Template:Harvcol

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Template Harvcol creates a short author-date citation with a one-directional link to the first matching citation template on the same page.

Usage

In the body of the article:

{{harvcol | last name(s) of author(s) | year | p=page number or pp=page range or loc=other location }}

If more than four authors, truncate the list to the first four.

In the references section (or in an earlier footnote):

{{cite book or cite journal, etc | ref=harv | ... other appropriate parameters ... }}

or

{{citation | ... other appropriate parameters ... }} (|ref=harv is not required when using {{Citation}})

Parameters[edit]

Up to four authors can be given as parameters. (If there are more than 4 authors only the first 4 should be listed. See #Large numbers of authors, below.) The last required parameter is the year of publication.

(All these examples have links which operate. Click on highlighted text.)

Markup Renders as
{{harvcol|Smith|2005|p=25}}
(Smith 2005:25)
{{harvcol|Smith|Jones|2005| p=25}}}
(Smith & Jones 2005:25)
{{harvcol|Smith|Jones|Brown|2005| p=25}}}
(Smith, Jones & Brown 2005:25)
{{harvcol|Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|2005| p=25}}}
(Smith et al. 2005:25)

The optional parameters |p=, |pp= and |loc= can be used to indicate the location in the source. All of the Harvard citation templates use the same parameters to indicate page numbers or other locations in the text.

Markup Renders as
{{harvcol|Smith|2005|p=25}}
(Smith 2005:25)
{{harvcol|Smith|2005|pp=25–26}}
(Smith 2005:25–26)
{{harvcol|Smith|2005|loc=chpt. 3}}
(Smith 2005, chpt. 3)
{{harvcol|Smith|2005|loc=section 7}}
(Smith 2005, section 7)

The optional parameter |ref= is used to specify the reference value that links the short citation to the full citation. This parameter is usually not necessary and it is more common to use {{sfnRef}} or {{harvid}} in the reference section. If you specify |ref=none no hyperlink is created. Note that, if one does not want the link, it is always possible to simply not use the template. (Not available in {{sfn}} and similar templates.)

Aliases[edit]

The parameters |page= |pages= and |Ref= exist as aliases for |p= |pp= and |ref= respectively.

Reference section[edit]

The links in the Harvard citation templates can find anchors in Citation Style 1, Citation Style 2 and similar templates. To make the anchor, parameter |ref=harv must be set. This is not necessary for {{citation}}, but is normally necessary for the others.

Markup Renders as
==References==
* {{citation
 | title = Smith's paper
 |... }}
* {{cite web
 | title = Smith & Jones website
 | ...
 | ref = harv }}
* {{cite news
 | title = Article by Smith, Jones and Brown
 | ...
 | ref = harv }}
* {{cite journal
 | title= Smith, Jones, Brown and Black's Paper
 | ...
 | ref = harv }}
References
  • Smith, John (2005), Smith's paper 
  • Smith, John; Jones, Sam (2005). "Smith & Jones website". 
  • Smith, John; Jones, Sam; Brown, Tom (2005). "Article by Smith, Jones and Brown". Big Urban Newspaper. 
  • Smith; Jones; Brown; Black (2005). "Smith, Jones, Brown and Black's Paper". Important Journal. 

Author-date citation templates[edit]

There are several templates used to create in-text citations; they differ in the use and placement of parenthesis, in the separator before the page or location and in whether a terminal full stop (period) is present:

In-text templates
Templates Aliases Example
{{Harvard citation no brackets}} {{harvnb}} Smith 2006, p. 25
{{Harvard citation}} {{harv}} (Smith 2006, p. 25)
{{Harvard citation text}} {{harvtxt}} Smith (2006, p. 25)
{{Harvcoltxt}} Smith (2006:25)
{{Harvcol}} (Smith 2006:25)
{{Harvcolnb}} Smith 2006:25
{{Harvard citations}} ({{harvs}}) John Smith (2006, 2007) (and many other forms).
{{Shortened footnote template}} {{sfn}} Article text.[1]
  1. ^ Smith 2006, p. 25.
{{Sfnp}} Article text.[1]
  1. ^ Smith (2006), p. 25.
{{Sfnm}} Article text.[1]

Full citations can be created manually or by templates:


All of these templates have the same parameters and basic functionality. This page describes all of them except the parameters of {{sfnm}} and {{harvs}}; please see their documentation pages. Editors editing one of these templates are requested to make parallel changes to the other versions.

Applications[edit]

Harvard citation: {{harv}}[edit]

See also: Parenthetical referencing (in Wikipedia:Citing sources)

Template {{harv}} creates a parenthetical reference with a link to the full citation in the references section at the bottom of the article.

Markup Renders as
Article text {{harv|Smith|2006|p=25}}.

==References==
* {{cite book
 | ref = harv
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | title = Smith's book
 | year = 2006
}}
Article text (Smith 2006, p. 25).
References
  • Smith, John (2006). Smith's book. 

Shortened footnote: {{sfn}} or {{harvnb}}[edit]

See also: Shortened footnotes (in Wikipedia:Citing sources)

Template {{harvnb}} inside a <ref> span can be used to create a Shortened footnotes that is linked to the full citation at the bottom of the article. Template {{sfn}} (without the use of <ref>) has the same effect and it also combines identical footnotes automatically.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=25}}
More article text.{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=25}}
Still more article text.{{sfn|Smith|2007|p=26}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
 | ref = harv
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | year = 2007
 | title = Smith's Book
}}
Article text.[1]

More article text.[1] Still more article text.[2]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Smith 2007, p. 25.
  2. ^ Smith 2007, p. 26.
References
  • Smith, John (2007). Smith's Book. 
Article text.<ref name=Smith2008p25>{{harvnb|Smith|2008|p=25}}.</ref>
More article text.<ref name=Smith2008p25/>
Still more article text.<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2008|p=26}}.</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
 | ref = harv
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | year = 2008
 | title = Smith's Book
}}
Article text.[1]

More article text.[1] Still more article text.[2]


Notes
  1. ^ a b Smith 2008, p. 25.
  2. ^ Smith 2008, p. 26.
References
  • Smith, John (2008). Smith's Book. 

In text attribution: {{harvtxt}}[edit]

See also In-text attribution (in Wikipedia:Citing sources)

Template {{harvtxt}} can be used to link an in-text attribution to the full citation at the bottom of the page.

Markup Renders as
According to {{harvtxt|Smith|2009|p=25}} ...

==References==
* {{citation
 | last = Smith | first = John
 | year = 2009
 | title = Smith's Book
}}
According to Smith (2009, p. 25) ...
References
  • Smith, John (2009), Smith's Book 

Bundled citation: {{harvnb}} or {{sfnm}}[edit]

See also: Bundling citations (in Wikipedia:Citing sources)

Template {{harvnb}} can be used to bundle citations. {{sfnm}} also produces bundled citations.

Markup Renders as
Article text ({{harvnb|Smith|2010|p=25}}; {{harvnb|Jones|2010}}).
Article text (Smith 2010, p. 25; Jones 2010).
Article text.<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2010|p=25}}; {{harvnb|Jones|2010}}</ref>
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2010, p. 25; Jones 2010

Article text.{{sfnm|la1=Smith|y1=2010|p1=25|la2=Jones|y2=2010}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2010, p. 25; Jones 2010

==References==
* {{cite book | last = Smith ... Smith's book }}
* {{cite book | last = Jones ... Jones' book }}
References
  • Smith, John (2010). Smith's book. 
  • Jones, Mary (2010). Jones' book. 

Note that {{sfn}} is inappropriate for bundled citations; use {{harvnb}} or {{sfnm}}.

More exotic Harvard citations {{harvid}} or {{harvs}}[edit]

More exotic Harvard citations can be constructed using the {{harvs}} template, such as multiple papers by the same author, using both the first and last names, links to articles about the author, and others. Any kind of unusual link can also be constructed using the idiom [[#{{harvid|parameters}}|link name]].

Markup Renders as
The theory was developed by {{harvs|txt|first=F. J.|last=Murray|author1-link=F. J. Murray|first2=J.|last2=von Neumann|author2-link=John von Neumann|year=1936|year2=1937|year3=1943}}.
The theory was developed by F. J. Murray and J. von Neumann (1936, 1937, 1943).
The theory was developed by [[F. J. Murray]] and [[John von Neumann|J. von Neumann]] ([[#{{harvid|Murray|von Neumann|1936}}|1936]],[[#{{harvid|Murray|von Neumann|1937}}|1937]],[[#{{harvid|Murray|von Neumann|1943}}|1943]]).
The theory was developed by F. J. Murray and J. von Neumann (1936, 1937, 1943).
== References ==
* {{citation | last1=Murray | year = 1936 | ...}}
* {{citation | last1=Murray | year = 1937 | ...}}
* {{citation | last1=Murray | year = 1943 | ...}}
References
  • Murray, F. J.; von Neumann, John (1936), Mathematics Paper 
  • Murray, F. J.; von Neumann, John (1937), Another Mathematics Paper 
  • Murray, F. J.; von Neumann, John (1943), Yet Another Mathematics Paper 

Some articles use this idiom [[#CITEREFid | link name ]]. See notes on implementation details below.

Variations[edit]

Using colon format: {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}}, {{harvcoltxt}}[edit]

Templates {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}}, {{harvcoltxt}} use a colon to indicate the page number(s) or location.

Markup Renders as
{{harvcol|Smith|2011|p=25}}
(Smith 2011:25)
{{harvcolnb|Smith|2011|p=25}}
Smith 2011:25
{{harvcoltxt|Smith|2011|p=25}}
Smith (2011:25)
{{harvcol|Smith|2011|p=25–26}}
(Smith 2011:25–26)
{{harvcol|Smith|2011|loc=chpt. 3}}
(Smith 2011:chpt. 3)

Parenthesis around the year: {{sfnp}}[edit]

Template {{sfnp}} puts parenthesis around the year. Compare the two examples.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfnp|Smith|2011}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
Article text.[1]
Notes

Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
Article text.[1]
Notes

Additional comments or quotes: |ps=[edit]

Paramater |ps= can be used to add quotes or additional comments. Note that this effect can also be achieved using {{harvnb}}. The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year and location.

Markup Renders as
Some information.{{sfn|Smith|2011|p=2|ps=: "A quote verifying the information."}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
Some information.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 2: "A quote verifying the information."

"A quote in a secondary source."{{sfn|Smith|2011|p=2|ps=, quoted in {{harvtxt|Jones|2010|p=343}}}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
"A quote in a secondary source."[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 2, quoted in Jones (2010, p. 343)

Some information.<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2011|p=2}}: "A quote verifying the information."</ref>
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
Some information.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 2: "A quote verifying the information."

No closing period: |ps=[edit]

Using |ps= in {{sfn}} removes the final period. Compare the two examples. Suppressing the default period (full stop) ensures consistency with Citation style 2, as produced by {{Citation}}, which does not use a trailing period (full stop) in notes. The postscript is only effective the first time {{sfn}} is used for a particular author, year and location.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011|ps=}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
Article text.[1]
Notes

Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011}}
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
Article text.[1]
Notes

Adding a URL for the page or location[edit]

If a specific link to the page or section is available, a URL can be added to the location or page number.

Markup Renders as
{{harv|Smith|2011|loc=[http://en.wikipedia.org chpt 3]}}
(Smith 2011, chpt 3)
{{harv|Smith|2011|loc=[http://en.wikipedia.org &sect;7]}}
(Smith 2011, §7)
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2011|p=[http://en.wikipedia.org 3]}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book | last = Smith | year = 2011 | title = Smith's
other book }}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2011, p. 3.
References
  • Smith (2011). Smith's other book. 

Possible issues[edit]

Wikilink to citation does not work[edit]

If nothing happens when you click on the highlighted wikilink from a Harvard style citation to a full citation at the bottom of the page, there are several possible solutions. If:

  1. The correct citation does not appear at the bottom of the article. Solution: Find the source (it may be copied from an article on a similar subject), and check that it verifies the text. If the source can't be found, tag the citation with {{citation not found}}.
  2. The correct citation appears at the bottom of the article, and
    1. The Harvard citation uses a template (such as {{sfn}} or {{harv}}):
      1. The citation uses a template from the list at Citation Style 1:
        1. The name is spelled differently here than the citation. Solution: check the source for the correct spelling.
        2. The year is different here than the citation. Solution: check the source for the correct year.
        3. The citation template requires |ref=harv (not needed for {{citation}}, but is needed for most other Citation Style 1 templates). Solution: Add |ref=harv.
        4. The template has a |date= field and no |year= field, but the format of the |date= field is unusual. Solution: Try to fix the date. If the link still does not work, add |year= to the citation template. (It's okay if it has both.)
        5. The citation does not have an author's last name. Solution: check that |ref={{harvid}} is set correctly (see below).
      2. The citation uses a Citation Style Vancouver template. Solution: check that |harvid= is set correctly (see below).
      3. The citation uses a template that does not support |ref= (See Wikipedia:Citation templates and reference anchors). Solution: An anchor can be created using {{wikicite|id={{harvid|args}}|reference={{citation}}}}.
      4. The citation does not use a template:
        1. It has no wikicode to create an anchor. Solution: If {{cite *}} citation templates are used liberally throughout the article, then reformat the citation with the appropriate {{cite *}} template and set the |ref= appropriately. Otherwise consult with local editors on the talk page about how to proceed. Either add {{cite *}} templates and {{harv}} templates, or remove all templates, depending on what local editors prefer. A few articles use {{wikicite}} to create an anchor as an alternative to standard templates.
        2. Uses a <cite> span to create an anchor. Solution: remove the cite span (these are deprecated) and proceed as with the previous.
        3. Uses {{wikicite}}. Solution: Check that |id={{harvid}} matches.
    2. If the Harvard citation uses a handwritten wikilink, such as [[#Reference-Smith2006|Smith (2006)]]
      1. The citation uses a citation template which supports |ref= (See Wikipedia:Citation templates and reference anchors). Solution: Check that |ref= is set to a matching id.
      2. Otherwise, check that the reference has {{wikicite|ref=id|reference=citation}} with a matching id.

Templates that have broken wikilinks using these templates are added to the category Category:All articles with broken links to citations.

More than one work in a year[edit]

Where there is a need to cite more than one work by the same author published in the same year, the standard way to disambiguate such works is to add a letter suffix after the year element of the {{sfn}} template (e.g. {{sfn|Smith|2006a}} and {{sfn|Smith|2006b}}).

CS1 templates that use Module:Citation/CS1[edit]

When{{sfn}} is used with Citation Style 1 templates that use the Module:Citation/CS1 engine,[a] a year-suffix letter may be added to |date= for all accepted date formats except year initial numeric (ISO 8601). It is not necessary to include both |year= and |date= (if both are included, |year= is ignored).

|date=2013a – simple year only dates
|date=Jan 2013b or |date=Winter 2013b – month or season and year dates
|date=9 November 2013b or |date=November 9, 2013b – full dates
|date=June–July 2013c or |date=Winter–Spring 2013c – month or season ranges and year dates
|date=c. 2013d – circa year dates
|date=n.d.e – no date (n.d.)
|date=2013x-11-09 – not supported
Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn |Smith|1993a| p=25}}
More text.{{sfn |Smith|1993b| p=32}}

==Notes==
{{reflist |close=1}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
|last=Smith
|first=Karen
|date=January 1993a
|title=Smith's first paper
|journal=Important Journal
|ref=harv
}}
* {{cite journal
|last=Smith
|first=Karen
|date=Spring–Summer 1993b
|title=Smith's second paper
|journal=Another Important Journal
|ref =harv
}}
Article text.[1]

More text.[2]

Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1993a, p. 25.
  2. ^ Smith 1993b, p. 32.
References
  • Smith, Karen (January 1993a). "Smith's first paper". Important Journal. 
  • Smith, Karen (Spring–Summer 1993b). "Smith's second paper". Another Important Journal. 

CS1 templates that use citation/core[edit]

For those templates that use {{citation/core}},[b] limitations in the template handling software require a work-around. For authors who have published more than one work in the same year, use both |date= and |year= in the citation template. The |date= parameter value will be displayed in the rendered citation and the |year= value will be used to create the CITEREF anchor. Add a lowercase letter suffix to the |year= value (e.g. |year=2006a and |year=2006b). Use {{sfn|Jones|2006a}} and {{sfn|Jones|2006b}} in the article body. Letter suffixes added to the |date= value is ignored.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn |Jones|1993a| p=25}}
More text.{{sfn |Jones|1993b| p=32}}

==Notes==
{{reflist|close=1}}

==References==
* {{cite speech
|last=Jones
|first=Robert
|date=April 1993
|year=1993a
|title=Jones's first speech
|event=Important Conference
|ref=harv
}}
* {{cite speech
|last=Jones
|first=Robert
|date=June 1993
|year=1993b
|title=Jones's second speech
|event=Another Important Conference
|ref =harv
}}
Article text.[1]

More text.[2]

Notes
  1. ^ Jones 1993a, p. 25.
  2. ^ Jones 1993b, p. 32.
References
  • Jones, Robert (April 1993). Jones's first speech (Speech). Important Conference. 
  • Jones, Robert (June 1993). Jones's second speech (Speech). Another Important Conference. 

Large numbers of authors[edit]

Only the first four authors are required by the template. Listing more is not supported. It also possible to use the |ref={{harvid}} in the citation template, which allows a more concise citation in the article text.

Markup Renders as
Article text
{{harv |Smith|Jones|Brown|Black|1994| p=25}}.

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith
| last2 = Jones
| last3 = Brown
| last4 = Black
| last5 = Davis
| last6 = Martinez
| last7 = Hsu
| year= 1994
| title= Scientific paper written by
dozens of scientists
| journal = Important Journal
| ref = harv
}}
Article text (Smith et al. 1994, p. 25).
References
  • Smith; Jones; Brown; Black; Davis; Martinez; Hsu (1994). "Scientific paper written by dozens of scientists". Important Journal. 
Article text {{harv |Smith et al.|1995| p=25}}.

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith
| last2 = Jones
| last3 = Brown
| last4 = Black
| last5 = Davis
| last6 = Martinez
| last7 = Hsu
| year= 1995
| title= Another paper by even more scientists
| journal = Important Journal
| ref = {{harvid|Smith et al.|1995}}
}}
Article text (Smith et al. 1995, p. 25).
References
  • Smith; Jones; Brown; Black; Davis; Martinez; Hsu (1995). "Another paper by even more scientists". Important Journal. 

No author name in citation template[edit]

Some sources do not have a single author with a last name, such as a magazine article or a report from a government institution. There is no consensus (in Wikipedia or among citation styles) about how to format author-date citations to works that do not have a specific author. Several choices are:

  1. For a newspaper or periodical you may use the name of the paper and the date.
  2. For a publication by an institution, use either:
    1. The initials of the institution
    2. The name of the institution
  3. Alternatively, some style guides recommend using the title of the article.
  4. Other style guides recommend using "Anonymous" or "Anon."

An article should adopt one of these styles consistently. Using |ref={{harvid}} in the citation template can handle these cases.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn |BGI|1996|p=429}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite book
| title = Important Book
| year = 1996
| publisher = Big Government Institution
| ref = {{harvid|BGI|1996}}
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ BGI 1996, p. 429.
References
  • Important Book. Big Government Institution. 1996. 
Article text.{{sfn |Popular Magazine|1996|p=29}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite magazine
| magazine = Popular Magazine
| title = An Article by an Anonymous Author
| year = 1996
| ref = {{harvid|Popular Magazine|1996}}
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Popular Magazine 1996, p. 29.
References
  • "An Article by an Anonymous Author". Popular Magazine. 1996. 

Citation has |date= and no |year=[edit]

Either the |year= or |date= of a citation template can be matched – the template logic can extract the year from a full date. If the date parameter is not a full date, then the extraction will fail. If the link does not seem to work, it also possible to set both |date= and |year= parameters. The template will display the date and use the year for the anchor. If only the year is known the |year= field must be used in the citation for the link to work correctly (i.e. |date=2005 may not work correctly). These two examples show a year being successfully extracted from full date.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1997|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| date = 11 May 1997
| title = Smith's 1997 paper
| journal= Important Journal
| ref = harv
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1997, p. 101.
References
  • Smith, Karen (11 May 1997). "Smith's 1997 paper". Important Journal. 
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1998|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite journal
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| date = May 1998
| title = Smith's 1998 paper
| journal= Important Journal
| ref = harv
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1998, p. 101.
References
  • Smith, Karen (May 1998). "Smith's 1998 paper". Important Journal. 

Citation template does not support |ref=harv[edit]

The Citation Style Vancouver family of templates use parameter |ref=harvid to create an anchor for the Harvard citation templates. This must be set to a concatenation of the parameters passed to the Harvard citation template.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1999|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{vcite book
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| year = 1999
| title = Smith's 1999 Book
| harvid = Smith1999
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 1999, p. 101.
References
  • Smith's 1999 Book. 1999.
Article text.{{sfn|Smith|2000|p=101}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{cite thesis
| last = Smith | first = Karen
| date = May 2000
| title = Smith's Thesis
| ref = {{harvid|Smith|2000}}
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Smith 2000, p. 101.
References
  • Smith, Karen (May 2000). Smith's Thesis (Thesis). 

Citation format does not support anchors: {{wikicite}}[edit]

In a few very rare cases, it may be impossible for the citation templates to create an anchor. Either (1) the citation is formatted with a template that does not support the |ref= parameter (such as {{cite report}}) or (2) the source can't be described using our citation templates at all. In these cases, it is possible to use {{wikicite}} to make the anchor. (As of November 2010, there are only approximately 100 articles that require this technique.) It is also possible that (3) local editors would prefer not to use citation templates. In this case, it is important to discuss what the local editors would like to do about the bad links. It is always possible to simply remove {{harv}} or {{sfn}}.

Markup Renders as
Article text.{{sfn |Big Government Agency|1999}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{wikicite
 | reference = {{cite report
 | title=Important Government Report
 | publisher=Big Government Agency
 | year=1999
 }}
 | ref = {{harvid|Big Government Agency|1999}}
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Big Government Agency 1999.
References
  • Important Government Report (Report). Big Government Agency. 1999.
Article text.{{sfn |A particularly unusual citation}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{wikicite
| reference = A source that can't be described
using our citation templates at all.
| ref = {{harvid|A particularly unusual citation}}
}}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ A particularly unusual citation.
References
  • A source that can't be described using our citation templates at all.

It is also possible to use <cite> to achieve the same effect, but this may not be compatible with HTML 5.

Citation has multiple authors and no date[edit]

The templates assume that the last field is the year. Where there are multiple authors and no year the template will form a correct link but will display the last author as if it were a year. To force the displayed text to show all authors as name, the following work around may be used:

Markup Renders as
Article text.<ref>[[#{{harvid|Lane|Singh}}|Lane & Singh]]</ref>

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

==References==
* {{citation
  | last = Lane
  | first = Kieran
  | last2 = Singh
  | first2 = Karun
  | title = Richard Watts
  | work = Richard Watts Charities
  | url = http://www.richardwatts.org.uk/richardwatts1.html
  | accessdate = 21 June 2012
  }}
Article text.[1]
Notes
  1. ^ Lane & Singh
References
  • Lane, Kieran; Singh, Karun, "Richard Watts", Richard Watts Charities, retrieved 21 June 2012 

Recommended style[edit]

The recommended Harvard referencing style potentially uses all four templates. Each automatically generates a hypertext link based on the name(s) and date. Here is an example

Markup Renders as
Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves {{Harv|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}}; yet {{Harvtxt|Einstein|1915}} presented essential equations with notable brevity. The essential ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor ({{Harvnb|Einstein|1915|p=844}}; {{Harvnb|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973|p=41}}).

==References==
*{{Citation
 | last=Misner
 | first=Charles W.
 | last2=Thorne
 | first2=Kip S.
 | first3=John Archibald
 | last3=Wheeler
 | title=Gravitation
 | publisher=W. H. Freeman
 | location = San Francisco
 | date = September 1973
 | isbn = 0-7167-0344-0 }}
*{{Citation
 | last =Einstein
 | first =Albert
 | title =Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)
 | journal =Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften
 | pages =844–847
 | year =1915
}}
Some works on gravitation are so massive they warp spacetime themselves (Misner, Thorne & Wheeler 1973); yet Einstein (1915) presented essential equations with notable brevity. The two ingredients are the curvature tensor and the stress-energy tensor (Einstein 1915, p. 844; Misner, Thorne & Wheeler 1973, p. 41).
References
  • Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (September 1973), Gravitation, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847 

In short:

  1. For a single work with no author in the text (the most common case), use {{Harv}}.
  2. For a single work with the author named in the text, use {{Harvtxt}}.
  3. For multiple works at the same point, use explicit parentheses and {{Harvnb}} separated by semicolons.
  4. For anything more complicated use {{Harvs}}.

Implementation notes[edit]

These templates use two elements: a wikilink in the body of the article, and an anchor in the reference section of the article. Clicking on the wikilink repositions the page at the anchor.

Citation template anchor[edit]

The most common citation templates are Citation Style 1 or Citation Style 2. If |ref=harv is set, then Module:Citation/CS1 and {{Citation/core}} create an anchor <a name="CITEREF"> followed by the concatenation of the following parameters:

  • last or last1 or surname or surname1 or author or author1 or authors,
  • last2 or surname2 or author2,
  • last3 or surname3 or author3,
  • last4 or surname4 or author4,
  • editor-last or editor-surname or editor1-last or editor1-surname or editor or editors,
  • editor2-last or editor2-surname,
  • editor3-last or editor3-surname,
  • editor4-last or editor4-surname,
  • year.

Template {{Citation}} sets |ref=harv as the default.

This covers the most common templates. Information about all the templates is available at Wikipedia:Citation templates and reference anchors.

Please note that the above list does not include the coauthor parameter, which is ignored in generating the citation's CITEREF anchor. It is recommended that, when used with the harv family templates, citation templates always use the numbered last parameters instead of coauthor so that a more accurate CITEREF anchor may be generated. If coauthor is used, it will not be possible to generate a Harvard citation that displays the authors' names correctly and that generates a link to the correct CITEREF anchor.

Use of the date parameter in place of the year parameter in citation templates is preferred when full dates are known. For {{citation/core}}-based[b] CS1 templates only: the date parameter should not be used to simply encode a year, as this can fail to generate a viable #CITEREF link.

Harvard citation wikilink[edit]

The Harvard citation templates create a wikilink to the anchor. For example {{Harv|Smith|2006|p=25}} produces the link #CITEREFSmith2006 and {{Citation|last=Smith|first=John|date=27 January 2006|title=My Life}} produces the anchor CITEREFSmith2006.

Using CITEREF directly[edit]

A few articles create a custom ID using CITEREF, either in place of the Harvard citation template (e.g. [[#CITEREFSmith2006|(2006)]]) or as a value for |ref= in the citation template. A custom ID must follow these rules:

  • Names are case-sensitive
  • Names may not be purely numeric
  • Names must be unique—you cannot use the same name to define different groups or footnotes
  • Quotes are optional if the only characters used are letters A–Z, a–z, digits 0–9, and the symbols !$%&()*,-.:;<@[]^_`{|}~
  • Inclusion of any other characters, including spaces, requires that the name be enclosed in double straight quotes (")
  • Quote-enclosed names may not include a less-than sign (<) or a double straight quote symbol (")
  • If CITEREF is used, then spaces in the |ref= field must be replaced with underscores
  • Please consider keeping names simple and restricted to the standard English alphabet and numerals.
  • (You may optionally provide names even when the name is not required.)

Examples:

Where cite_name is a name such as the publisher.

{{sfn}}'s ref name[edit]

Template {{sfn}} creates a named footnote, so that identical footnotes are combined automatically. The footnote name begins with FOOTNOTE followed by a concatenation of the arguments to {{sfn}}. E.g.: this template call {{sfn|Smith|2006|p=26}} should have exactly the same functionality as <ref name="FOOTNOTESmith200626">{{Harvnb}}</ref> which, in turn, has the same functionality as <ref name="FOOTNOTESmith200626">[[#CITEREFSmith2006|Smith (2006)]], p. 26</ref>

The call to {{harvnb}} has been subst'ed for quicker load times.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Citation templates using Module:Citation/CS1 are: {{citation}}, {{cite AV media}}, {{cite AV media notes}}, {{cite book}}, {{cite conference}}, {{cite DVD notes}}, {{cite encyclopedia}}, {{cite interview}}, {{cite journal}}, {{cite news}}, {{cite podcast}}, {{cite press release}}, {{cite sign}}, {{cite speech}}, {{cite techreport}}, {{cite thesis}}, and {{cite web}}.
  2. ^ a b Citation templates using {{citation/core}}are: {{cite episode}}, {{cite mailing list}}, {{cite map}}, {{cite newsgroup}}, and {{cite serial}}.