A regular hendecagon
|Edges and vertices||11|
|Symmetry group||Dihedral (D11), order 2×11|
|Internal angle (degrees)||≈147.273°|
|Properties||convex, cyclic, equilateral, isogonal, isotoxal|
In geometry, a hendecagon (also undecagon or endecagon) is an 11-sided polygon. (The name hendecagon, from Greek hendeka "eleven" and gon– "corner", is often preferred to the hybrid undecagon, whose first part is formed from Latin undecim "eleven".)
A regular hendecagon is not constructible with compass and straightedge. Because 11 is not a Pierpont prime, construction of a regular hendecagon is still impossible even with the usage of an angle trisector.
Close approximations to the regular hendecagon can be constructed, however. For instance, the ancient Greek mathematicians approximated the side length of a hendecagon inscribed in a unit circle as being 14/25 units long. The animation below shows another approximation.
Use in coinage
The Canadian dollar coin, the loonie, is similar to, but not exactly, a regular hendecagonal prism, as are the Indian 2-rupee coin and several other lesser-used coins of other nations. The cross-section of a loonie is actually a Reuleaux hendecagon.
The hendecagon shares the same set of 11 vertices with four regular hendecagrams:
- 10-simplex Can be seen as a complete graph in a regular hendecagonal orthogonal projection
- Haldeman, Cyrus B. (1922), "Construction of the regular undecagon by a sextic curve", Discussions, American Mathematical Monthly 29 (10), JSTOR 2299029.
- Loomis, Elias (1859), Elements of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry: With Their Applications to Mensuration, Surveying, and Navigation, Harper, p. 65.
- Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham (1877), Errors of speech and of spelling, London: W. Tegg and co., p. iv.
- Hendecagon – from Wolfram MathWorld
- McClain, Kay (1998), Glencoe mathematics: applications and connections, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, p. 357, ISBN 9780028330549.
- As Gauss proved, a polygon with a prime number p of sides can be constructed if and only if p − 1 is a power of two, not true for 11. See Kline, Morris (1990), Mathematical Thought From Ancient to Modern Times 2, Oxford University Press, pp. 753–754, ISBN 9780199840427.
- Heath, Sir Thomas Little (1921), A History of Greek Mathematics, Vol. II: From Aristarchus to Diophantus, The Clarendon Press, p. 329.
- Mossinghoff, Michael J. (2006), "A $1 problem" (PDF), American Mathematical Monthly 113 (5): 385–402, JSTOR 27641947
- Cuhaj, George S.; Michael, Thomas (2012), 2013 Standard Catalog of World Coins 2001 to Date, Krause Publications, p. 402, ISBN 9781440229657.
- Cuhaj, George S.; Michael, Thomas (2011), Unusual World Coins (6th ed.), Krause Publications, pp. 23, 222, 233, 526, ISBN 9781440217128.
- Properties of an Undecagon (hendecagon) With interactive animation
- Weisstein, Eric W., "Hendecagon", MathWorld.