Telugu castes

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According to Manusmriti & "Dharmashasthras", the Ancient Hindu society was classified into four castes, or "Varnas."

Those castes or Varnas are as follows:

  1. Brahmins
  2. Kshatriyas
  3. Vaishyas
  4. Shudras

In the Medieval Ages, most Hindus lived on the Indian subcontinent, and a few lived in Indonesia. There were many castes formed in "Shudra" varna based on occupation or profession. After the independence of India in 1947, a Democracy in India was established and the Indian Constitution was written. Later the government of India classified the total number of castes as follows:

  1. "Forward Castes or OC or General Category" classified by the Government of India: These castes do not qualify for reservations to work in any government sector. Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas are major forward castes, as there are some others who are economically better off because of the estates and agricultural lands that they own.
  2. "Backward Castes or BC or OBC Category" classified by the government of India: These castes constitute half of the population in India and are basically engaged in jobs like farming or fishing. They are qualified for reservations in the government sector in order to improve their economical and social status.[1]
  3. "Scheduled Castes or SC Category" classified by the government of India: These castes are also called "Dalits" because for centuries all other castes had greatly humiliated them, considering them to be untouchable. In order to improve their financial and social status and also protect their dignity, the government of India has given them the highest possible percentage of reservations in government sector jobs by providing the "SC, ST Atrocities" act.
  4. "Scheduled Tribe or ST Category" classified by the government of India: These people constitute a smaller fraction of the population, and they lack education and financial status as they live in forest and tribal regions. In order to improve their financial and social status and also protect their dignity, the government of India has given them the highest possible percentage of reservations in government sector jobs by providing the "SC, ST Atrocities" act.

The Hindu Telugu society is classified into a number of castes based on occupation. The Telugu Castes in Andhra Pradesh are listed below.

Forward castes[edit]

Forward castes do not qualify for government reservations. Forward castes make up about 26% (NFHS 2007 survey) of the state population with the majority being Kapus (Balija, Telaga and Naidu) caste at 15% (although in some regions of the state they are classified as OBC). 'Note:For different castes and their occupations refer the following link published by Overseas Development Institute in 2002:"http://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/2692.pdf"'

  1. List of Forward Castes:
    1. Brahmin
    2. Kshatriya
    3. Vaishya
    4. Kamma
    5. Kapu
    6. Reddy
    7. Velama


Backward Castes[edit]

Some castes are classified as backward castes due to financial, educational and/or political discrimination.[2] People in these castes have government reservations in public sector employment and education to help uplift their status. They are predominantly artisans, small scale farmers and traders. Backward castes make up about 50% of the population of India.[1] Note: The State Government of Andhra Pradesh classified a list of Backward Castes and their traditional occupations.

  1. Handwork & cultivation
    1. Padmashali (handloom / textile weavers - cotton, silk weaving, lotus stem silk weavers)
      1. Kaikala
      2. Karna Bhaktulu
      3. Pattusali (silk weavers)
      4. Senapathulu
      5. Thogata Sali
    2. Thogataveera
    3. Veerakshatriya Swakulasali
    4. Mudiraju Muthuracha (cultivators)
    5. Tenugollu (chieftains of village)
    6. Salivahana / Kummari caste (potter)
    7. Surya Balija (greater than other backward castes)
      1. Ganika (dancer, singer, poet)
  2. Shaman
    1. Jogi (religious mendicant and pedlar)
    2. Joshinadiwalas (astrologer and village priest)
    3. Bhavasara Kshatriya (cloth traders)
    4. Arya Kshatriya
    5. Bukka in Telangana region {traders in devotional materials}
    6. Srisayana Segidis
  3. Warrior/Hunters
    1. Boyar caste/Boya
    2. Boya/Nayak/Naidu
    3. Boya Talwar/Talari
    4. Jettappa/malluga jetty
  4. Traders
    1. Perika /Puragiri Kshatriya/Perika Balija (agriculturists, peasants, landlords, traders)
    2. Gavara
    3. Krishna Balija (business, agriculturists, peasants)
    4. Dasari (agriculturists, traders)
    5. Dabari
    6. Sadhuchetty
    7. Poosala [business, agriculturists, peasants)
  5. Weaving
    1. Achukatlavandlu
    2. Dudekula
    3. Devanga (silk weavers)
    4. Jandra
    5. Kurni
    6. Neelakanthi (handloom weavers)
    7. Koshti
    8. Nakkala
    9. Patkar
      1. Khatri
  6. Artisans
    1. Vishwakarma
      1. Kammari (blacksmith)
      2. Vadrangi (carpenter)
      3. Kanchari (brass/bronze smith)
      4. Silpi (caste) (stonemason)
      5. Kamsali (goldsmith)
    2. Narasimha caste
  7. Ayyaraka Patrudu (merchant, farmer, soldiers, drivers)
    1. Gowda or Goud, Goud
  8. Alcohol Brewing
    1. Bhandari
    2. Edigas
    3. Idiga
    4. Kalal, Kalace
    5. Setty Balijas
    6. Yatha
  9. Reddirajulu
    1. Ratta
    2. Reddiar
    3. Reddy
    4. Rathore
    5. Rathi
    6. Rawat
    7. Chattar
    8. Ror
    9. Rajput
    10. Rashtrakuta
    11. suryavanshi
    12. suryavanshi kshatriya
  10. Yadav
    1. Yadav
    2. Golla
    3. Kuruba
    4. Kuruma
    5. Hatkar
  11. Nayeebramhana(Ayurvedic doctors,Surgeons,Musicians,Barbers)
    1. Niyoginayeebramhana
    2. nayee
    3. Mangali, Mangala
    4. Manthri
    5. Nai (caste)
    6. Nayi-Brahmin
  12. Nayee kapu
  13. Nayee balija
  14. Nayee telaga
  15. Bamboo Workers
    1. Kandra
    2. Medara (Mahendra)
  16. Basket Weaving
    1. Gundla
      1. Goondla
    2. Gadaba (forest tribe)
      1. Godaba
    3. Medari
  17. Meat Selling
    1. Aare Katika (were warriors during Shivaji Period)
    2. Katika
  18. Cobbler
    1. Chirakara
    2. Giniyar
    3. Muchi
    4. Nakhas
  19. Ceremony singers
    1. Jakkali
  20. watch&ward
    1. Katipapala
  21. Cotton Spining
    1. Dudekula
    2. Laddaf - Muslim
    3. Noor Basha - Muslim
    4. Pinjari - Muslim
  22. Earthen Work
    1. Odde
      1. Oddilu
    2. Uppara
      1. Sagara[disambiguation needed]
  23. Fishermen:
    1. Jalari
    2. Bestha/Besta (Fishermen in Telangana region )
    3. Neyyala
    4. Pattapu
    5. Vada Balija
  24. Mali (vegetable and fruit growers)
  25. Tailors, Dyers
    1. Rangarez (Muslim)
    2. Chippollu
    3. Mera
    4. Meru Darji
  26. Gypsies (Tribal)
    1. Banjara
    2. Kanjara Bhatta
    3. Lambada
    4. Sugalis
    5. Vanjara
    6. Vanjari
  27. Shiva Archka
    1. Tammali
  28. Jingara
  29. Kachi (vegetable-grower)
  30. Nagavaddilu
  31. Nagavasam
    1. Nagavamsa
  32. Oil Pressing
    1. Gandla
    2. Sajjana gandla
    3. Ganiga
    4. Deva Thilakula
    5. Teli Kula
  33. Sandalwood Workers
    1. Agaru
  34. Vaddi (stonecutters and well-diggers)
    1. Vaddera
    2. Vaddelu
    3. Golla naicker

See also[edit]

References[edit]

http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/SC%20Lists.pdf