Tangential polygon

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A tangental trapezoid

In Euclidean geometry, a tangential polygon, also known as a circumscribed polygon, is a convex polygon that contains an inscribed circle (also called an incircle). This is a circle that is tangent to each of the polygon's sides. The dual polygon of a tangential polygon is a cyclic polygon, which has a circumscribed circle passing through each of its vertices.

All triangles are tangential, as are all regular polygons with any number of sides. A well-studied group of tangential polygons are the tangential quadrilaterals, which include the rhombi.

Characterizations[edit]

A convex polygon has an incircle if and only if all of its internal angle bisectors are concurrent. This common point is the incenter (the center of the incircle).[1]

There exists a tangential polygon of n sequential sides a1, ..., an if and only if the system of equations

x_1+x_2=a_1,\quad x_2+x_3=a_2,\quad \ldots,\quad x_n+x_1=a_n

has a solution (x1, ..., xn) in positive reals.[2] If such a solution exists, then x1, ..., xn are the tangent lengths of the polygon (the lengths from the vertices to the points where the incircle is tangent to the sides).

Uniqueness and non-uniqueness[edit]

If the number n of sides is odd, then for any given set of sidelengths a_1, \dots , a_n satisfying the existence criterion above there is only one tangential polygon. But if n is even there are an infinitude of them.[3]:p. 389 For example, in the quadrilateral case where all sides are equal we can have a rhombus with any value of the acute angles, and all rhombi are tangential to an incircle.

Inradius[edit]

If the n sides of a tangential polygon are a1, ..., an, the inradius (radius of the incircle) is[4]

r=\frac{K}{s}=\frac{2K}{\sum_{i=1}^n a_i}

where K is the area of the polygon and s is the semiperimeter. (Since all triangles are tangential, this formula applies to all triangles.)

Other properties[edit]

  • For a tangential polygon with an odd number of sides, all sides are equal if and only if all angles are equal (so the polygon is regular). A tangential polygon with an even number of sides has all sides equal if and only if the alternate angles are equal (that is, angles A, C, E, ... are equal, and angles B, D, F, ... are equal).[5]
  • In a tangential polygon with an even number of sides, the sum of the odd numbered sides is equal to the sum of the even numbered sides.[2]

Tangential triangle[edit]

While all triangles are tangential to some circle, a triangle is called the tangential triangle of a reference triangle if the tangencies of the tangential triangle with the circle are also the vertices of the reference triangle.

Tangential quadrilateral[edit]

Tangential hexagon[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Owen Byer, Felix Lazebnik and Deirdre Smeltzer, Methods for Euclidean Geometry, Mathematical Association of America, 2010, p. 77.
  2. ^ a b Dušan Djukić, Vladimir Janković, Ivan Matić, Nikola Petrović, The IMO Compendium, Springer, 2006, p. 561.
  3. ^ Hess, Albrecht (2014), "On a circle containing the incenters of tangential quadrilaterals", Forum Geometricorum 14: 389–396 .
  4. ^ Alsina, Claudi and Nelsen, Roger, Icons of Mathematics. An exploration of twenty key images, Mathematical Association of America, 2011, p. 125.
  5. ^ De Villiers, Michael. "Equiangular cyclic and equilateral circumscribed polygons," Mathematical Gazette 95, March 2011, 102–107.