The Prisoner of Zenda (1937 film)
|The Prisoner of Zenda|
Original film poster
|Directed by||John Cromwell
W.S. Van Dyke (uncredited)
|Produced by||David O. Selznick|
|Written by||Anthony Hope (novel)
John L. Balderston (screenplay)
Donald Ogden Stewart (additional dialogue)
Ben Hecht (uncredited)
Sidney Howard (uncredited)
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.
|Music by||Alfred Newman|
|Cinematography||James Wong Howe
Bert Glennon (uncredited)
|Edited by||James E. Newcom|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
The Prisoner of Zenda is a 1937 black-and-white adventure film based on the Anthony Hope 1894 novel of the same name and the 1896 play. Of the many film adaptations, this is considered by many to be the definitive version.
The 1937 film starred Ronald Colman, Madeleine Carroll and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., with a supporting cast including C. Aubrey Smith, Raymond Massey, Mary Astor and David Niven. It was directed by John Cromwell, produced by David O. Selznick for Selznick International Pictures, and distributed by United Artists. The screenplay was written by John L. Balderston, adapted by Wells Root from the novel, with dramatisation by Edward Rose; Donald Ogden Stewart was responsible for additional dialogue, and Ben Hecht and Sidney Howard made uncredited contributions.
It was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Art Direction and Original Music Score, Alfred Newman's first Oscar nomination. He would go on to receive an additional 44 nominations. In 1991, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in its National Film Registry.
English gentleman Rudolf Rassendyll (Ronald Colman) takes a fishing vacation in a small middle European country (unnamed in the film; Ruritania in the novel). While there, he is puzzled by the odd reactions of the natives to him. Rassendyll discovers why when he meets Colonel Zapt (C. Aubrey Smith) and Captain Fritz von Tarlenheim (David Niven). Zapt introduces him to the soon-to-be-crowned king, Rudolf V (Colman again), who turns out to be not only his distant relative, but also in facial features close enough to be his double. Rudolf is astounded and takes a great liking to the Englishman.
They celebrate their acquaintance by drinking late into the night. Rudolf is particularly delighted with the bottle of wine sent to him by his half-brother, Duke Michael (Raymond Massey), so much so that he drinks it all himself. The next morning brings a disastrous discovery: the wine was drugged. Rudolf cannot be awakened, and if he cannot attend his coronation that day, Michael will try to usurp the throne. Zapt convinces a reluctant Rassendyll to impersonate Rudolf for the solemn ceremony.
Rassendyll meets Rudolf's betrothed, Princess Flavia (Madeleine Carroll). She had always detested her cousin Rudolf, but now finds him greatly changed – for the better in her opinion. As they spend time together, they fall in love.
With the coronation a success, Rassendyll returns to switch places with his distant cousin, only to find the new king has been found and kidnapped by Rupert of Hentzau (Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.), Michael's charmingly amoral henchman. Rassendyll is forced to continue the impersonation while Zapt tries to locate Rudolf.
Help comes from an unexpected quarter. To be king, Michael must marry his cousin Flavia. Antoinette de Mauban (Mary Astor), Michael's jealous French mistress, reveals that the king is being held in Michael's castle near Zenda and promises to help rescue him. Since Rudolf would be executed at the first sign of a rescue attempt, she proposes that one man swim the moat and hold off his would-be assassins while loyal troops storm the castle. Rassendyll decides that he is that man, over Zapt's strenuous objections.
Their carefully laid plans go awry when Michael finds Rupert trying to seduce his mistress. When Rupert kills him, a heartbroken Antoinette blurts out enough to alert Rupert to his danger. Rassendyll dispatches two guards, but must fight a prolonged duel with Rupert while at the same time trying to lower the drawbridge to let Zapt and his men in. When he finally succeeds, Rupert flees.
Rudolf is restored to his throne. Rassendyll tries to persuade Flavia to leave with him, but her devotion to duty is too great, and their parting is bittersweet.
- Ronald Colman as Major Rudolf Rassendyll and King Rudolf V
- Madeleine Carroll as Princess Flavia
- Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. as Rupert of Hentzau. Fairbanks Jr. initially wanted to play Rudolf, but when the role went to Colman, his father, Douglas Fairbanks, told him "not only is The Prisoner of Zenda one of the best romances written in a hundred years and always a success, but Rupert of Hentzau is probably one of the best villains ever written".
- Raymond Massey as Duke Michael. When Massey approached Aubrey Smith for advice, he stated "My dear Ray, in my time I have played every part in The Prisoner of Zenda except Princess Flavia. And I always had trouble with Black Michael!"
- C. Aubrey Smith as Colonel Zapt. When the play opened in London in January 1896, Smith played the dual lead roles.
- David Niven as Captain Fritz von Tarlenheim. Massey and Niven died on the same day: July 29, 1983.
- Mary Astor as Antoinette de Mauban
- Montagu Love as Detchard
- Philip Sleeman as Albert von Lauengram
- Eleanor Wesselhoeft as Frau Holf, the cook
- Torben Meyer as Max, the butler
The orchestra conductor who is forced to cease and resume conducting the Künstlerleben Walzer by Strauss every time the royal couple stop and start waltzing was played by Al Shean, uncle of the Marx Brothers.
This production was "one of the last great gatherings of the Hollywood English" before World War II. Selznick was partly inspired to take on the project because of the abdication of Edward VIII, and exploited this angle in his marketing of the film.
It was considered a difficult shoot. Director John Cromwell was unhappy with his male leads, as he suspected that Colman did not know his lines, and was concerned with Fairbanks' and Niven's late nights on the town. George Cukor directed a few scenes of the film when Cromwell grew frustrated with his actors especially Madeline Carroll's key scene in the film dealing with the Renunciation. Woody Van Dyke was brought in to re-shoot some of the fencing scenes, which are one of the highlights of the film, along with the costume design.
A prologue and an epilogue were shot, but never used. The prologue has an elderly Rassendyll recounting his adventures in his club. In the epilogue, he receives a letter from von Tarlenheim and a rose, informing him that Flavia has died.
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Leslie Halliwell ranks it at #590 on his list of best films, saying that the "splendid schoolboy adventure story" of the late Victorian novel is "perfectly transferred to the screen", and quotes a 1971 comment by John Cutts that the film becomes more "fascinating and beguiling" as time goes by. Halliwell's Film Guide 2008 calls it "one of the most entertaining films to come out of Hollywood". Twelve residents of Zenda, Ontario, were flown to New York for the premiere.
The film earned a profit of $182,000.
In 1947 Selznick announced he would make a sequel based on a play adaptation of Rupert of Hentzau starring Joseph Cotten as King Rudolph/Rudolph, Louis Jourdan as Rupert and Queen Flavia. The film was never made.
Many other adaptations of the novel have been produced on stage and (especially) screen. This 1937 version is the most highly regarded, and has influenced other works, including science fiction and television. What follows is a short list of those homages with a clear debt to this film, which sits within a long tradition of using political decoys in fiction.
The 1952 film is virtually a shot-by-shot remake, reusing the same shooting script, dialogue, and film score. A comparison of the two films reveals that settings and camera angles, in most cases, are the same. Halliwell judges it "no match for the happy inspiration of the original".
The book was filmed again in 1979, starring Peter Sellers in three roles – as Syd (or Sid) Frewin, his possible half brother the king, and also his father. This version, of course, was a comedy spoof of the original.
Two episodes of the spoof spy television series Get Smart, "The King Lives?" and "To Sire With Love, Parts 1 and 2", parodied the 1937 movie version, with Don Adams imitating Colman's distinctive voice.
The Blake Edwards epic comedy film The Great Race (1965 film) starring Tony Curtis, Jack Lemmon, and Natalie Wood features an extended spoof of The Prisoner of Zenda as one of the adventures of a New York to Paris road race in 1901.
References in popular culture
"The Prisoner of Benda" is the ninety-eighth episode of Futurama.
During pre-production of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, director Nicholas Meyer asked costume designer Robert Fletcher to design new Starfleet uniforms inspired by the uniforms worn in The Prisoner of Zenda. The resulting uniform costumes appeared in six Star Trek films in total, from The Wrath of Khan through Star Trek Generations.
- David Thomson, Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick, Abacus, 1993 p 262
- VideoHound's Golden Movie Retriever 2008, Visible Ink Press 978-0787689810
- "NY Times: The Prisoner of Zenda". NY Times. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
- Fairbanks, Douglas (1988). Salad Days (First ed.). New York: Doubleday. p. 275. ISBN 0-385-17404-7.
- The Brits in Hollywood Sheridan Morley, Robson Books 2006, p. 161, ISBN 978-1-86105-807-2
- "robust sword play" is singled out for praise in VideoHound's Golden Movie Retriever 2008, Visible Ink Press 978-0787689810
- p. 113 Behlmer, Rudy & Selznick, David O. Memo from David O. Selznick Modern Library, 7 Mar 2000
- Halliwell's Top 1000, John Walker, HarperCollins Entertainment ISBN 978-0-00-726080-5
- Halliwell's Film Guide 2008, David Gritten, HarperCollins Entertainment ISBN 978-0-00-726080-5
- COTTEN TO APPEAR IN SELZNICK FILM: Actor Will Play Dual Role in 'Rupert of Hentzau,' Which Producer Is Remaking By THOMAS F. BRADYSpecial to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 01 Mar 1947: 11.
- "ScienceFictionArchives.com". "Pavel Chekov's officer costume". Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- The Prisoner of Zenda at the TCM Movie Database
- The Prisoner of Zenda at the Internet Movie Database
- The Prisoner of Zenda at AllMovie
- The Prisoner of Zenda on Lux Radio Theater: June 5, 1939
- The Prisoner of Zenda on Academy Award Theater: July 17, 1946
- The Prisoner of Zenda on Screen Directors Playhouse: February 20, 1949