The Mummy (1932 film)
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (October 2013)|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Karl Freund|
|Produced by||Carl Laemmle Jr.|
|Written by||John L. Balderston|
Edward van Sloan
|Distributed by||Universal Studios|
The Mummy is a 1932 horror film from Universal Studios directed by Karl Freund and stars Boris Karloff as a revived ancient Egyptian priest. The movie also features Zita Johann, David Manners and Edward Van Sloan.
An ancient Egyptian priest called Imhotep (Boris Karloff) is revived when an archaeological expedition in 1921, led by Sir Joseph Whemple (Arthur Byron), finds Imhotep's mummy. Imhotep had been mummified alive for attempting to resurrect his forbidden lover, the princess Ankh-es-en-amon. Dr. Muller inspects the mummy and exclaims “The viscera were not removed. The usual scar made by the embalmers knife is not there.” Sir Joseph Wimple responds, “I suspected as much.” Evisceration is a term used by archaeologist to refer to the disembowelment of mummies. The removal of internal organs during mummification is not as common as popular culture thinks. Scientific studies published in the journal of comparative human biology supports this finding.  Despite the warning of his friend Dr. Muller (Edward Van Sloan), Sir Joseph's assistant Ralph Norton (Bramwell Fletcher) reads aloud an ancient life-giving scroll – the Scroll of Thoth. Imhotep escapes from the archaeologists, taking the Scroll of Thoth, and prowls Cairo seeking the modern reincarnation of Ankh-es-en-amon.
10 years later, Imhotep is masquerading as a modern Egyptian named Ardath Bey. He calls upon Sir Joseph's son Frank (David Manners) and Prof. Pearson (Leonard Mudie). He shows them where to dig to find Ankh-es-en-amon's tomb. The archaeologists find the tomb, give the mummy and the treasures to the Cairo Museum, and thank Ardath Bey for the information.
Imhotep encounters Helen Grosvenor (Zita Johann), a woman bearing a striking resemblance to the Princess. Believing her to be Ankh-es-en-amon's reincarnation, he attempts to kill her, with the intention of mummifying her, resurrecting her, and making her his bride. She is saved when she remembers her past life and prays to the goddess Isis to save her. The statue of Isis raises its arm and emits a beam of light that destroys the Scroll of Thoth, thereby reducing Imhotep to dust. Frank calls Helen back to the world of the living whilst the Scroll of Thoth burns.
Cast (in credits order)
- Boris Karloff as Ardath Bey/Imhotep (billed as KARLOFF)
- Zita Johann as Helen Grosvenor/Princess Ankh-es-en-Amon
- David Manners as Frank Whemple
- Arthur Byron as Sir Joseph Whemple
- Edward Van Sloan as Dr. Muller
- Bramwell Fletcher as Ralph Norton
- Noble Johnson as The Nubian
- Kathryn Byron as Frau Muller
- Leonard Mudie as Professor Pearson
- James Crane as The Pharaoh
Inspired by the opening of Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922 and the Curse of the Pharaohs, producer Carl Laemmle Jr. commissioned story editor Richard Shayer to find a literary novel to form a basis for an Egyptian-themed horror film, just as Dracula and Frankenstein informed their previous hits. Shayer found none although the plot bears a strong resemblance to a short story by Arthur Conan Doyle entitled 'The Ring of Thoth'. Shayer and writer Nina Wilcox Putnam learned about Alessandro Cagliostro and wrote a nine-page treatment entitled Cagliostro. The story, set in San Francisco, was about a 3000-year old magician who survives by injecting nitrates instead of via supernatural cause like with Imhotep's case. Balderston invented the Scroll of Toth which gave an aura of authenticity to the story. Toth was the wisest of the Egyptian gods who, when Osiris died, helped Isis bring her love back from the dead. Toth is believed to have authored 'The Book of the Dead' which was no doubt the inspiration for Balderston's Scroll of Toth. Laemmle was pleased with these ideas, and he hired John L. Balderston to write the script. Balderston had contributed to Dracula and Frankenstein, and had covered the opening of Tutankhamen's tomb for New York World when he was a journalist so he was more than familiar with the highly popular tomb unearthing. Balderston moved the story to Egypt and renamed the film and its title character Imhotep, after the historical architect. He also changed the story from one of revenge upon all the women who resembled the main characters' ex-lover to one where the main character is determined to revive his old love by killing and mummifying her reincarnated self before resurrecting her with the spell of the Scroll of Toth.
Karl Freund, the cinematographer on Dracula, was hired to direct two days before filming began. The film was retitled The Mummy. He cast Zita Johann, who believed in reincarnation, he also named her character 'Ankh-es-en-Amon' after the only wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The real Ankhesenamon's body had not been discovered in the tomb of King Tut and her resting place was unknown, her name however would not have been unknown to the general public and no doubt drew people's attention in the post Tutankhamoun era. Filming was scheduled for three weeks. Karloff's first day was spent shooting the Mummy's awakening from his sarcophagus. Make-up artist Jack Pierce had studied photos of Seti I's mummy to design Imhotep; however, Karloff looked nothing like the mummy of Seti I in the film, instead bearing a resemblance to the mummy of Ramesses III. Pierce began transforming Karloff at 11 a.m., applying cotton, collodion and spirit gum to his face; clay to his hair; and wrapping him in linen bandages treated with acid and burnt in an oven, finishing the job at 7 p.m. Karloff finished his scenes at 2 a.m., and another two hours were spent removing the make-up. Karloff found the removal of gum from his face painful, and overall found the day "the most trying ordeal I [had] ever endured". Although the images of Karloff wrapped in bandages are the most iconic taken from the film, Karloff only appears on screen in this make-up for a few minutes; the rest of the film sees him wearing less elaborate make-up.
A lengthy and detailed flashback sequence was shot, but cut from the completed film. This sequence showed the various forms Anck-es-en-Amon was reincarnated in over the centuries. Stills exist of the flashbacks, but the footage has been lost. It was shot in Cantil, California, Universal City, and the Mojave Desert.
Reception, sequels, and remakes
The film was a success at the box office, particularly in England. Unlike Frankenstein and Dracula, and other, later Universal horror films, this film had no sequels, but rather was semi-remade in the 1940s B-film The Mummy's Hand (1940), and its sequels, The Mummy's Tomb (1942), The Mummy's Ghost (1944), The Mummy's Curse (1944), which were later spoofed in 1955's Abbott and Costello Meet the Mummy. These focus on the mummy Kharis. The Mummy's Hand recycled footage from the original film for use in the telling of Kharis' origins; Karloff is clearly visible in several of these recycled scenes, but he is not credited.
In the late 1950s British Hammer Film Productions took up the Mummy theme, beginning with The Mummy (1959), which, rather than being a remake of the 1932 Karloff film, is based on Universal's The Mummy's Hand (1940) and The Mummy's Tomb (1942). Hammer's follow-ups — The Curse of the Mummy's Tomb (1964), The Mummy's Shroud (1966) and Blood from the Mummy's Tomb (1971) — are unrelated to the earlier film or to each other.
The 1999 Universal film The Mummy also suggests that it is a remake of the 1932 movie, and may be considered as such in that its titular character is Imhotep, resurrected from the dead by the Book of the Dead, and out to find the present-day embodiment of the soul of his beloved Anck-su-namun, and features an Egyptian named Ardeth Bay (in this case, a guard of the city and of Imhotep's tomb), but develops there from a different story line, in common with most postmodern remakes of classic horror and science-fiction films. It spawned a sequel in 2001, The Mummy Returns, and a prequel spin-off of that sequel, The Scorpion King, in 2002, which in turn spawned a 2008 prequel, The Scorpion King 2: Rise of a Warrior, and a 2012 sequel, The Scorpion King 3: Battle for Redemption. A second sequel, The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, was released in 2008. Also a short-lived animated series simply titled The Mummy ran from 2001 to 2003.
Universal has announced another forthcoming remake of the film.
Like other movies that take place in modern Egypt, there has been a decrying of the "othering" of Eastern culture. Even though it takes place in Egypt, the characters of the film are battling for distinctly American values. The meeting of East and West can be seen as a battlefield of Egyptian superstition versus the West's science and clarity of thought.
In the 1932 version of The Mummy, archeologist Sir Joseph Whemple states: ‘‘much more is learned from studying bits of broken pottery than from all the sensational finds. Our job is to increase the sum of human knowledge of the past.’ (Hall 161). The importance of archeology is to understand the past versus finding the latest artifact and to forget about its history. Egyptian movies tend to allow viewers to gain cultural knowledge of another country in an incorrect manner, “what these mummy films retain is a depiction of archaeology as a colonial imposition by which cultural inheritance is appropriated” (Hall 161). Hall states, films typically deal with the past if it relates to legend and superstition. An example that he presents is The Mummy (1999) in which the archaeological curator of the Cairo Antiquities Museum leads a secret sect – descended from the bodyguard of Ramses – pledged to defend the world from Imhotep (the Mummy)” (Hall 161). In The Mummy Returns, “one of the henchmen of Imhotep is the curator of Egyptian antiquities at the British Museum. Both these curators are depicted as Egyptians engaged in arcane activities, confirming their subservience to the western, colonial myth about Egypt and suggesting that only Europeans / Americans can truly understand the Egyptian past, through its appropriation and redefinition, often through the practice of archaeology (Hall 161). The Eurocentrism that is prevalent in these movies can alienate those who are not of the western race to explore archeology of other countries since every culture understands each other differently.
The Scroll of Thoth is a fictional artifact, though likely based on the Book of the Dead. Thoth, the Egyptian god of knowledge, is said to the be the inventor of hieroglyphs and the author of the Book of the Dead.
Conspirators were caught in a plot to assassinate Pharaoh Ramesses III around 1151 BCE. Papyrus trial transcripts reveal the method of execution, which may have been begin buried alive. Although not common practice, it is possible that a fictional priest such as Imhotep would be punished this way.
There is no evidence to suggest that Ancient Egyptians believed in or considered the possibility of re-animated mummies. Mummification was a sacred process meant to prepare a dead body to carry the soul through the afterlife not for being reincarnated and living again on earth. While it is possible that some individuals were mummified by being buried alive it is unlikely that ancient Egyptians would think resurrection was possible because they were very aware of the fact that all the necessary organs had been removed and the body would be of little use on earth anymore.
- Stephen Jacobs, Boris Karloff: More Than a Monster, Tomohawk Press 2011 p 127-130
- HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology Volume 64, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages 1–28 Radiological evaluation of the evisceration tradition in ancient Egyptian mummies A.D. Wade, A.J. Nelson http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/science/article/pii/S0018442X12001278
- Vieira, Mark A. (2003). Hollywood Horror: From Gothic to Cosmic. New York: Harry N. Abrams. pp. 55–58. ISBN 0-8109-4535-5.
- Kroll, Justin, Snieder, Jeff, "U sets 'Mummy' reboot with Spaihts", Variety.com, Published 2012-04-04, Retrieved 2012-05-04.
- Schroeder, Carolyn T. "Ancient Egyptian Religion on the Silver Screen: Modern Anxieties about Race, Ethnicity, and Religion." University of Nebraska Omaha. Oct 2003. 20 Jan 2015.
- Hall, Mark A. "Romancing the stones: archaeology in popular cinema." European Journal of Archaeology 7.2 (2004): 159-176.
- Schablitsky, Julie (2007). Box Office Archaeology, p.21. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1598740561.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Mummy (1932 film).|
- Telotte, J. P. (2003). Doing science in machine age horror: 'The Mummy's' case. Science Fiction Studies, 30(2), 217-230. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA125474904&v=2.1&u=s1185784&it=r&p=PPFA&sw=w&asid=7b5df83c5fb6b972ccf9435691943186
- The Mummy Trivia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0023245/trivia