List of threatened rays

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The giant manta ray, the largest ray in the world, has been targeted by fisheries to the point where it has become vulnerable.[1] In 2013, manta rays were listed as CITES Appendix II species, which gives them some international protection.[2]

The market for shark and ray products is first and foremost a luxury one... The gill plates, in the case of manta rays, are used in China for a tonic soup that has become fashionable because of its perceived medicinal properties, even though it is not in the traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia. This is a recent trend and has caused the demise of some population of manta ray to decrease by up to 86% in the last six to eight years.

WWF 2013 [3]

Threatened rays are those vulnerable to endangerment (extinction) in the near future. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s oldest global environmental organization.[4] It evaluates threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened:[5]

VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable species
EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered species
CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[5] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[6]

Together rays and sharks make up the class of modern cartilaginous fishes. Modern fish are either cartilaginous or bony. Cartilaginous fishes have skeletons made of cartilage while bony fishes have skeletons made of bone. Because rays and sharks are closely related, they are often studied together. In 2010 a global IUCN study of vertebrates found that of 1,044 cartilaginous (ray and shark) species examined, 345 or 33% were threatened with extinction.[7][8]

There are four orders of rays: stingrays, skates, electric rays and sawfishes. Like sharks, rays are relatively long living and thrive in stable populations. They are K-strategists which grow slowly, mature late sexually and produce few offspring. They cannot recover as rapidly as many faster growing fish can if their populations are depleted.[9] As with sharks, rays are increasingly becoming vulnerable because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-ray fisheries on the seabed and ray prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[10] Most particularly, the continuing decline of threatened rays and sharks is the consequence of unregulated fishing.[11]

Sawfish are a family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. All species in the family are either endangered or critically endangered[12]

Manta rays are largest rays in the world, with wingspans reaching 7 metres.[13] They have one of the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all fish.[14] Manta populations suffer when they are caught as bycatch by fishermen fishing for other species, but fisheries which target manta rays are even more harmful. Manta rays use their gills to filter plankton from the sea. Demand for their dried gill rakers, cartilaginous structures protecting the gills, has been growing in traditional Chinese medicine practices.[15] The market is "bogus" since dried manta gills have never been used historically in Chinese medicine, and there is no evidence that the gills have any medicinal value.[13][16][17] The flesh is edible and is consumed in some countries, but is tough and unattractive compared to other fish. To fill the growing demand in Asia for gill rakers, targeted fisheries have developed in other parts of the world, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia, West Africa and Central and South America.[18] Each year, thousands of manta rays, primarily the giant manta ray, are being caught and killed purely for their gill rakers. A fisheries study in Sri Lanka estimated that over a thousand of these were being sold in the country's fish markets each year.[19]

In 2011, manta rays became strictly protected in international waters thanks to their recent inclusion in the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The CMS is an international treaty organization concerned with conserving migratory species and habitats on a global scale. Although individual nations were already protecting manta rays, the fish often migrate through unregulated waters, putting them at increased risk from overfishing.[20] In 2013, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listed both species of manta rays as CITES Appendix II species. This means that the international trade of manta rays will now be monitored and regulated.[2][21]

Sawfish are a less well known family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. Some species can reach 7 metres or 23 feet in length.[22][23][24] All species of sawfish are either endangered or critically endangered as a result of habitat destruction and overfishing.[12] Their young stay close to shore, and are particularly affected by coastal developments.[25] Because their rostrum is easily entangled, sawfishes can easily become bycatch in fishing nets. They are also exploited for the novelty value of their rostrum, their fins are eaten as a delicacy in China, and their liver oil used as a food supplement. While arguing for a global ban on international commerce in 2007, a representative from the National Museums of Kenya stated, "Only the meat is consumed locally; and artisanal fishermen can retire after catching one sawfish due to the high value of a single rostrum, up to $1,450."[12] In 2013 CITES uplisted the largetooth sawfish to Appendix I. This is CITES highest protection level, and means that all international trade of the species is banned.[26][27]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO Comment
Stingray Aetobatus flagellum Longheaded eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[28] [29]
Stingray Aetomylaeus maculatus.jpg Aetomylaeus maculatus Mottled eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[28] [30]
Stingray Aetomylaeus nichofii Banded eagle ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[31] [32]
Stingray Aetomylaeus vespertilio Ornate eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[33] [34]
Skate Amblyraja radiata Gervais.jpg Amblyraja radiata Thorny skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[35] [36]
Sawfish AnoxypristisCuspidataCSIRO.jpg Anoxypristis cuspidata Knifetooth sawfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[37] [38]
Stingray Aptychotrema timorensis Spotted shovelnose ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[39] [40]
Skate Atlantoraja castelnaui Spotback skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[41] [42]
Skate Atlantoraja cyclophora Eyespot skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[43] [44]
Skate Atlantoraja platana.jpg Atlantoraja platana La Plata skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[45] [46]
Skate Bathyraja griseocauda Graytail skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[47] [48]
Electric ray Benthobatis kreffti Brazilian blind electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[49] [50]
Stingray Dasyatis colarensis Colares stingray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[51] [52]
Stingray Brendos stingray.jpg Dasyatis fluviorum Estuary stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[53] [54]
Stingray Dasyatis garouaensis Smooth freshwater stingray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[55] [56] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis laosensis Mekong freshwater stingray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[57] [58] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis margarita Daisy stingray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[59] [60]
Stingray Dasyatis ukpam Daisy stingray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[61] [62] freshwater
Electric ray Diplobatis colombiensis Colombian electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[63] [64]
Electric ray Diplobatis guamachensis Brownband numbfish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[65] [66]
Electric ray Bullseye Stingray - Day 267.jpg Diplobatis ommata Ocellated electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[67] [68]
Electric ray Diplobatis pictus Variegated electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[69] [70]
Skate Dipturus australis Sydney skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[71] [72]
Skate Vangst van een vleet.jpg Dipturus batis Blue skate decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[73] [74]
Skate Dipturus crosnieri Madagascar skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[75] [76]
Skate Dipturus laevis 2.jpg Dipturus laevis Barndoor skate stable EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[77] [78]
Skate Dipturus mennii South Brazilian skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[79] [80]
Skate Dipturus trachydermus Roughskin skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[81] [82]
Electric ray Electrolux addisoni Ornate sleeper ray unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[83] [84]
Skate Glaucostegus granulatus Sharpnose guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[85] [86]
Skate Glaucostegus thouin Clubnose guitarfish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[87] [88]
Skate Glaucostegus typus Common shovelnose ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[89] [90]
Skate Gurgesiella dorsalifera Onefin skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[91] [92]
Stingray Gymnura altavela.jpg Gymnura altavela Spiny butterfly ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[93] [94]
Stingray Gymnura zonura Zonetail butterfly ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[95] [96]
Electric ray Heteronarce garmani Natal electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[97] [98]
Stingray Whipray mandalay bay2.jpg Himantura gerrardi Whitespotted whipray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[99] [100] freshwater
Stingray Himantura polylepis.jpg Himantura chaophraya Giant freshwater stingray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[101] [102] freshwater
Stingray Himantura hortlei Hortle's whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[103] [104] freshwater
Stingray Himantura kittipongi Roughback whipray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[105] [106] freshwater
Stingray Himantura leoparda farglory.jpg Himantura leoparda Leopard whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[107] [108] freshwater
Stingray Himantura lobistoma Tubemouth whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[109] [110] freshwater
Stingray Stingray shedd.jpg Himantura oxyrhyncha Longnose marbled whipray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[111] [112] freshwater
Stingray Himantura pastinacoides Round whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[113] [114] freshwater
Stingray Himantura polylepis.jpg Himantura polylepis Giant freshwater stingray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[115] [116] freshwater
Stingray Himantura signifer White-edge freshwater whipray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[117] [118] freshwater
Stingray Himantura uarnacoides Bleeker's whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[119] [120] freshwater
Stingray Himantura Uarnak 2004 Australia.jpg Himantura uarnak Reticulate whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[121] [122] freshwater
Stingray Himantura undulata lisbon.jpg Himantura undulata Bleeker's variegated whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[123] [124] freshwater
Skate Leucoraja circularis.jpg Leucoraja circularis Sandy ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[125] [126]
Skate Leucoraja melitensis Maltese skate decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically Endangered[127] [128]
Skate Winter skate.jpg Leucoraja ocellata Winter skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[129] [130]
Stingray Myliobatis hamlyni Purple eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[131] [132]
Skate Smooth skate 2.jpg Malacoraja senta Smooth skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[133] [134]
Stingray Manta alfredi at a ‘cleaning station’ - journal.pone.0046170.g002B.png Manta alfredi Reef manta ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[135] [136]
Stingray Manta alfredi fushivaru thila.jpg Manta birostris Giant manta ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[1] [137]
Stingray Atlantic mobula lisbon.jpg Mobula mobular Giant devil ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[138] [139]
Stingray Mobula rochebrunei Lesser Guinean devil ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[140] [141]
Electric ray Fish4345 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg Narcine bancroftii Caribbean electric ray unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically Endangered[142] [143]
Electric ray Narcine brevilabiata Shortlip electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[144] [145]
Electric ray Narke japonica.jpg Narke japonica Japanese sleeper ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[146] [147]
Skate Okamejei pita Pita skate unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[148] [149]
Stingray Pastinachus solocirostris Roughnose stingray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[150] [151]
Stingray Platyrhina sinensis.jpg Platyrhina sinensis Fanray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[152] [153]
Sawfish Pristis clavata 2.jpg Pristis clavata Queensland sawfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[154] [155]
Sawfish Pristis pectinata - Georgia Aquarium Jan 2006.jpg Pristis pectinata Smalltooth sawfish unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[156] [157]
Sawfish Pristis pristis Common sawfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[158] [159]
Sawfish Sawfish genova.jpg Pristis zijsron Narrowsnout sawfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[160] [161]
Skate Raja pulchra.jpg Raja pulchra Mottled skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[162] [163]
Skate Raja undulata 2.jpg Raja undulata Undulate ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[164] [165]
Skate Rhina anyclostoma australia.jpg Rhina ancylostoma Bowmouth Guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[166] [167]
Skate Rhinobatos albomaculatus White-spotted guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[168] [169]
Skate Rhinobatos cemiculus.raie-guitare01.jpg Rhinobatos cemiculus Blackchin guitarfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[170] [171]
Skate Rhinobatos formosensis Taiwan guitarfish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[172] [173]
Skate Rhinobatos horkelii 2.jpg Rhinobatos horkelii Brazilian guitarfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[174] [175]
Skate Rhinobatos irvinei Spineback guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[176] [177]
Skate Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Jimbaran shovelnose ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[178] [179]
Skate Rhinobatos obtusus Widenose guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[180] [181]
Skate Rhinobatos penggali Indonesian shovelnose ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[182] [183]
Skate Rhinobatos Rhinobatos.jpg Rhinobatos rhinobatos Common guitarfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[184] [185]
Stingray Rhinoptera brasiliensis Brazilian cownose ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[186] [187]
Stingray Rhinoptera javanica.jpg Rhinoptera javanica Javanese cownose ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[188] [189]
Skate Rhinoraja albomaculata Whitedotted skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[190] [191]
Skate Rhynchobatus australiae White-spotted guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[192] [193]
Skate Rhynchobatus djiddensis durban.jpg Rhynchobatus djiddensis Giant guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[194] [195]
Skate Rhynchobatus laevis Smoothnose wedgefish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[196] [197]
Skate Rhynchobatus luebberti Lubbert's guitarfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[198] [199]
Skate Rhynchobatus sp. nov. A Roughnose wedgefish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[200] [201]
Skate Rhynchobatus springeri Broadnose wedgefish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[202] [203]
Skate Rioraja agassizii Rio skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[204] [205]
Skate Rostroraja alba.jpg Rostroraja alba Bottlenose skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[206] [207]
Skate Spiniraja whitleyi Melbourne skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[208] [209]
Skate Sympterygia acuta Bignose fanskate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[210] [211]
Stingray Taeniura meyeni makunudhoo.jpg Taeniura meyeni Round ribbontail ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[212] [213]
Electric ray Temera hardwickii by gray.jpg Temera hardwickii Finless sleeper ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[214] [215]
Skate Trygonorrhina sp.jpg Trygonorrhina melaleuca Magpie fiddler ray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[216] [217]
Stingray Urogymnus asperrimus.jpg Urogymnus asperrimus Porcupine ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[218] [219]
Stingray Urogymnus ukpam Pincushion ray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[220] [221]
Stingray Urolophus bucculentus Sandyback stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[222] [223]
Stingray Urolophus javanicus Java stingaree decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically Endangered[224] [225]
Stingray Urolophus orarius Coastal stingaree unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[226] [227]
Stingray Urolophus sufflavus Yellowback stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[228] [229]
Stingray Urolophus viridis Greenback stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[230] [231]
Stingray Urotrygon reticulata Reticulate round stingray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[232] [233]
Stingray Urotrygon simulatrix Fake round ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[234] [235]
Skate Zapteryx brevirostris.jpg Zapteryx brevirostris Shortnose Guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[236] [237]
Skate Zearaja chilensis Yellownose skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[238] [239]
Skate Zearaja maugeana Maugean skate unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[240] [241]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  93. ^ Vooren, C.M., Piercy, A.N., Snelson Jr., F.F., Grubbs, R.D., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. & Serena, S. (2007). "Gymnura altavela". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  125. ^ Ungaro, N., Serena, F., Ellis, J., Dulvy, N., Tinti, F., Bertozzi, M., Mancusi, C. & Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (2009). "Leucoraja circularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  127. ^ Ungaro, N., Serena, F., Dulvy, N.K., Tinti, F., Bertozzi, M., Pasolini, P., Mancusi, C., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G (2006). "Leucoraja melitensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  129. ^ Kulka, D.W., Sulikowski, J. & Gedamke, T. (2009). "Leucoraja ocellata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  133. ^ Sulikowski, J., Kulka, D., Gedamke, T. & Barker, A. (2009). "Malacoraja senta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  135. ^ Marshall, A., Kashiwagi, T., Bennett, M.B., Deakos, M., Stevens, G., McGregor, F., Clark, T., Ishihara, H. & Sato, K. (2011). "Manta alfredi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  138. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Serena, F. & Mancusi, C. (2006). "Mobula mobular". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  142. ^ Carvalho, M.R. de, McCord, M.E. & Myers, R.A. (2007). "Narcine bancroftii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  148. ^ Moore, A. & Jawad, L.A. (2009). "Okamejei pita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  150. ^ Fahmi, White, W., Manjaji, B.M., Vidthayanon, C., Badi, S. & Capuli, E. (2009). "Pastinachus solocirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  152. ^ Ishihara, H., Wang, Y., Tanaka, S. & Nakaya, K. (2009). "Platyrhina sinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  154. ^ Kyne, P.M., Rigby, C. & Simpfendorfer, C. (2013). "Pristis clavata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 August 2013. 
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  170. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Bradai, M.N., Morey, G., Brahim, K., Camara L., Litvinov, F., Dulvy, N. Doumbouya, F., Ducrocq, M., Heenan, A. & Sidi, N. (2007). "Rhinobatos cemiculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  184. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Bradai, M.N., Morey, G., Marshall, A.D., Compagno, L.J.V., Mouni, A., Hicham, M., Bucal, D., Dulvy, N., Heenan, A. & Rui Coelho. (2007). "Rhinobatos rhinobatos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  188. ^ Dudley, S.F.J, Kyne, P.M. & White, W.T. (2006). "Rhinoptera javanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  190. ^ McCormack, C., Lamilla, J., San Martín, M.J. & Stehmann, M.F.W. (2007). "Rhinoraja albomaculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  206. ^ Dulvy, N.K., Pasolini, P., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. Serena, F., Tinti, F., Ungaro, N., Mancusi, C. & Ellis, J.E. (2006). "Rostroraja alba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]