|Molar mass||138.164 g/mol|
|Melting point||91 to 92 °C (196 to 198 °F; 364 to 365 K)|
|Boiling point||158 °C (316 °F; 431 K) at 4 Torr|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Tyrosol is a phenylethanoid, a derivative of phenethyl alcohol. It is a natural phenolic antioxidant present in a variety of natural sources. The principal source in the human diet is olive oil. It is also one of the main natural phenols in argan oil.
As an antioxidant, tyrosol can protect cells against injury due to oxidation. Although it is not as potent as other antioxidants present in olive oil, its higher concentration and good bioavailability indicate that it may have an important overall effect. This effect may contribute significantly to the health benefits of olive oil and, more generally, the Mediterranean diet.
Tyrosol present in wine is also shown to be cardioprotective. Samson et al. has shown that tyrosol-treated animals showed significant increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and FOXO3a. In addition, tyrosol also induced the expression of longevity protein SIRT1 in the heart after myocardial infarction in a rat MI model. Hence tyrosol's SIRT1, Akt and eNOS activating power adds another dimension to the wine research, because it adds a great link to the French paradox. In conclusion these findings suggest that tyrosol induces myocardial protection against ischemia related stress by inducing survival and longevity proteins that may be considered as anti-aging therapy for the heart.
In olive oil, tyrosol forms esters with fatty acids.
- Phenols and Polyphenols from Argania spinosa. Z. Charrouf and D. Guillaume, American Journal of Food Technology, 2007, 2, pages 679-683, doi:10.3923/ajft.2007.679.683
- Giovannini C, Straface E, Modesti D, Coni E, Cantafora A, De Vincenzi M, Malorni W, Masella R (1999). "Tyrosol, the major olive oil biophenol, protects against oxidized-LDL-induced injury in Caco-2 cells". J. Nutr. 129 (7): 1269–1277. PMID 10395586.
- Miró-Casas E, Covas M, Fitó M, Farré-Albadalejo M, Marrugat J, de la Torre R (2003). "Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans". European journal of clinical nutrition 57 (1): 186–190. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601532. PMID 12548315.
- Samuel SM, Thirunavukkarasu M, Penumathsa SV, Paul D, Maulik N (2008). "Akt/FOXO3a/SIRT1-Mediated Cardioprotection by n-Tyrosol against Ischemic Stress in Rat in Vivo Model of Myocardial Infarction: Switching Gears toward Survival and Longevity.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (20): 9692–8. doi:10.1021/jf802050h. PMC 2648870. PMID 18826227.
- Surface-Active Properties of Lipophilic Antioxidants Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol Fatty Acid Esters: A Potential Explanation for the Nonlinear Hypothesis of the Antioxidant Activity in Oil-in-Water Emulsions. Ricardo Lucas, Francisco Comelles, David Alcntara, Olivia S. Maldonado, Melanie Curcuroze, Jose L. Parra and Juan C. Morales, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010, 58 (13), pp 8021–8026, doi:10.1021/jf1009928