Rebecca (1940 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Alfred Hitchcock|
|Produced by||David O. Selznick|
by Daphne du Maurier
|Music by||Franz Waxman|
|Editing by||W. Donn Hayes|
|Studio||Selznick International Pictures|
|Distributed by||United Artists|
|Running time||130 minutes|
Rebecca is a 1940 American psychological dramatic thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock as his first American project and his first film produced under his contract with David O. Selznick. The film's screenplay was an adaptation by Joan Harrison and Robert E. Sherwood from Philip MacDonald and Michael Hogan's adaptation of Daphne du Maurier's 1938 novel of the same name. It was produced by Selznick and stars Laurence Olivier as the aristocratic widower Maxim de Winter, Joan Fontaine as his second wife, and Judith Anderson as the housekeeper, Mrs. Danvers.
The film is a gothic tale about the lingering memory of the title character, Maxim de Winter's dead first wife, which continues to haunt Maxim, his new bride, and Mrs. Danvers. The film won two Academy Awards, including Best Picture, out of a total 11 nominations. Olivier, Fontaine and Anderson were all Oscar nominated for their respective roles. Since the introduction of awards for actors in supporting roles, this is the only film named Best Picture that won no other Academy Award for acting, directing or writing.
A very young woman (Joan Fontaine) is the paid companion to the wealthy but vulgar Edythe Van Hopper (Florence Bates) when she meets the aristocratic widower Maximilian "Maxim" de Winter (Laurence Olivier) in Monte Carlo. The two fall in love, within two weeks they are married, and she becomes the new "Mrs. de Winter."
Maxim takes his new bride to Manderley, his country house in Cornwall, England. The housekeeper, Mrs. Danvers (Judith Anderson), is domineering and cold, and is obsessed with the great beauty, intelligence and sophistication of the first Mrs. de Winter—the eponymous Rebecca—and preserves her former bedroom as a shrine. Rebecca's sleazy cousin Jack Favell (George Sanders) appears at the house when Maxim is away.
The new Mrs. de Winter is intimidated by her responsibilities and begins to doubt her relationship with her husband. The continuous reminders of Rebecca de Winter overwhelm her; she believes that Maxim is still deeply in love with Rebecca. She also discovers that her husband sometimes becomes very angry at her for apparently innocent actions.
Trying to be the perfect wife, the young Mrs. de Winter convinces Maxim to hold a costume party as he had done with Rebecca. The heroine tries to plan her own costume, but Mrs. Danvers suggests she copy the beautiful outfit in the portrait of Caroline de Winter, an ancestor. At the party, when the costume is revealed to Maxim he is appalled; Rebecca wore the same outfit at their ball a year ago, shortly before she died.
The heroine confronts Danvers, who tells her she can never take Rebecca's place, and almost manages to convince her to jump to her death. A sudden commotion reveals that a ship is sinking. The heroine rushes outside, where she hears that during the rescue a sunken boat has been found with Rebecca's body in it.
Maxim admits to his new wife that he had earlier misidentified another body as Rebecca's, in order to conceal the truth. His first marriage, until now presented by every other character as an ideal, was in fact a sham. At the very beginning of their marriage Rebecca had told Maxim she intended to continue the scandalous life she had led before the marriage. He hated her but they agreed to an arrangement: she would act as the perfect wife and hostess in public, and he would ignore Rebecca's privately conducted affairs. Rebecca grew careless and complacent in her dealings, including an ongoing affair with her cousin Jack Favell. One night, Rebecca informed Maxim that she was pregnant with Favell's child. During the ensuing heated argument she fell, hit her head and died. Maxim took the body out in a boat which he then scuttled.
Shedding the remnants of her girlish innocence, Maxim's wife coaches her husband on how to conceal the mode of Rebecca's death from the authorities. In the police investigation, deliberate damage to the boat points to suicide. Favell shows Maxim a note from Rebecca which seems to indicate she was not suicidal. Favell then tries to blackmail Maxim, but Maxim tells the police. Maxim is now under suspicion of murder. The investigation then focuses on Rebecca's secret visit to a London doctor (Leo G. Carroll), which Favell assumes was due to her illicit pregnancy. However, the coroner's interview with the doctor reveals that Rebecca was mistaken in believing herself pregnant; instead she had a late-stage cancer.
The doctor's evidence persuades the coroner to render a finding of suicide. Only Frank Crawley (Maxim's best friend and manager of the estate), Maxim, and his wife will know the full story: that Rebecca lied to Maxim about being pregnant with another man's child in order to goad him into killing her, an indirect means of suicide.
As Maxim returns home from London to Manderley, he finds the manor on fire, set alight by the deranged Mrs. Danvers. The second Mrs. de Winter and the staff manage to escape the blaze, but Danvers dies in the flames.
At Selznick's insistence, the film adapts the plot of du Maurier's novel Rebecca faithfully. However, one plot detail was altered to comply with the Hollywood Production Code, which said that the murder of a spouse had to be punished. In the novel, Maxim shoots Rebecca, while in the film, he only thinks of killing her after she taunts him, whereupon she suddenly falls back, hits her head on a heavy piece of ship's tackle, and dies from her head injuries, so that her death is an accident, not murder.
According to the book It's only a Movie, Selznick wanted the smoke from the burning Manderley to spell out a huge "R". Hitchcock thought the touch lacked subtlety. While Selznick was preoccupied by Gone with the Wind (1939), Hitchcock was able to replace the smoky "R" with the burning of a monogrammed négligée case lying atop a bed pillow. According to Leonard Luff's book Hitchcock and Selznick Selznick took control of the film once Hitchcock had completed filming, reshooting many sequences and rerecording many performances. Some sources say this experience led Hitchcock to edit future pictures in camera—shooting only what he wanted to see in the final film—a method of filmmaking that restricts producers power to reedit the picture.
Although Selznick insisted that the film be faithful to the novel, Hitchcock did make some other changes, especially with the character of Mrs. Danvers, though not as many as he had made in a previous rejected screenplay, in which he altered virtually the entire story. In the novel, Mrs. Danvers is something of a jealous mother figure, and her past is mentioned in the book. But in the film, Mrs. Danvers is a much younger character (the actress, Judith Anderson, would have been about 42 at the time of shooting) and her past is not revealed at all. The only thing we know about her is that she came to Manderley when Rebecca was a bride. Hitchcock made her more of a mysterious figure with subtly lesbian overtones, overtones which match well with du Maurier's own bisexuality.
The Hollywood Reporter reported in 1944 that Edwina Levin MacDonald sued Selznick, Daphne du Maurier, United Artists and Doubleday for plagiarism. MacDonald claimed that the film Rebecca was stolen from her novel Blind Windows, and sought an undisclosed amount of accounting and damages. The complaint was dismissed on January 14, 1948 and the judgment can be read here.
- Joan Fontaine as the second Mrs. de Winter
- Laurence Olivier as Maxim de Winter, owner of Manderley
- Judith Anderson as Mrs. Danvers, housekeeper of Manderley
- George Sanders as Jack Favell, Rebecca's first cousin and lover
- Reginald Denny as Frank Crawley, Maxim's estate manager of Manderley and friend
- Gladys Cooper as Beatrice Lacy, Maxim's sister
- C. Aubrey Smith as Colonel Julyan
- Nigel Bruce as Major Giles Lacy, Beatrice's husband
- Florence Bates as Mrs. Edythe Van Hopper, employer of the second Mrs. de Winter
- Edward Fielding as Frith, butler of Manderley
- Melville Cooper as Coroner at trial
- Leo G. Carroll as Dr. Baker, Rebecca's doctor
- Leonard Carey as Ben, the beach hermit at Manderley
- Lumsden Hare as Mr. Tabbs, boat builder
Hitchcock's cameo appearance, a signature feature of his films, takes place near the end; he is seen walking, back turned to the audience, outside a phone box just after Jack Favell completes a call.
Rebecca won two Academy Awards and was nominated for nine more:
1940 Academy Awards wins
- Best Picture – Selznick International Pictures – David O. Selznick
- Best Cinematography, Black and White – George Barnes
1940 Academy Award nominations
- Best Actor in a Leading Role – Laurence Olivier
- Best Actress in a Leading Role – Joan Fontaine
- Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Judith Anderson
- Best Director – Alfred Hitchcock
- Art Direction, Black and White – Lyle R. Wheeler
- Special Effects – Jack Cosgrove and Arthur Johns
- Best Film Editing – Hal C. Kern
- Best Music, Original Score – Franz Waxman
- Best Writing, Screenplay – Robert E. Sherwood and Joan Harrison
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – #80
- AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains – Mrs. Danvers, #31 Villain
Adaptations in other media
Rebecca was adapted as a radio play on numerous occasions, including May 31, 1943, as an episode of The Screen Guild Theater starring Joan Fontaine, Brian Aherne and Agnes Moorehead; again on The Screen Guild Theater on November 18, 1948, with Loretta Young, John Lund and Agnes Moorehead; on Lux Radio Theater's February 3, 1941, broadcast with Ronald Colman and Ida Lupino; and again on Lux November 6, 1950, with Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh.
Rebecca has been remade by Bollywood twice. The first remake was Kohra (1964), starring Waheeda Rehman and Biswajit Chatterjee; and the second was Anamika (2008), starring Dino Morea, Minissha Lamba and Koena Mitra.
There is also a BBC adaptation, first screened in 1979 and shown on PBS in the US, starring Jeremy Brett as Maxim, Joanna David as the second Mrs. de Winter, and Brett's former wife Anna Massey as Mrs. Danvers.
Rebecca was used as the basis of a sketch on BBC comedy sketch show That Mitchell and Webb Look. In the skit, the plot is changed at the insistence of the producer so that it is set while the first Mrs. de Winter is still alive and has just begun living with Maxim. The humor is derived from references to the then-unknown second Mrs. de Winter scattered throughout the mansion, such as a dress "reserved for the second Mrs. de Winter" and a painting of a woman with her face covered and the letters "TBA" written.
Rebecca serves as inspiration and as part of an interwoven subplot in the Interactive-theater experience Sleep No More put on by the London-based theater group Punchdrunk. It plays in New York City currently,
- Box Office Information for Rebecca. The Numbers. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Rebecca at the Internet Movie Database
- "1st Berlin International Film Festival". Berlin International Film Festival.
- Spoto, Donald (1999). The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Da Capo Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-0-306-80932-3.
- Hitchcock and Selznick: The Rich and Strange Collaboration of Alfred Hitchcock and David O. Selznick in Hollywood, Leonard J. Leff, University of California Press 1999 - see e.g. here
- The Hollywood Reporter, January 13, 1944
- The Fresno Bee Republican, January 17, 1948 - see e.g. here
- "The 13th Academy Awards (1941) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
- "Critic's Pick: Rebecca". The New York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
- Rebecca (1962) (TV), IMDb. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- The Carol Burnett Show: Episode #6.3 (27 Sep. 1972), IMDb. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Rebecca" (1979), IMDb. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Rebecca (film)|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rebecca (film).|
- Rebecca at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Rebecca at allmovie
- Rebecca at Rotten Tomatoes
- Rebecca at the Internet Movie Database
- Rebecca at the TCM Movie Database
- Criterion Collection essay by Robin Wood
- Rebecca Eyegate Gallery
- Rebecca trivia