (1972), On the Place of the Progressive Palatalization of Velars in the Relative Chronology of Slavic, The Hague: Mouton 
  • Lehr-Spławiński, Tadeusz (1957), "Z dziejów języka prasłowiańskiego (Urywek z większej całości)", Езиковедски Изследвания В Чест На Академик Стефан Младенов (Sofia) 
  • Schenkar, Alexander M. (2002), "Proto-Slavonic", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G., The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 60–124, ISBN 0-415-28078-8 
  • Shevelov, George Y. (1977), "On the Chronology of h and the New g in Ukrainian", Harvard Ukrainian Studies, vol 1 (2), Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, pp. 137–52