|Terrence James Roberts|
December 3, 1941 |
Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
|African-American Civil Rights Movement|
|Awards||Congressional Gold Medal|
Terrence James Roberts (born December 3, 1941) was one of the Little Rock Nine, a group of African-American students who, in 1957, were the first black students ever to attend classes at Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1999, he and the other people of the Little Rock Nine were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by President Bill Clinton.
Early life and education
Terrence Roberts was born in Little Rock, Arkansas to William L. and Margaret G. Roberts. He first attended segregated schools like Dunbar Junior High School and Horace Mann High School. In 1957, he volunteered to attend the all-white Little Rock Central High School the next fall, helping to desegregate one of the nation's largest schools.
On September 4, 1957, Roberts and eight other African American students (known as the Little Rock Nine) made an unsuccessful attempt to enter Little Rock Central High School. Despite the presence of the National Guard, an angry mob of about 400 surrounded the school.
The National Guard were removed with the protection of the students left to the local police. On September 23, 1957, a mob of about 1000 people surrounded the school as the students attempted to enter. The following day, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent U.S. Army troops to accompany the students to school for protection. The troops were stationed at the school for the entirety of the school year, although they were unable to prevent incidents of violence inside.
College and later life
Roberts continued his education at California State University, Los Angeles and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology in 1967. He received his Master's degree in social welfare from the UCLA School of Social Welfare in 1970, and his Ph.D. in psychology from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, in 1976.
Roberts joined the Antioch University Los Angeles in 1993 and served as core faculty and co-chair of the Master of Arts in Psychology program, before retiring in 2008. He also runs his private psychology practice in Pasadena. In addition, he is CEO of the management-consulting firm, Terrence J. Roberts & Associates.
- This day, History.
- T Roberts, Los Angeles, CA, USA: Antioch University.
- "Americas", News (UK: BBC), January 21, 2009.