Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals. Time geography "is not a subject area per se," but rather an integrative ontological framework and visual language in which space and time are basic dimensions of analysis of dynamic processes. Time geography was originally developed by human geographers, but today it is applied in multiple fields related to transportation, regional planning, geography, anthropology, time use research, ecology, environmental science, and public health. "It is a basic approach, and every researcher can connect it to theoretical considerations in her or his own way."
Origins of time geography
Swedish geographer Torsten Hägerstrand created time geography in the mid-1960s based on ideas he had developed during his earlier empirical research on human migration patterns in Sweden. He sought "some way of finding out the workings of large socio-environmental mechanisms" using "a physical approach involving the study of how events occur in a time-space framework." Hägerstrand was inspired in part by conceptual advances in spacetime physics and by the philosophy of physicalism.
Hägerstrand's earliest formulation of time geography informally described its key ontological features: "In time-space the individual describes a path" within a situational context; "life paths become captured within a net of constraints, some of which are imposed by physiological and physical necessities and some imposed by private and common decisions." "It would be impossible to offer a comprehensive taxonomy of constraints seen as time-space phenomena," Hägerstrand said, but he "tentatively described" three important classes of constraints:
- capability constraints — limitations on the activity of individuals because of their biological structure and/or the tools they can command,
- coupling constraints — limitations that "define where, when, and for how long, the individual has to join other individuals, tools, and materials in order to produce, consume, and transact" (closely related to critical path analysis), and
- authority constraints — limitations on the domain or "time-space entity within which things and events are under the control of a given individual or a given group."
- the space-time aquarium (or space-time cube), which displays individual paths in axonometric graphical projection of space and time coordinates;
- the space-time prism, which shows individuals' possible behavior in time-space given their capability constraints and coupling constraints;
- bundles of paths, which are the conjunction of individual paths due in part to their capability constraints and coupling constraints, and which help to create "pockets of local order";
- concentric tubes or rings of accessibility, which indicate certain capability constraints of a given individual, such as limited spatial size and limited manual, oral-auditive and visual range; and
- nested hierarchies of domains, which show the authority constraints for a given individual or a given group.
While this innovative visual language is an essential feature of time geography, Hägerstrand's colleague Bo Lenntorp emphasized that it is the product of an underlying ontology, and "not the other way around. The notation system is a very useful tool, but it is a rather poor reflection of a rich world-view. In many cases, the notational apparatus has been the hallmark of time geography. However, the underlying ontology is the most important feature." Time geography is not only about time-geographic diagrams, just as music is not only about musical notation. Hägerstrand later explained: "What is briefly alluded to here is a 4-dimensional world of forms. This cannot be completely graphically depicted. On the other hand one ought to be able to imagine it with sufficient clarity for it to be of guidance in empirical and theoretical research."
By 1981, geographers Nigel Thrift and Allan Pred were already defending time geography against those who would see it "merely as a rigid descriptive model of spatial and temporal organization which lends itself to accessibility constraint analysis (and related exercises in social engineering)." They argued that time geography is not just a model of constraints; it is a flexible and evolving way of thinking about reality that can complement a wide variety of theories and research methods. In the decades since then, Hägerstrand and others have made efforts to expand his original set of concepts. By the end of his life, Hägerstrand had ceased using the phrase "time geography" to refer to this way of thinking and instead used words like topoecology.
Later developments in time geography
In 1993, British geographer Gillian Rose noted that "time-geography shares the feminist interest in the quotidian paths traced by people, and again like feminism, links such paths, by thinking about constraints, to the larger structures of society." However, she noted that time geography had not been applied to issues important to feminists, and she called it a form of "social science masculinity." Over the following two decades, feminist geographers have revisited time geography and have begun to use it as a tool to address feminist issues.
- Agent based modeling
- Geographic information system#Adding the dimension of time
- GIS and public health
- Historical ecology
- Material flow analysis
- Philosophy of space and time
- Time use research
- Thrift & Pred 1981, p. 277; Carlstein 1982, p. ii
- Lenntorp 1999, p. 155
- Sui 2012
- Lenntorp 1999, p. 158
- Lenntorp 1999, p. 157
- Hägerstrand 1970, p. 20–21
- In Hägerstrand 1983 and Kuklinski 1987, Hägerstrand cites the writings of Albert Einstein and Arthur Eddington on general relativity as inspirations. Physicalist philosopher and sociologist Otto Neurath is cited in Hägerstrand 1970. While these ideas are important sources for time-geographic ontology, time geography should not be portrayed as exclusively physicalist. Hägerstrand also cited phenomenologist Martin Heidegger and conservationist Rachel Carson as major influences, along with numerous geographers (Kuklinski 1987, p. 507). "Hägerstrand wanted to stress the importance of the material aspects of the real world as the basis of life, with an imperative for researchers to take basic constraints into consideration: that natural resources, time, and space are limited... Nevertheless, Torsten Hägerstrand was not a hardcore materialist. His materialism is embedded in a deep concern for the importance of human experiences, reflections, and reasoning for the development of geographical knowledge." (Ellegård & Svedin 2012, p. 18)
- Hägerstrand 1970, p. 10–11
- Hägerstrand 1970, p. 11–17
- Kuklinski 1987, p. 507; Buttimer & Mels 2006, p. 119; Ellegård & Svedin 2012
- Hägerstrand 1970, p. 12–17; Carlstein 1982, p. 40–50
- Lenntorp 1999, p. 156
- Hägerstrand & Carlstein 2004, p. 323
- Thrift & Pred 1981, p. 277
- For a more extensive list of Hägerstrand's publications, see Torsten Hägerstrand
- Ellegård & Svedin 2012, p. 18; Hägerstrand & Carlstein 2004, p. 323
- For example: Ellegård & de Pater 1999; Ellegård & Palm 2011; Fischer-Kowalski et al. 2010; Kwan 2004; Latham 2003; Ringhofer 2009; Schwanen & Kwan 2009; Singh et al. 2010; Tani & Surma-aho 2012
- For example: Baer & Butler 2000; Brasebin & Buard 2011; Downs, Horner & Tucker 2011; Huettmann & Cushman 2009
- Rose 1993, p. 18
- Rose 1993, p. 40
- For example: Kwan 2007; Kwan & Ding 2008; McQuoid & Dijst 2012; Scholten, Friberg & Sandén 2012
- Lewchanin & Zubrod 2001; Sunnqvist et al. 2007; Sunnqvist et al. 2013
- Baer, Leonard D; Butler, David R (April 2000). "Space–time modeling of grizzly bears". Geographical Review 90 (2): 206–221. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2000.tb00331.x.
- Brasebin, Mickaël; Buard, Elodie (2011). "Visual exploration of large animal trajectories". Proceedings of the 25th International Cartographic Conference, Paris, 3–8 July 2011. Paris: International Cartographic Association. ISBN 9781907075056. OCLC 781048687.
- Buttimer, Anne; Mels, Tom (2006). By northern lights: on the making of geography in Sweden. Foreword by Torsten Hägerstrand. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 0754648141. OCLC 63187516.
- Carlstein, Tommy (1982). Time resources, society, and ecology: on the capacity for human interaction in space and time. London; Boston: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0043000827. OCLC 7946554.
- Downs, Joni A; Horner, Mark W; Tucker, Anton D (September 2011). "Time-geographic density estimation for home range analysis". Annals of GIS 17 (3): 163–171. doi:10.1080/19475683.2011.602023.
- Ellegård, Kajsa; De Pater, Ben (July 1999). "The complex tapestry of everyday life". GeoJournal 48 (3): 149–153. doi:10.1023/A:1007059105684.
- Ellegård, Kajsa; Palm, Jenny (May 2011). "Visualizing energy consumption activities as a tool for making everyday life more sustainable". Applied Energy 88 (5): 1920–1926. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.11.019.
- Ellegård, Kajsa; Svedin, Uno (July 2012). "Torsten Hägerstrand's time-geography as the cradle of the activity approach in transport geography". Journal of Transport Geography 23: 17–25. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.023.
- Fischer-Kowalski, Marina; Singh, Simron Jit; Ringhofer, Lisa; Grünbühel, Clemens M; Lauk, Christian; Remesch, Alexander (March 2010). Sociometabolic regimes in indigenous communities and the crucial role of working time: a comparison of case studies (Technical report). Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University. ISSN 1726-3816. 121.
- Hägerstrand, Torsten (1970). "What about people in regional science?". Papers of the Regional Science Association 24 (1): 6–21. doi:10.1007/BF01936872.
- Hägerstrand, Torsten (1983). "In search for the sources of concepts". In Buttimer, Anne. The practice of geography. London; New York: Longman. pp. 238–256. ISBN 0582300878. OCLC 8629687.
- Hägerstrand, Torsten; Carlstein, Tommy (December 2004). "The two vistas". Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86 (4): 315–323. doi:10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00170.x.
- Huettmann, Falk; Cushman, Samuel A, eds. (2009). Spatial complexity, informatics, and wildlife conservation. Tokyo; New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-4-431-87771-4. ISBN 9784431877707. OCLC 567359237.
- Kuklinski, Antoni (1987). "Torsten Hägerstrand laudatio". GeoJournal 14 (4): 503–510. doi:10.1007/BF02602724.
- Kwan, Mei-Po (December 2004). "GIS methods in time-geographic research: geocomputation and geovisualization of human activity patterns". Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 86 (4): 267–280. doi:10.1111/j.0435-3684.2004.00167.x.
- Kwan, Mei-Po (2007). "Affecting geospatial technologies: toward a feminist politics of emotion". The Professional Geographer 59 (1): 22–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9272.2007.00588.x.
- Kwan, Mei-Po; Ding, Guoxiang (2008). "Geo-narrative: extending geographic information systems for narrative analysis in qualitative and mixed-method research". The Professional Geographer 60 (4): 443–465. doi:10.1080/00330120802211752.
- Latham, Allan (2003). "Research, performance, and doing human geography: some reflections on the diary-photograph, diary-interview method". Environment and Planning A 35 (11): 1993–2017. doi:10.1068/a3587.
- Lenntorp, Bo (July 1999). "Time-geography—at the end of its beginning". GeoJournal 48 (3): 155–158. doi:10.1023/A:1007067322523.
- Lewchanin, Shari; Zubrod, Louise A (July 2001). "Choices in life: a clinical tool for facilitating midlife review". Journal of Adult Development 8 (3): 193–196. doi:10.1023/A:1009598425503.
- McQuoid, Julia; Dijst, Martin (July 2012). "Bringing emotions to time geography: the case of mobilities of poverty". Journal of Transport Geography 23: 26–34. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.019.
- Ringhofer, Lisa (2009). Fishing, foraging and farming in the Bolivian Amazon: on a local society in transition. Dordrecht; London: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3487-8. ISBN 9789048134861. OCLC 436030901.
- Rose, Gillian (1993). Feminism and geography: the limits of geographical knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816624178. OCLC 27935641.
- Scholten, Christina; Friberg, Tora; Sandén, Annika (December 2012). "Re-reading time-geography from a gender perspective: examples from gendered mobility". Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 103 (5): 584–600. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9663.2012.00717.x.
- Schwanen, Tim; Kwan, Mei-Po (2009). "'Doing' critical geographies with numbers". The Professional Geographer 61 (4): 459–464. doi:10.1080/00330120903103072.
- Singh, Simron Jit; Ringhofer, Lisa; Haas, Willi; Krausmann, Fridolin; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina (March 2010). Local studies manual: a researcher's guide for investigating the social metabolism of local rural systems (Technical report). Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University. ISSN 1726-3816. 120.
- Sui, Daniel Z (July 2012). "Looking through Hägerstrand's dual vistas: towards a unifying framework for time geography". Journal of Transport Geography 23: 5–16. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.020.
- Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Persson, Ulla; Lenntorp, Bo; Träskman-Bendz, Lil (May 2007). "Time geography: a model for psychiatric life charting?". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 14 (3): 250–257. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01071.x. PMID 17430448.
- Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Persson, Ulla; Westrin, Åsa; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Lenntorp, Bo (April 2013). "Grasping the dynamics of suicidal behaviour: combining time-geographic life charting and COPE ratings". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 20 (4): 336–344. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2012.01928.x. PMID 22591326.
- Tani, Sirpa; Surma-Aho, Outi (2012). "Young people and the hidden meanings of the everyday: time-space path as a methodological opportunity". International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education 21 (3): 187–203. doi:10.1080/10382046.2012.698077.
- Thrift, Nigel; Pred, Allan (June 1981). "Time-geography: a new beginning". Progress in Human Geography 5 (2): 277–286. doi:10.1177/030913258100500209.
- Adams, Paul Channing (June 1995). "A reconsideration of personal boundaries in space-time". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85 (2): 267–285. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1995.tb01794.x.
- Adams, Paul Channing (2009). Geographies of media and communication: a critical introduction. Critical introductions to geography. Chichester, UK; Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781405154130. OCLC 237788695.
- Andrienko, Gennady; Andrienko, Natalia; Bak, Peter; Keim, Daniel; Wrobel, Stefan (2013). Visual analytics of movement. Heidelberg; Dordrecht; New York; London: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37583-5. ISBN 9783642375828. OCLC 859590676.
- Boman, Magnus; Holm, Einar (2004). "Multi-agent systems, time geography, and microsimulations". In Olsson, Mats-Olov; Sjöstedt, Gunnar. Systems approaches and their application: examples from Sweden. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 95–118. doi:10.1007/1-4020-2370-7_4. ISBN 1402023693. OCLC 55502669.
- Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro (December 2005). "Physics of transport and traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms". Physics of Life Reviews 2 (4): 318–352. doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2005.09.001.
- DiSalle, Robert (2011). "Pitholes in space-time: structure and ontology of physical geometry". In DeVidi, David; Hallett, Michael; Clarke, Peter. Logic, mathematics, philosophy, vintage enthusiasms: essays in honour of John L. Bell. The Western Ontario series in philosophy of science. New York: Springer. pp. 345–360. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0214-1_17. ISBN 9789400702134. OCLC 719361722.
- Gren, Martin (2001). "Time-geography matters". In May, Jon; Thrift, Nigel J. TimeSpace: geographies of temporality. Critical geographies, 13. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 208–225. ISBN 041518083X. OCLC 52996864.
- Kellerman, Aharon (1989). Time, space, and society: geographical societal perspectives. GeoJournal library. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0792301234. OCLC 19130678.
- Kenett, Dror Y; Portugali, Juval (July 2012). "Population movement under extreme events". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (29): 11472–11473. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209306109.
- Kraak, Menno-Jan (2008). "Geovisualization and time: new opportunities for the space-time cube". In Dodge, Martin; McDerby, Mary; Turner, Martin. Geographic visualization: concepts, tools and applications. Chichester, England; Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. pp. 293–306. doi:10.1002/9780470987643.ch15. ISBN 9780470515112. OCLC 191847101.
- Kwan, Mei-Po (2013). "Beyond space (as we knew it): toward temporally integrated geographies of segregation, health, and accessibility". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103 (5): 1078–1086. doi:10.1080/00045608.2013.792177.
- Kwan, Mei-Po (2000). "Human extensibility and individual hybrid-accessibility in space-time: a multi-scale representation using GIS". In Janelle, Donald G; Hodge, David C. Information, place, and cyberspace: issues in accessibility. Berlin; New York: Springer. pp. 241–256. ISBN 3540674926. OCLC 48013756.
- Li, Xia; Kraak, Menno-Jan (August 2008). "The time wave: a new method of visual exploration of geo-data in timespace". The Cartographic Journal 45 (3): 193–200. doi:10.1179/000870408X311387.
- Liebscher, Dierck-Ekkehard (2005). The geometry of time. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/9783527618712. ISBN 3527405674. OCLC 60413503.
- Long, Jed A; Nelson, Trisalyn A (2013). "A review of quantitative methods for movement data". International Journal of Geographical Information Science 27 (2): 292–318. doi:10.1080/13658816.2012.682578.
- Massey, Doreen B (1999). "Space-time, 'science' and the relationship between physical geography and human geography". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 24 (3): 261–276. doi:10.1111/j.0020-2754.1999.00261.x.
- Merriman, Peter (2012). "Human geography without time-space". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 37 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2011.00455.x.
- Neutens, Tijs; Delafontaine, Matthias; Scott, Darren M; De Maeyer, Philippe (March 2012). "A GIS-based method to identify spatiotemporal gaps in public service delivery". Applied Geography 32 (2): 253–264. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.05.006.
- Neutens, Tijs; Schwanen, Tim; Witlox, Frank (January 2011). "The prism of everyday life: towards a new research agenda for time geography". Transport Reviews 31 (1): 25–47. doi:10.1080/01441647.2010.484153.
- Neutens, Tijs; Weghe, Nico; Witlox, Frank; Maeyer, Philippe (March 2008). "A three-dimensional network-based space–time prism". Journal of Geographical Systems 10 (1): 89–107. doi:10.1007/s10109-007-0057-x.
- Patten, Bernard C; Straškraba, Milan; Jørgensen, Sven E (August 2011). "Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints". Ecological Modelling 222 (16): 2945–2972. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.04.019.
- Peuquet, Donna J (2002). Representations of space and time. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1572307730. OCLC 49530164.
- Rainham, Daniel; McDowell, Ian; Krewski, Daniel; Sawada, Mike (March 2010). "Conceptualizing the healthscape: contributions of time geography, location technologies and spatial ecology to place and health research". Social Science & Medicine 70 (5): 668–676. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.10.035.
- Raubal, Martin; Winter, Stephan; Teβmann, Sven; Gaisbauer, Christian (October 2007). "Time geography for ad-hoc shared-ride trip planning in mobile geosensor networks". ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 62 (5): 366–381. doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2007.03.005.
- Reydon, Thomas A C (September 2008). "Species in three and four dimensions". Synthese 164 (2): 161–184. doi:10.1007/s11229-007-9221-6.
- Richards, Keith; Bithell, Michael; Bravo, Michael (2004). "Space, time and science: individuals, emergence and geographies of space and place". In Matthews, John A; Herbert, David T. Unifying geography: common heritage, shared future. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 327–352. ISBN 0415305438. OCLC 53814306.
- Svee, Eric-Oluf; Sanches, Pedro; Bylund, Markus (2009). "Time geography rediscovered: a common language for location-oriented services". Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Location and the Web, Boston, Massachusetts, April 4, 2009. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. pp. 1–4. doi:10.1145/1507136.1507147. ISBN 9781605584577. OCLC 470652992.