The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates

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The silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus), found only in Madagascar, has been on The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates list since its inception in 2000. Between 100 and 1,000 individuals are left in the wild.

The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates is a list of highly endangered primate species selected and published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group (IUCN/SSC PSG), the International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI).[1] The 2012–2014 list added the Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation (BCSF) to the list of publishers.[2] The IUCN/SSC PSG worked with CI to start the list in 2000, but in 2002, during the 19th Congress of the International Primatological Society, primatologists reviewed and debated the list, resulting in the 2002–2004 revision and the endorsement of the IPS. The publication has since been a joint project between the three conservation organizations and has been revised every two years following the biannual Congress of the IPS.[1] Starting with the 2004–2006 report, the title changed to "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates".[3] That same year, the list began to provide information about each species, including their conservation status and the threats they face in the wild.[1] The species text is written in collaboration with experts from the field, with 60 people contributing to the 2006–2008 report[4] and 85 people contributing to the 2008–2010 report.[1] The 2004–2006 and 2006–2008 reports were published in the IUCN/SSC PSG journal Primate Conservation,[3][5] while the 2008–2010 and 2010-2012 report were published as independent publications by all three contributing organizations.[1][6]

The 25 species on the 2012–2014 list are distributed between 16 countries. The countries with the most species on the list are Madagascar (six species), Vietnam (five species), and Indonesia (three species). The list is broken into four distinct regions: the island of Madagascar, the continent of Africa, the continent of Asia including the islands of Indonesia, and the Neotropics (Central and South America). Five species have been on all seven published lists: the silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus), Delacour's langur (Trachypithecus delacouri), golden-headed langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus poliocephalus), grey-shanked douc (Pygathrix cinerea), and the Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus).[2]

The purpose of the list, according to Russell Mittermeier, the president of CI, is "to highlight those [primate species] that are most at risk, to attract the attention of the public, to stimulate national governments to do more, and especially to find the resources to implement desperately needed conservation measures."[7] Species are selected for the list based on two primary reasons: extremely small population sizes and very rapid drops in numbers. These reasons are heavily influenced by habitat loss and hunting, the two greatest threats primates face. More specifically, threats listed in the report include deforestation due to slash and burn agriculture, clearing for pasture or farmland, charcoal production, firewood production, illegal logging, selective logging, mining, land development, and cash crop production; forest fragmentation; small population sizes; live capture for the exotic pet trade; and hunting for bushmeat and traditional medicine.[1]

Key[edit]

Key for column headings
Species Common and scientific name of the species, including a picture if available
Years listed Years the species has been included in the IUCN's list of the "Top 25 Most Endangered Primates"
Location(s) Countries in which it is found
Estimated population Latest population estimate from the IUCN
IUCN status Conservation status of the species, per the IUCN as of the date of the latest list publication
Threats A list of threats facing the species; used by the IUCN in assessing conservation status

Current list[edit]

The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Madagascar[2]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Eulemur flavifrons
Blue-eyed black lemur
Eulemur flavifrons
2008
2010
2012
Madagascar 450–2,300 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[8]
  • very small range (~2,700 km2)
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, selective logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Northern sportive lemur
Lepilemur septentrionalis
2008
2010
2012
Madagascar ~19 individuals in 2012 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[9]
  • very small range
  • habitat loss (firewood, charcoal production, Eucalyptus plantations)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Propithecus candidus
Silky sifaka
Propithecus candidus
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Madagascar <250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[10]
  • very small range
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss (slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, firewood)
Madame Berthe's mouse lemur
Microcebus berthae
2012 Madagascar <8,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[11]
  • loss of habitat and fragmentation (slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging)
Varecia rubra
Red ruffed lemur
Varecia rubra
2012 Madagascar unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[12]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, human encroachment)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Indri indri
Indri
Indri indri
2012 Madagascar unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[13]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, firewood)
  • hunting (bushmeat, skins)
The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Africa[2]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Rondo dwarf galago
Galagoides rondoensis
2006
2008
2010
2012
Tanzania unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[14]
  • very small range
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, charcoal production, logging)
Cercopithecus roloway
Roloway monkey
Cercopithecus roloway
2002
2006
2008
2010
2012
Côte d'Ivoire
Ghana
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[15]
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, charcoal production, logging)
Tana River red colobus
Procolobus rufomitratus
2002
2004
2006
2008
2012
Kenya 1,100–1,300 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[16]
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, fire, firewood, selective logging for local use [houses, canoes])
  • habitat degradation (livestock, dam construction, irrigation projects)
  • parasitic infection of isolated populations
Bioko red colobus
Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
2004
2006
2010
2012
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Island) <5,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[17]
  • habitat degradation
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • small range
Gorilla beringei graueri
Eastern lowland gorilla
Gorilla beringei graueri
2010
2012
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,000–10,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[18]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, pastoral farming, illegal mining, charcoal production, wood and bamboo harvesting)
  • hunting (bushmeat, infant capture)
The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Asia[2]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Nycticebus javanicus
Javan slow loris
Nycticebus javanicus
2008
2010
2012
Indonesia (Java) unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[19]
  • live capture (pet trade [intense])
  • hunting (traditional medicine [intense])
  • habitat loss (agriculture, development activities [roads], human disturbance)
Pig-tailed langur
Simias concolor
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Indonesia (Mentawai Islands) 700–3,347 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[20]
  • habitat loss (human encroachment, product extraction, commercial logging, conversion to cash crops and oil palm plantations)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Delacour's langur
Trachypithecus delacouri
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam <250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[21]
  • habitat fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Golden-headed langur
Trachypithecus poliocephalus poliocephalus
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam 60–70 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[22]
  • habitat fragmentation (human encroachment, development for tourism)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Western purple-faced langur
Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Sri Lanka unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[23]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (urbanization, agricultural encroachment)
  • dependent on gardens for survival
  • live capture (pet trade)
  • hunting (pests)
  • other human factors (electrocution [power lines], road kill, dog attacks)
Grey-shanked douc
Pygathrix cinerea
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam 600–700 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[24]
  • restricted range
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, illegal logging, firewood)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Rhinopithecus avunculus
Tonkin snub-nosed monkey
Rhinopithecus avunculus
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam 200–250+ Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[25]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (logging, firewood, roads)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Eastern black crested gibbon
Nomascus nasutus
2008
2010
2012
China
Vietnam
around 110 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[26]
  • habitat loss, fragmentation, and disturbance (agricultural encroachment, pastoral farming, firewood, charcoal production)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Pygmy tarsier
Tarsius pumilus
2012 Indonesia (Sulawesi) unknown Status none DD.svg
Data Deficient
[27]
  • habitat loss (human encroachment)
The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Neotropics[2]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Ateles hybridus
Brown spider monkey
Ateles hybridus
2004[N 1]
2006
2008
2010
2012
Colombia
Venezuela
unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[28]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, cattle-ranching, logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Brown-headed spider monkey
Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
2006
2012
Ecuador unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[29]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Kaapori capuchin
Cebus kaapori
2012 Brazil unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[30]
  • habitat loss and degradation (selective logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Rio Mayo titi
Callicebus oenanthe
2012 Peru unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[31]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (rice and coffee plantations, roads, cattle-ranching)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Alouatta guariba guariba
Northern brown howler
Alouatta guariba guariba
2012 Brazil <250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[32]
  • habitat loss (selective logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • disease epidemics

Former list members[edit]

With each new publication, species are both added and removed from the list. In some cases, removal from the list signifies improvement for the species. With the publication of the 2006–2008, four species were removed from the list because of increased conservation efforts: the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus), golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei), and Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus perrieri).[33] In 2008, the black lion tamarin went from Critically Endangered to Endangered and the golden lion tamarin was similarly promoted in 2003 after three decades of collaborative conservation efforts by zoos and other institutions. Well-protected species such as these still have very small populations, and due to deforestation, new habitat is still needed for their long-term survival.[7] The Hainan black crested gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), which was removed from the 2008–2010 list, still has fewer than 20 individuals left, but significant efforts to protect it are now being made.[1] Mittermeier claimed in 2007 that all 25 species would be elevated off the list within five to ten years if conservation organizations had the necessary resources.[33]

Unlike the changes in the 2006–2008 report, not all species were removed from the 2008–2010 list due to improvement in their situation. Instead, new species were added to bring attention to other closely related species with very small populations that are also at risk of extinction. For example, the highly endangered eastern black crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) replaced the Hainan black crested gibbon. The Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) replaced the Horton Plains slender loris (Loris tardigradus nycticeboides) because the former has been hit the hardest of Asian lorises, all of which are declining rapidly due primarily to capture for the exotic pet trade, as well as use in traditional medicines and forest loss. In another case, the brown-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) was omitted from the list since no spokesperson could be found for the species.[1] The same approach was taken with the 2012–2014 list.[2]

Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Madagascar[1][2]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Prolemur simus
Greater bamboo lemur
Prolemur simus
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
Madagascar 100–160 or fewer Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[34]
  • small, isolated populations
  • loss of habitat and fragmentation (slash-and-burn agriculture, mining, illegal logging, cutting of bamboo)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • reduced availability of drinking water due to climatic change
  • extreme dietary specialization and dependency on giant bamboo
Varecia variegata
Black-and-white ruffed lemur
Varecia variegata
2010 Madagascar unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[35]
  • loss of habitat and fragmentation (slash-and-burn agriculture, mining, logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Gray-headed lemur
Eulemur cinereiceps
2004
2006
2008
Madagascar 7,265 ± 2,268 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[36]
  • very small range (~700 km2)
  • hybridization with Red-fronted Lemur (E. rufifrons)
  • low population densities
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fragmented, small populations)
  • cyclones
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Propithecus tattersalli
Golden-crowned sifaka
Propithecus tattersalli
2000 Madagascar 6,000–10,000[37] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[37]
  • hunting (by gold miners)
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, uncontrolled grass fires, wood extraction [housing & firewood], selective logging, gold mining)[37]
Hapalemur aureus
Golden bamboo lemur
Hapalemur aureus
2000 Madagascar fewer than 5,916[38] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[38]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, cutting of bamboo [for building houses, carrying water, making baskets and other local uses])
  • hunting (bushmeat)[38]
Hapalemur alaotrensis
Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur
Hapalemur alaotrensis
2000 Madagascar around 2,500[39] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[39]
  • loss of habitat (agricultural encroachment, burning of marshlands [to catch fish and for cattle grazing]
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (local pet trade)[39]
Lepilemur sahamalazensis
Sahamalaza sportive lemur
Lepilemur sahamalazensis
2006 Madagascar unknown Status none DD.svg
Data Deficient
[40]
  • loss of habitat (agricultural encroachment, charcoal production, selective logging for local use [houses])
  • hunting (bushmeat)[40]
Propithecus perrieri
Perrier's sifaka
Propithecus perrieri
2000
2002
2004
Madagascar around 915[41] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[41]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, charcoal production, fires to clear forest for pasture, mining)
  • hunting (bushmeat)[41]
Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Africa[1][2]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Mt. Rungwe galago
Galagoides sp.
2004 Tanzania unknown Not Evaluated
  • loss of habitat (logging, agricultural encroachment, charcoal production)
  • hunting (bushmeat)[3]
Sclater's guenon
Sclater's guenon
Cercopithecus sclateri
2000 Nigeria unknown Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[42]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (logging, agricultural encroachment, oil exploration)
  • high human density
  • hunting (bushmeat)[42]
Mandrillus leucophaeus
Drill
Mandrillus leucophaeus
2000 Cameroon
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko)
Nigeria
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[43]
  • small range
  • loss of habitat (clearcutting [for chipboard factories and settlement])
  • hunting (bushmeat, persecution as pests)[43]
Tana River mangabey
Cercocebus galeritus galeritus
2002 Kenya 1,000–1,200[44] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[44]
  • loss of habitat (palm oil production, logging, agricultural encroachment, grass fires intended to prevent forest regeneration, overgrazing, damming and irrigation projects)
  • hunting (persecution as pests)[44]
Cercocebus sanjei
Sanje mangabey
Cercocebus sanjei
2000
2002
2004
Tanzania fewer than 1,300[45] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[45]
  • loss of habitat (logging, charcoal production)
  • hunting (persecution as pests)[45]
Cercocebus atys lunulatus
Sooty mangabey
Cercocebus atys lunulatus
2000
2002
2004
Côte d'Ivoire
Ghana
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[46]
  • habitat loss and degradation
  • hunting (bushmeat)[46]
Miss Waldron's red colobus
Piliocolobus badius waldronae
2000
2002
2006
Côte d'Ivoire
Ghana
unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[47]
  • very small populations (recent, very rapid declines in numbers)
  • habitat loss
  • hunting (bushmeat)[47]
Gorilla beringei beringei
Mountain gorilla
Gorilla beringei beringei
2000
2002
2004
Rwanda
Uganda
around 600 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[48]
  • two isolated populations
  • political instability
  • human diseases
  • hunting (bushmeat)[48]
Niger Delta red colobus
Procolobus epieni
2008
2010
Nigeria unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[49]
  • very small range (~1,500 km2)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss and degradation (logging of important food trees, loss of marsh forests due to canal construction)
Rungwecebus kipunji
Kipunji
Rungwecebus kipunji
2006
2008
Tanzania around 1,117 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[50]
  • very small range
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Gorilla gorilla diehli
Cross River gorilla
Gorilla gorilla diehli
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Cameroon
Nigeria
200–300 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[51]
  • small, restricted range
  • habitat loss (agricultural encroachment, fires to clear forest or improve pasture, development activities [roads])
  • hunting (bushmeat, wire snares set for other wildlife)
Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Asia[1]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Horton Plains slender loris
Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
2004
2006
Sri Lanka unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[52]
  • five isolated populations
  • habitat loss
  • hunting (bushmeat)[52]
Natuna Island surili
Presbytis natunae
2002 Indonesia fewer than 10,000[53] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[53]
  • two isolated populations
  • habitat loss and degradation
  • live capture (pet trade)[53]
White-headed langur
Trachypithecus poliocephalus leucocephalus
2002 China unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[54]
  • very small populations (recent, very rapid declines in numbers)
  • habitat loss
  • hunting[54]
Miller's grizzled langur
Presbytis hosei canicrus
2004 Indonesia (Kalimantan) unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[55]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting[55]
Black snub-nosed monkey
Rhinopithecus bieti
2002 China fewer than 2,000[56] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[56]
  • habitat loss (logging, fires for agricultural use, pasture)
  • pesticide use
  • hunting (non-targeted [snares])[56]
Gray snub-nosed monkey
Rhinopithecus brelichi
2002 China around 750[57] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[57]
  • one isolated population (vulnerable to epidemic disease or catastrophes)
  • habitat loss (forest clearing, development for tourism, agricultural expansion, firewood)
  • hunting (non-targeted)[57]
Hylobates moloch
Silvery gibbon
Hylobates moloch
2000 Indonesia (Java) 4,000–4,500[58] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[58]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • live capture (pet trade)[58]
Nomascus hainanus
Hainan black crested gibbon
Nomascus hainanus
2000
2004
2006
China (Hainan) around 20[59] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[59]
  • extremely small population size
  • suboptimal, protected habitat
  • possible gender bias in recent births
  • hunting (bushmeat)[59]
Siau Island tarsier
Tarsius tumpara
2006
2008
2010
Indonesia (Siau Island) Low thousands at best Not Evaluated
  • island population (near an active volcano)
  • very small range
  • high human density
  • hunting [bushmeat (used as snack food)]
  • habitat degradation
Hoolock hoolock
Western hoolock gibbon
Hoolock hoolock
2006
2008
Bangladesh
India
Myanmar
fewer than 5,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[60]
  • very small populations (recent, very rapid declines in numbers)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (human encroachment, tea plantations, slash-and-burn cultivation)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Pongo abelii
Sumatran orangutan
Pongo abelii
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Indonesia (Sumatra) around 6,600 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[61]
  • recent, very rapid declines in numbers
  • only 10 fragmented habitat units
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fires, agriculture and oil palm plantations, roads, logging, encroachment)
  • hunting (pests, bushmeat) [occasional]
  • live capture (pet trade) [occasional]
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
Northwest Bornean orangutan
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
2010 Indonesia (West Kalimantan, Borneo)
Malaysia (Sarawak)
<population> Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[62]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fires, agriculture and oil palm plantations, roads, logging, encroachment)
  • hunting (pests, bushmeat, traditional medicine)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Macaca silenus
Lion-tailed macaque
Macaca silenus
2010 India <4,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[63]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agriculture and tea/coffee plantations, logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Neotropics[1]
Species Years listed Location(s) Estimated population IUCN status Threats
Leontopithecus rosalia
Golden lion tamarin
Leontopithecus rosalia
2000 Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) more than 1,000[64] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[64]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fires to clear forest for pasture)
  • live capture (pet trade)[64]
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Black lion tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
2000 Brazil (São Paulo) around 1,000[65] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[65]
  • small population size (11 isolated populations, but only one is viable)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation[65]
Superagui lion tamarin
Superagui lion tamarin
Leontopithecus caissara
2000
2002
2004
Brazil (Paraná and São Paulo) fewer than 400[66] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[66]
  • small, isolated populations
  • habitat loss and degradation (agricultural encroachment, palm heart harvesting, tourism)
  • high human density (increased squatting by impoverished people, land speculation)
  • hunting (bushmeat)[66]
Cebus xanthosternos
Golden-bellied capuchin
Cebus xanthosternos
2000
2002
2004
Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais?) unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[67]
  • habitat loss
  • hunting (bushmeat)[67]
Northern muriqui
Northern muriqui
Brachyteles hypoxanthus
2000
2002
2004
Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais) more than 855[68] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[68]
  • small, isolated populations
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat [past], sport [past])[68]
Oreonax flavicauda
Yellow-tailed woolly monkey
Oreonax flavicauda
2000
2006
2008
2010
Peru unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[69]
  • restricted range
  • low population densities
  • habitat loss (agriculture, logging, roads, colonization)
  • hunting (bushmeat, fur)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Saguinus oedipus
Cotton-top tamarin
Saguinus oedipus
2008 Colombia fewer than 6,000 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[70]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (large-scale agricultural production [cattle] and farming, logging, oil palm plantations, hydroelectric projects)
  • live capture (pet trade [current], biomedical research [past])
Cebus flavius
Blond capuchin
Cebus flavius
2010 Brazil 180 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[71]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (coastal development and sugar cane plantations)
  • live capture (pet trade)
  • hunting (bushmeat)

List history[edit]

With the exception of the 2000–2002 publication, which was written collaboratively by the IUCN/SSC PSG and CI, the list has been revised every two years following the biannual Congress of the IPS. The 2002–2004 list resulted from the 19th Congress of the IPS in Beijing, China; the 2004–2006 list followed the 20th Congress of the IPS, held in Torino, Italy; the 2006–2008 list after the 21st Congress in Entebbe, Uganda; the 2008–2010 list followed the 22nd Congress held in Edinburgh, UK; the 2010-2012 list followed the 23rd Congress in Kyoto; and the 2012–2014 list after the 26th Congress in Cancún.[1]

The 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species offered assessments of 634 primate taxa, of which 303 (47.8%) were listed as threatened (Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered). A total of 206 primate species were ranked as either Critically Endangered or Endangered, 54 (26%) of which have been included at least once in The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates since 2000.[1]

Historical membership[1]
Madagascar Africa Asia Neotropics
2000–2002
  • Propithecus candidus[N 2]
  • Propithecus perrieri[N 3]
  • Propithecus tattersalli
  • Hapalemur aureus
  • Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis[N 4]
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Gorilla b. beringei[N 5]
  • Cercocebus sanjei[N 6]
  • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
  • Procolobus badius waldronae[N 7]
  • Cercopithecus sclateri
  • Mandrillus leucophaeus
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus[N 8]
  • Pygathrix cinerea[N 9]
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Hylobates moloch
  • Nomascus hainanus[N 10]
  • Brachyteles hypoxanthus
  • Cebus xanthosternos
  • Leontopithecus caissara
  • Leontopithecus rosalia
  • Leontopithecus chrysopygus
  • Oreonax flavicauda[N 11]
2002–2004
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Propithecus perrieri
  • Prolemur simus
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Gorilla b. beringei
  • Cercocebus galeritus sanjei
  • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
  • Procolobus badius waldronae[N 7]
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Cercocebus g. galeritus
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus[N 8]
  • Pygathrix cinerea[N 9]
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Presbytis natunae
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus leucocephalus[N 12]
  • Rhinopithecus bieti
  • Rhinopithecus brelichi
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Brachyteles hypoxanthus
  • Cebus xanthosternos
  • Leontopithecus caissara
2004–2006
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Propithecus perrieri
  • Prolemur simus
  • Eulemur cinereiceps[N 13]
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Gorilla b. beringei[N 5]
  • Cercocebus galeritus sanjei
  • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Procolobus p. pennantii
  • Galagoides sp.
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
  • Presbytis hosei canicrus
  • Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
  • Nomascus hainanus[N 10]
  • Brachyteles hypoxanthus
  • Cebus xanthosternos
  • Leontopithecus caissara
  • Ateles hybridus brunneus
2006–2008
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Lepilemur sahamalazensis
  • Prolemur simus
  • Eulemur cinereiceps[N 13]
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Procolobus p. pennantii
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Rungwecebus kipunji
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Procolobus badius waldroni[N 7]
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
  • Hoolock hoolock
  • Nomascus hainanus
  • Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
  • Tarsius tumpara[N 14]
  • Ateles hybridus[N 1]
  • Oreonax flavicauda
  • Ateles f. fusciceps[N 15]
2008–2010
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Prolemur simus
  • Eulemur cinereiceps
  • Eulemur flavifrons
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Rungwecebus kipunji
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Procolobus epieni
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
  • Hoolock hoolock
  • Tarsius tumpara
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Ateles hybridus[N 1]
  • Oreonax flavicauda
  • Saguinus oedipus
2010–2012
  • Eulemur flavifrons
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Prolemur simus
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Varecia variegata
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
  • Piliocolobus epieni
  • Gorilla beringei graueri
  • Tarsius tumpara
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Macaca silenus
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus poliocephalus
  • Semnopithecus vetulus nestor
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
  • Ateles hybridus[N 1]
  • Cebus flavius
  • Callicebus barbarabrownae
  • Oreonax flavicauda
2012–2014
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Eulemur flavifrons
  • Microcebus berthae
  • Varecia rubra
  • Indri indri
  • Cercopithecus roloway
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
  • Piliocolobus rufomitratus
  • Gorilla beringei graueri
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
  • Tarsius pumilus
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Ateles hybridus[N 1]
  • Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
  • Cebus kaapori
  • Callicebus oenanthe
  • Alouatta guariba guariba

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e The subspecies Ateles hybridus brunneus was listed in the 2004–2006 report, but the listing was expanded to cover both subspecies of Ateles hybridus starting with the 2006–2008 report.[1][3][5]
  2. ^ In the 2000–2002 report, this lemur was listed as Propithecus diadema candidus, but it has since been reclassified as a separate species, Propithecus candidus.[1][72][73]
  3. ^ In the 2000–2002 report, this lemur was listed as Propithecus diadema perrieri, but it has since been reclassified as a separate species, Propithecus perrieri.[1][72][73]
  4. ^ In the 2000–2002 report, this lemur was listed as Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis, but it has since been reclassified as a separate species, Hapalemur alaotrensis.[1][72]
  5. ^ a b In the 2000–2002 and 2004–2006 reports, this gorilla was listed as Gorilla beringei, but other reports instead used Gorilla b. beringei.[1][3][72][73]
  6. ^ In the 2000–2002 and 2002–2004 reports, the mangabey was listed as Cercocebus galeritus sanjei, but it has since been classified as a separate species, Cercocebus sanjei.[1]
  7. ^ a b c In the 2000–2002, 2002–2004, and 2006–2008 reports, this colobus monkey was listed as Procolobus badius waldroni, but the spelling of the name has since been corrected to waldronae.[72][73][74]
  8. ^ a b In the 2000–2002 and 2002–2004 reports, this monkey was listed as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, but with other subspecies now recognized by the IUCN, it is now known as Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus.[1][3][72][73]
  9. ^ a b In the 2000–2002 and 2002–2004 reports, this douc was listed as Pygathrix nemaeus cinerea, but has since been recognized as a separate species, Pygathrix cinerea.[1][3]
  10. ^ a b In the 2000–2002 and 2004–2006 reports, this gibbon was listed as Hylobates concolor hainanus, but it has since been recognized as a separate species and placed in the genus Nomascus, so that it is known as Nomascus hainanus.[1][72]
  11. ^ In the 2000–2002 report, this species was listed as Lagothrix flavicauda, but it has since been renamed to Oreonax flavicauda.[1]
  12. ^ In the 2002–2004 report, this monkey was listed as Trachypithecus leucocephalus, but it is now considered only a subspecies, Trachypithecus poliocephalus leucocephalus.[1][73]
  13. ^ a b In the 2004–2006 and 2006–2008 reports, this species was listed as Eulemur albocollaris, but it has since been renamed to Eulemur cinereiceps.[1]
  14. ^ In the 2006–2008 report, this tarsier was listed as "Tarsius sp.", but it has since been formally named as Tarsius tumpara.[1][5]
  15. ^ The species Ateles fusciceps was listed in the 2006–2008 report, but the common name and description match the later identified subspecies, Ateles fusciceps fusciceps.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Mittermeier, R.A.; Wallis, J.; Rylands, A.B.; Ganzhorn, J.U.; Oates, J.F.; Williamson, E.A.; Palacios, E.; Heymann, E.W.; Kierulff, M.C.M.; Long Yongcheng; Supriatna, J.; Roos, C.; Walker, S.; Cortés-Ortiz, L.; Schwitzer, C., eds. (2009). "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2008–2010" (PDF). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI). pp. 1–92. doi:10.1896/052.024.0101. ISBN 978-1-934151-34-1. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mittermeier, R.A.; Schwitzer, C.; Rylands, A.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Chiozza, F.; Williamson, E.A.; Wallis, J., eds. (2012). "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2012–2014" (PDF). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), Conservation International (CI), and Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation (BCSF). pp. 1–40. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Mittermeier, R.A.; Valladares-Pádua, C.; Rylands, A.B.; Eudey, A.A.; Butynski, T.M.; Ganzhorn, J.U.; Kormos, R.; Aguiar, J.M.; Walker, S., eds. (2006). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2004–2006" (PDF). Primate Conservation (IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group) 20: 1–28. doi:10.1896/0898-6207.20.1.1. 
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