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1952 publicity photo
|Born||Joseph Cheshire Cotten, Jr.
May 15, 1905
Petersburg, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||February 6, 1994
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Lenore Kipp (1931–1960)
Patricia Medina (1960–1994)
|Awards||Volpi Cup for Best Actor:
1949 Portrait of Jennie
Joseph Cheshire Cotten, Jr. (May 15, 1905 – February 6, 1994) was an American film, stage and television actor. Cotten achieved prominence on Broadway, starring in the original stage productions of The Philadelphia Story and Sabrina Fair. He first gained worldwide fame in the Orson Welles films Citizen Kane (1941), The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), and Journey into Fear (1943), for which Cotten was also credited with the screenplay. He went on to become one of the leading Hollywood actors of the 1940s, appearing in films such as Shadow of a Doubt (1943), Love Letters (1945), Duel in the Sun (1946), Portrait of Jennie (1948) and The Third Man (1949).
Life and career
Joseph Cotten was born in 1905 in Petersburg, Virginia, the son of Joseph Cheshire Cotten, Sr., an assistant postmaster and his wife, Sally Willson Cotten.:224 He worked as an advertising agent after studying acting at the Hickman School of Speech and Expression in Washington, D.C. His work as a theatre critic inspired him to become involved in theatre productions, first in Virginia, then in New York City. Cotten made his Broadway debut in 1930.
In 1934 Cotten met and became friends with Orson Welles, a fellow cast member on CBS Radio's The American School of the Air.:30–31 Cotten had his first starring role in Welles's second production for the Federal Theatre Project — the farce Horse Eats Hat, adapted by Welles and Edwin Denby from Eugène Marin Labiche's play Un Chapeau de Paille d'Italie.:34  The play was presented from September 26 to December 5, 1936, at the Maxine Elliott Theatre, New York.:334
In 1937 Cotten became an inaugural member of Welles's Mercury Theatre company, starring in Broadway productions of Julius Caesar, The Shoemaker's Holiday and Danton's Death, and in radio dramas presented on The Mercury Theatre on the Air and The Campbell Playhouse.
Cotten made his film debut in the Welles-directed short, Too Much Johnson, a comedy that was intended to complement an aborted 1938 Mercury stage production of William Gillette's 1890 play. The film was never screened in public; it was reported in 2013 that a print had been discovered in Prodenone, Italy.
Cotten returned to Broadway in 1939, creating the role of C. K. Dexter Haven opposite Katharine Hepburn's Tracy Lord in the original production of Philip Barry's The Philadelphia Story. The play ran for a year at the Shubert Theatre, and in the months before its extensive national tour a film version was to be made by MGM. Cotten went to Hollywood, but discovered there that his stage success in The Philadelphia Story translated to, in the words of his agent Leland Hayward, "spending a solid year creating the Cary Grant role." Hayward suggested that they call Cotten's good pal, Orson Welles. "He's been making big waves out here," Hayward said. "Maybe nobody in Hollywood ever heard of the Shubert Theatre in New York, but everybody certainly knows about the Mercury Theatre in New York.":34–37
After the success of Welles's War of the Worlds 1938 Halloween radio broadcast, Welles gained a unique contract with RKO Pictures. The two-picture deal promised full creative control for the young director below an agreed budget limit, and Welles's intention was to feature the Mercury Players in his productions. Shooting had still not begun on a Welles film after a year, but after a meeting with writer Herman J. Mankiewicz Welles had a suitable project.
In mid-1940 filming began on Citizen Kane, portraying the life of a press magnate (played by Welles) who starts out as an idealist but eventually turns into a corrupt, lonely old man. The film featured Cotten prominently in the role of Kane's best friend Jedediah Leland, eventually a drama critic for one of Kane's papers.
When released on May 1, 1941, Citizen Kane — based in part on the life of William Randolph Hearst — did not do much business at theaters; Hearst owned numerous major newspapers, and forbade them to carry advertisements for the film. Nominated for nine Academy Awards in 1942, the film won only for Best Screenplay, for Mankiewicz and Welles. Citizen Kane launched the film careers of the Mercury Players, including Agnes Moorehead (who played Kane's mother), Ruth Warrick (Kane's first wife), and Ray Collins (Kane's political opponent). However, Cotten was the only one of the four to find major success as a lead in Hollywood outside of Citizen Kane; Moorehead and Collins became successful character film actors and Warrick spent decades in a career in daytime television.
Later collaborations with Welles
Cotten starred a year later in Welles's adaptation and production of The Magnificent Ambersons. After the commercial disappointment of Citizen Kane, RKO was apprehensive about the new film, and after poor preview responses, cut it by nearly an hour before its release. Though at points the film appeared disjointed, it was well received by critics. Despite the critical accolades Cotten received for his performance, he was again snubbed by the Academy.
Cotten and Welles (uncredited) wrote the Nazi-related thriller Journey into Fear (1943) based on the novel by Eric Ambler. Released by RKO, the Mercury production was directed by Norman Foster. It was a collaborative effort due to the difficulties shooting the film and the pressures related to Welles's imminent departure to South America to begin work on It's All True.:165, 377
After Welles's return he and Cotten co-produced The Mercury Wonder Show for members of the U.S. armed services. Opening August 3, 1943, the all-star magic and variety show was presented in a tent at 9000 Cahuenga Boulevard in Hollywood. Featured were Welles (Orson the Magnificent), Cotten (Jo-Jo the Great), Rita Hayworth (forced to quit by Columbia Pictures boss Harry Cohn and replaced by Marlene Dietrich) Agnes Moorehead (Calliope Aggie) and others. Tickets were free to servicemen, and more than 48,000 of them had seen show by September 1943.:177, 377–378
In film, Cotten and Welles worked together in The Third Man (1949). Cotten portrays a writer of pulp fiction who travels to postwar Vienna to meet his friend Harry Lime (Welles). When he arrives, he discovers that Lime has died, and is determined to prove to the police that it was murder, but uncovers an even darker secret.
The 1940s and 1950s
The characters that Cotten played onscreen during the 1940s ranged from a serial killer in Hitchcock's Shadow of a Doubt (1943, opposite Teresa Wright) to an eager police detective in Gaslight (1944, with Ingrid Bergman, Charles Boyer, and Angela Lansbury in her film debut). Cotten starred with Jennifer Jones in four films: the wartime domestic drama Since You Went Away (1944); the romantic drama Love Letters (1945); the western Duel in the Sun (1946), which remains one of the top 100 highest grossing films of all time when adjusted for inflation; and the critically acclaimed Portrait of Jennie (1948), in which he played a melancholy artist who becomes obsessed with a girl who may have died many years before. As well as reuniting onscreen with Orson Welles in Carol Reed's The Third Man in 1949, he reunited with Hitchcock in Under Capricorn (1949) as an Australian landowner with a shady past.
Exhibitors voted him the 17th most popular star in the US in 1945.
Cotten's screen career cooled in the 1950s with a string of less high-profile roles in films such as the dark Civil War Two Flags West (1950), the Joan Fontaine romance September Affair (1950), and the Marilyn Monroe vehicle Niagara (1953), after James Mason turned down the role. His last theatrical releases in the '50s were mostly film-noir and unsuccessful character studies.
On the stage in 1953, Cotten created the role of Linus Larrabee, Jr., in the original Broadway production of Sabrina Fair, opposite Margaret Sullavan. The production ran November 11, 1953–August 21, 1954, and was the basis of the Billy Wilder film Sabrina, which starred Humphrey Bogart and Audrey Hepburn.
Cotten was featured in Alfred Hitchcock Presents and Ronald Reagan's General Electric Theater. He appeared on May 2, 1957, on NBC's comedy variety series, The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford. Near the end of the decade, he made a cameo appearance in Welles's Touch of Evil (1958) and a starring role in the film adaptation of Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon (also 1958). He also appeared as Dick Burlingame and Charles Lawrence in the 1960 episodes "The Blue Goose" and "Dark Fear" of CBS's anthology series The DuPont Show with June Allyson. He also appeared on NBC's anthology series, The Barbara Stanwyck Show.
The 1960s and 1970s
In 1960 Cotten married British actress Patricia Medina after his first wife, Lenore Kipp, died of leukemia earlier in the year. After some time away from film, Cotten returned in the horror classic Hush… Hush, Sweet Charlotte (1964), with Bette Davis, Olivia de Havilland, and Agnes Moorehead. The rest of the decade found Cotten in a number of European and Japanese productions, B-movies and made for television movies. He made multiple guest appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show. In 1967, he joined Karl Swenson, Pat Conway, and Dick Foran in the nostalgic western dramatic film Brighty of the Grand Canyon, about a burro who lived in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River from about 1892-1922. On television, he narrated David L. Wolper's documentary Hollywood and the Stars (1963–64). In 1968 he made a guest appearance in a two-part episode of the series Ironside("Split Second to an Epitaph", 1968).
In the early 1970s, Cotten followed a supporting role in Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970) with several horror features: The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971), with Vincent Price, and Soylent Green (1973), the last film featuring Edward G. Robinson. Later in the decade, Cotten was in several all-star disaster films, including Airport '77 (1977) with James Stewart and again with Olivia de Havilland, and the nuclear thriller Twilight's Last Gleaming (1977). On television, he did a guest spot on The Rockford Files ("This Case Is Closed", 1974). He also did a guest spot on "The Love Boat" ("Aunt Hilly", 1981).
One of Cotten's last films was Heaven's Gate (1980), critically mauled in the United States. Around the same time, he appeared in two episodes of a twist-in-the-tale episode of the British TV series, Tales of the Unexpected, with Wendy Hiller (1979), and Gloria Grahame (1980). He also appeared in three horror films, The Hearse, Delusion (also known as The House Where Death Lives), and The Survivor. Cotten suffered a stroke in 1981 which caused him to temporarily lose his voice.
Illness and death
On June 8, 1981, Cotten had a heart attack followed by a stroke that affected his speech center. He began years of therapy which in time made it possible for him to speak again. As he began to recover, he and Orson Welles talked on the phone each week for a couple of hours: "He was strong and supportive," Cotten wrote, "and whenever I used the wrong word (which was frequently) he would say, 'That's a much better word, Jo, I'm going to use it.'" He and Welles would meet for lunch and reminisce, and when Cotten said he had written a book Welles asked for the manuscript and read it that same night.:215–217 In a phone conversation October 9, 1985, Welles told his friend and mentor Roger Hill that Cotten had written a book, and Hill asked how it read. "Gentle, witty, and self-effacing, just like Jo," Welles replied. "My only complaint is that it's too brief.":289
Welles died the following day. "Somewhere among his possessions is a manuscript of this book," Cotten wrote on the last page of his autobiography, published in 1987 under the title Vanity Will Get You Somewhere.:217
- Too Much Johnson (1938) (short subject)
- Citizen Kane (1941)
- Lydia (1941)
- The Magnificent Ambersons (1942)
- Shadow of a Doubt (1943)
- Journey into Fear (1943)
- Hers to Hold (1943)
- Gaslight (1944)
- Since You Went Away (1944)
- I'll Be Seeing You (1945)
- Love Letters (1945)
- Duel in the Sun (1946)
- The Farmer's Daughter (1947)
- Portrait of Jennie (1948)
- The Third Man (1949)
- Under Capricorn (1949)
- Beyond the Forest (1949)
- Two Flags West (1950)
- Walk Softly, Stranger (1950)
- September Affair (1950)
- Half Angel (1951)
- Peking Express (1951)
- The Man with a Cloak (1951)
- The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice (1952)
- The Wild Heart (1952) (narrator)
- Untamed Frontier (1952)
- The Steel Trap (1952)
- Egypt by Three (1953) (narrator)
- Niagara (1953)
- A Blueprint for Murder (1953)
- Light's Diamond Jubilee (1954), TV special broadcast on all four US TV networks
- Special Delivery (1955; also known as Vom Himmel gefallen)
- The Bottom of the Bottle (1956)
- The Killer Is Loose (1956)
- The Halliday Brand (1957)
- Touch of Evil (1958)
- From the Earth to the Moon (1958)
- The Angel Wore Red (1960)
- The Last Sunset (1961)
- Hush… Hush, Sweet Charlotte (1964)
- The Great Sioux Massacre (1965)
- The Money Trap (1965)
- The Tramplers (1966)
- The Hellbenders (1966)
- The Oscar (1966)
- Some May Live (1967)
- Brighty of the Grand Canyon (1967)
- Jack of Diamonds (1967)
- Days of Fire (1968)
- Gangster '70 (1968)
- Petulia (1968)
- White Comanche (1968)
- Keene (1969)
- Latitude Zero (1969)
- The Lonely Profession (1969)
- The Grasshopper (1970)
- Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970)
- The Abominable Dr. Phibes (1971)
- Lady Frankenstein (1971)
- Baron Blood (1972)
- Doomsday Voyage (1972)
- The Scientific Cardplayer (1972)
- A Delicate Balance (1973)
- F for Fake (1973)
- Soylent Green (1973)
- Syndicate Sadists (1975)
- Timber Tramps (1975)
- A Whisper in the Dark (1976)
- Twilight's Last Gleaming (1977)
- Airport '77 (1977)
- Concorde Affaire '79 (1978) (also known as The Concord Affair, U.S. video release)
- The Perfect Crime
- Caravans (1978)
- Island of the Fishmen (1979)
- Guyana: Crime of the Century (1979)
- The Hearse (1980)
- Delusion (1980) (also known as The House Where Death Lives, 1982 re-release)
- Heaven's Gate (1980)
- The Survivor (1981)
- Cotten, Joseph, Vanity Will Get You Somewhere. San Francisco: Mercury House. 1987 ISBN 0-916515-17-6
- Leaming, Barbara (1985). Orson Welles. New York City: Viking Penguin Inc. p. 114. ISBN 0-670-52895-1.
- Welles, Orson, and Peter Bogdanovich, edited by Jonathan Rosenbaum, This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers 1992 ISBN 0-06-016616-9.
- New York Times, "Early Film of Orson Welles is Rediscovered," August 7, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/11/movies/early-film-by-orson-welles-is-rediscovered.html?hp
- "Bing Crosby Again Box-Office Leader: Van Johnson Second in Film Poll of Exhibitors – Rogers Wins for Westerns". The New York Times. December 28, 1945. p. 21.
- "Sabrina Fair". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
- Actor winning battle against stroke
- Tarbox, Todd, Orson Welles and Roger Hill: A Friendship in Three Acts. Albany, Georgia: BearManor Media, 2013, ISBN 1-59393-260-X.
- "'Citizen Kane' star releases witty, irreverent autobiography". The Tuscaloosa News (Associated Press), June 7, 1987. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
- Oliver, Myrna (February 7, 1994). "Debonair Actor Joseph Cotten Dies at 88". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Flint, Peter B. (February 7, 1994). "Joseph Cotten, 88, Is Dead; Actor on Stage and in Films". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- Joseph Cotten - Petersburg, Virginia].
- Cotten, Joseph (1987). Vanity Will Get You Somewhere. Mercury House. ISBN 0-86287-334-7.
- "Citizen Cotten". New York: MovieMaker, archived 2007-06-18 from the original at the Internet Archive. Retrieved 2013-08-29.
- Kneebone, John T., et al., eds. Dictionary of Virginia Biography (Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1998- ), 3:478-481. ISBN 0-88490-206-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joseph Cotten.|
- Joseph Cotten at the Internet Broadway Database
- Joseph Cotten at the Internet Movie Database
- Joseph Cotten at the TCM Movie Database
- Works by or about Joseph Cotten in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Joseph Cotten at Find a Grave
- The Joseph Cotten Pages fan site
- 1959-08-02 Joseph Cotten - Red Cloud Mesa (Audio file, 20 mins)
- Photographs and literature