A bottle of Italian olive oil
|Saturated fats||Palmitic acid: 7.5–20.0%
Stearic acid: 0.5–5.0%
Arachidic acid: <0.6%
Behenic acid: <0.3%
Myristic acid: <0.05%
Lignoceric acid: <0.2%
|Monounsaturated fats||Oleic acid: 55.0–83.0%
Palmitoleic acid: 0.3–3.5%
|Polyunsaturated fats||Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.0 %
α-Linolenic acid: <1.0%
|Food energy per 100 g||3,700 kJ (880 kcal)|
|Melting point||−6 °C (21 °F)|
|Boiling point||300 °C (572 °F)|
|Smoke point||190 °C (374 °F) (virgin)
210 °C (410 °F) (refined)
|Specific gravity at 20 °C||0.9150–0.9180 (@ 15.5 °C)|
|Viscosity at 20 °C||84 cP|
|Refractive index||1.4677–1.4705 (virgin and refined)
|Iodine value||75–94 (virgin and refined)
|Acid value||maximum: 6.6 (refined and pomace)
|Saponification value||184–196 (virgin and refined)
|Peroxide value||20 (virgin)
10 (refined and pomace)
Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by grinding whole olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means.
It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive oil is used throughout the world, but especially in the Mediterranean countries and, in particular, in Greece where the largest consumption per person can be found.
Early cultivation 
The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC. The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor in ancient Greece.
It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium; along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium; or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.
A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. Archeological evidence suggest that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2,500 BC. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel. Until 1500 BC, eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete, and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan. The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy.
Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.
Production and trade 
Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC), which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.
Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete, Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees.
Besides food, olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, and skin care application. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization, where it is thought to have represented wealth. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and, when the oil had risen to the top, drained the water from the bottom. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage, then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC.
The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt, during the 13th century BC. During this time, the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC, the fertile crescent, and area consisting of present day Palestine, Lebanon, and Israel. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron), where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1,000 and 3,000 tons of olive oil per season.
Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.
Olive oil was common in ancient Greek and Roman cuisine. According to Herodotus, Apollodorus, Plutarch, Pausanias, Ovid and other sources, the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential, preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). The Spartans and other Greeks used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. From its beginnings early in the 7th century BC, the cosmetic use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states, together with naked appearance of athletes, and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense. Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. According to the historian Pliny, Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the 1st century AD, "the best in the Mediterranean", he maintained.
The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. 1175, olive oil, from Anglo-Fr. and O.N.Fr. olie, from O.Fr. oile (12c., Mod.Fr. huile), from L. oleum "oil, olive oil" (cf. It. olio), from Gk. elaion "olive tree", which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior", probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Robin Lane Fox suggests that the Latin borrowing of Greek elaion for oil (Latin oleum) is itself a marker for improved Greek varieties of oil-producing olive, already present in Italy as Latin was forming, brought by Euboean traders, whose presence in Latium is signaled by remains of their characteristic pottery, from the mid-8th century.
In Spain, the most important varieties are the Picual, Arbequina, Hojiblanca, and Manzanillo de Jaén; In Italy, Frantoio, Leccino Pendolino, and Moraiolo; in France, Picholine; in California, Mission; in Portugal, Galega, Verdeal and Cobrançosa; in Croatia, Oblica and Leccino. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).
Production and consumption 
Spain produces 43.8% of world production of olive oil. 75% of Spain's production comes from the region of Andalucía, particularly within Jaén province, although other regions, including Catalonia also produce excellent oil. Although, Italy is a net importer of olive oil it still accounts for 21.5% of the world's production. Major Italian producers are known as "Città dell'Olio", "oil cities"; including Lucca, Florence and Siena, in Tuscany. However the largest production is harvested in Puglia. Greece accounts for 12.1% of world Production and Syria for 6.1%, as third and fourth largest producers in the World. Portugal accounts 5% and its main export market is Brazil.
Australia now produces a substantial amount of olive oil. Many Australian producers only make premium oils, while a number of corporate growers operate groves of a million trees or more and produce oils for the general market. Australian olive oil is exported to Asia, Europe and the United States.
In North America, Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known, and top-quality extra-virgin oils from Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece are sold at high prices, often in "prestige" packaging. A large part of U.S. olive oil imports come from Italy, Spain, and Turkey. The U.S. imported 47,800,000 US gallons (181,000 m3) of olive oil in 1998, of which 34,600,000 US gallons (131,000 m3) came from Italy.
Olive orchards in Arizona, California, and Texas are producing olive oil that is appearing on USA grocery market shelves alongside the Mediterranean olive oils.
The International Olive Council (IOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid, Spain, with 23 member states. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production, defining quality standards, and monitoring authenticity. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOC member nations. The United States is not a member of the IOC, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). The USDA uses a different system, which it defined in 1948 before the IOC existed. On October 25, 2010, the United States adopted new olive oil standards, a revision of those that had been in place since 1948, which affect importers and domestic growers and producers by ensuring conformity with the benchmarks commonly accepted in the U.S. and abroad.
Olive oil is classified by how it was produced, by its chemistry, and by panels that perform olive oil taste testing. The IOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.
U.S. Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label, then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer. Yet most major U.S. brands continue to put "imported from Italy" on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print. "In fact, olive oil labeled 'Italian' often comes from Turkey, Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, and Greece." These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. This practice makes it difficult for high quality, lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the U.S. market, and for genuine Italian producers to compete.
Commercial grades 
All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. This paste is then malaxed (slowly churned or mixed) to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). After extraction the remnant solid substance, called pomace, still contains a small quantity of oil.
The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:
- Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).
- Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil; oils with the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.
- Olive pomace oil means oil extracted from the pomace using solvents, mostly hexane, and by heat.
Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity, defined as the percent, measured by weight, of free oleic acid it contains. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation; as the oil degrades, more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides, increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level, which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized, another cause of rancidity.
To classify it by taste, olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. This is also called its organoleptic quality.
Retail grades in IOC member nations 
In countries that adhere to the standards of the International Olive Council (IOC) the labels in stores show an oil's grade.
- Extra-virgin olive oil Comes from virgin oil production only, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries; the percentage is far higher in the Mediterranean countries (Greece: 80%, Italy: 45%, Spain 30%). It is used on salads, added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping.
- Virgin olive oil Comes from virgin oil production only, has an acidity less than 1.5%, and is judged to have a good taste.
- Pure olive oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil.
- Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil, of no more than 2% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
- Olive pomace oil is refined pomace olive oil often blended with some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but may not be described simply as olive oil. It has a more neutral flavor than pure or virgin olive oil, making it unfashionable among connoisseurs; however, it has the same fat composition as regular olive oil, giving it the same health benefits. It also has a high smoke point, and thus is widely used in restaurants as well as home cooking in some countries.
- Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food; lampante comes from olive oil's long-standing use in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.
- Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils with a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects that are eliminated after refining. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil, but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters.
Retail grades in the United States from the USDA 
As the United States is not a member, the IOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country; terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions but as of October 25, 2010, the U.S. Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil went into effect. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently has a four-part grading of olive oil based on acidity, absence of defects, odor and flavor:
- U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil for oil with excellent flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 0.8g per 100g (0.8%);
- U.S. Virgin Olive Oil for oil with reasonably good flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 2g per 100g (2%);
- U.S. Virgin Olive Oil Not Fit For Human Consumption Without Further Processing is a virgin oil of poor flavor and odor;
- U.S. Olive Oil is an oil mix of both virgin and refined oils;
- U.S. Refined Olive Oil is an oil made from refined oils with some restrictions on the processing;
These grades are voluntary. Certification is available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.
Previous USDA ratings 
- U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.4% and is "free from defects";
- U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.5% and is "reasonably free from defects";
- U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.0% and is "fairly free from defects";
- U.S. Grade D or U.S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade C".
These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.
Label wording 
- The different names for olive oil indicate the degree of processing the oil has undergone as well as the quality of the oil. Extra-virgin olive oil is the highest grade available, followed by virgin olive oil. The word "virgin" indicates that the olives have been pressed to extract the oil; no heat or chemicals have been used during the extraction process, and the oil is pure and unrefined. Virgin olive oils contain the highest levels of polyphenols, antioxidants that have been linked with better health.
- "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and composition are chemically controlled, usually to improve lower quality oils. In Australia, Pure, Light and Extra-Light are terms introduced by manufacturers for refined oils to avoid labeling them as such. Standards Australia's code of practice for olive oil now recognises these words as meaning refined oil. Contrary to a common consumer belief, they do not have less calories than Extra-virgin oil as implied by the names.
- Cold pressed or Cold extraction means "that the oil was not heated over a certain temperature (usually 80 °F (27 °C)) during processing, thus retaining more nutrients and undergoing less degradation."
- First cold pressed means "that the fruit of the olive was crushed exactly one time-i.e., the first press. The cold refers to the temperature range of the fruit at the time it is crushed." In Calabria (Italy) the olives are collected in October. In regions like Tuscany or Liguria, the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures, which may be as low as 10-15 °C, to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 25 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold pressed".
Furthermore, there is no "second" press of virgin oil, so the term "first press" means only that the oil was produced in a press vs. other possible methods.
- PDO and PGI refers to olive oils with "exceptional properties and quality derived from their place of origin as well as from the way of their production".
- The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label; it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration permitted a claim on olive oil labels stating: "Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about two tablespoons (23g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."
The adulteration of oil can be no more serious than passing off inferior, but safe, product as superior olive oil, but there are no guarantees. It is believed that almost 700 people died as a consequence of consuming rapeseed oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant, but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).
There have been allegations that regulation, particularly in Italy and Spain, is extremely lax and corrupt. Major Italian and Spanish shippers are claimed to routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification. In some cases, colza oil (Swedish turnip) with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil. This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil, under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced, as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used, for blended oils. In February 2008, however, EU officials took issue with the new law, stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory. Under EU rules, olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.
Extra Virgin olive oil has strict requirements and is checked for "sensory defects" that include: rancid, fusty, musty, winey (vinegary) and muddy sediment. These defects can occur for different reasons. The most common are: • Raw material (olives) infected or battered • Inadequate harvest, with contact between the olives and soil 
In March 2008, 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil", arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian. In April 2008, another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil, and selling it as extra virgin olive oil, both in Italy and abroad; 25,000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.
On March 15, 2011, the Florence, Italy prosecutor's office, working in conjunction with the forestry department, indicted two managers and an officer of Carapelli, one of the brands of the Spanish company Grupo SOS (which recently changed its name to Deoleo). The charges involved falsified documents and food fraud. Carapelli lawyer Neri Pinucci said the company was not worried about the charges and that "the case is based on an irregularity in the documents."
In February 2012, an alleged international olive oil scam occurred in which palm, avocado, sunflower and other cheaper oils were passed off as olive oil. Spanish police said the oils were blended in an industrial biodiesel plant and adulterated in a way to hide markers that would have revealed their true nature. The oils were not toxic, however, and posed no health risk, according to a statement by the Guardia Civil. Nineteen people were arrested following the year-long joint probe by the police and Spanish tax authorities, part of what they call Operation Lucerna.
Two diametrically opposed trends exist in the olive-oil business. In the first, toward high quality olive oil, new milling technologies such as stainless steel mills, high speed centrifuges, temperature and oxygen controlled storage tanks are making it possible to produce the best extra-virgin olive oils in history; fresh, complex and every bit as varied as wine varietals. (There are about seven hundred different kinds of olives.) Consumer demand for high-quality olive oil in all of its variety, both in Europe and in North America, is increasing.
On the other hand, there's a strong downward pressure on olive-oil quality, especially among the huge Spanish owned olive-oil traders and bottling companies (which also control biggest Italian brands). There is a massive output of low grade olive oils, particularly in Spain and North Africa, which producers are selling as "extra virgin" olive oil, even though this low grade oil doesn't meet the requirements of the extra-virgin grade. (E.U. and U.S. trade standards require extra-virgin olive oil to be free of sensory defects and these oils are deeply flawed.) New methods of chemical refinement, commonly known as "deodorization," allow unscrupulous producers to remove sensory defects and sell their sub-par oils, illegally, as extra-virgin. (By law, extra-virgin olive oil cannot have undergone chemical manipulation.). In Spain refineries are capable to cope with this technology. In 2012 The spot price of "extra-virgin olive oil" in European markets has dropped as low as 1.8 euro per kilo (about a liter). Honest producers around the world are being undercut by cheap foreign oil.
Global consumption 
Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide, over 26 liters per person per year; Spain and Italy, around 14 l; Tunisia, Portugal, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, around 8 l. Northern Europe and North America consume far less, around 0.7 l, but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.
Global market 
The main producing and consuming countries are:
|Country||Production in tons (2010)||Production % (2010)||Consumption (2005)||Annual per capita consumption (kg)|
Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. Green olives usually produce more bitter oil, and overripe olives can produce oil that is rancid, so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. The process is generally as follows:
- The olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).
- If ground with mill stones, the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30 to 40 minutes. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste, a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fiber disks, which are stacked on top of each other in a column, then placed into the press. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation, which is much faster and more thorough. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by microorganisms. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect, thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles.
- In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. After grinding, the paste is stirred slowly for another 20 to 30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation), where the microscopic oil drops unite into bigger drops, which facilitates the mechanical extraction. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation/ the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before.
The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described above is called virgin oil. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity, no or very little organoleptic defects).
- Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered, suggesting a different taste. Unfiltered fresh olive oil that has a slightly cloudy appearance is called cloudy olive oil. This form of olive oil used to be popular only among olive oil small scale producers but is now becoming "trendy", in line with consumer's demand for more ecological and less-processed "green" products.
The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 5–10%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing, but only with chemical solvents. This is done in specialised chemical plants, not in the oil mills. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". The term "first press", sometimes found on bottle labels, is today meaningless, as there is no "second" press; it comes from ancient times of stone presses, when virgin oil was the one produced by battering the olives.
The label term "cold-extraction" on extra virgin olive oils indicates that the olive grinding and stirring was done at a temperature of maximum 25 °C (77 °F), as treatment in higher temperatures risks decreasing the olive oils' quality (texture, taste and aroma).
Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along with traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar, region, altitude, time of harvest, and extraction process.
|Oleic acid||55 to 83%|||
|Linoleic acid||3.5 to 21%|||
|Palmitic acid||7.5 to 20%|||
|Stearic acid||0.5 to 5%|||
|α-Linolenic acid||0 to 1.5%|||
Phenolic composition 
Olive oil contains polyphenols such as esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, including oleocanthal and oleuropein, having acidic properties that give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds.
Hydroxytyrosol (2-(3,4-Di-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol or DHPE) is a phenolic component of extra-virgin olive oil. An olive oil fraction containing DHPE was shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and eicosanoid (thromboxane B2) formation in vitro.
Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||3,701 kJ (885 kcal)|
|- saturated||14 g|
|- monounsaturated||73 g|
|- polyunsaturated||11 g|
|- omega‑3 fat||<1.5 g|
|- omega‑6 fat||3.5–21 g|
|Vitamin E||14 mg (93%)|
|Vitamin K||62 μg (59%)|
|100 g olive oil is 109 ml
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
As they are the least processed forms of olive oil, extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fatty acids than other olive oil. These types also contain more polyphenols, which may have benefits for the heart.
1tbsp of olive oil (13.5g) contains the following nutritional information according to the USDA:
- Calories : 119
- Fat: 13.50
- Carbohydrates: 0
- Fibers: 0
- Protein: 0
Popular uses and research 
Olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Egyptians used it alongside beeswax as a cleanser, moisturizer, and antibacterial agent since pharaonic times. In ancient Greece, the substance was used during massage to prevent sports injuries, relieve muscle fatigue, and eliminate lactic acid buildup. In 2000, Japan was the top importer of olive oil in Asia (13,000 tons annually) because consumers there believe both the ingestion and topical application of olive oil to be good for skin and health.
There has been relatively little scientific work done on the effect of olive oil on acne and other skin conditions. However, one study noted that the abundance of squalene in oils in general shows promise for sufferers of seborrheic dermatitis, acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. Squalene is used as an antioxidant, moisturizer, and as a convenient vehicle to carry other substances in topical application. Another researcher reported that a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil alleviates diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, and eczema by inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.
Olive oil is popular for use in massaging infants and toddlers, but scientific proof of its efficacy is mixed. One analysis of olive oil versus mineral oil found that, when used for infant massage, olive oil can be considered a safe alternative to sunflower, grapeseed and fractionated coconut oils. This stands true particularly when it is mixed with a lighter oil like sunflower, which "would have the further effect of reducing the already low levels of free fatty acids present in olive oil." The study also notes that there appears to be much confusion surrounding mineral oil, and that further studies should be done on refined mineral oil to back up claims about its superiority to olive oil. Another trial echoes this claim, stating that olive oil lowers the risk of dermatitis for infants in all gestational stages when compared with emollient cream. However, yet another study found that topical treatment with olive oil for newborns "significantly damages the skin barrier" when compared to sunflower oil, and that it may make existing atopic dermatitis worse. The researchers conclude that they do not recommend the use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage.
|This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: poor or absent sources. (April 2013)|
Potential health effects attributed to fat composition 
Preliminary clinical studies provide evidence that consumption of olive oil may lower risk of heart disease risk factors such as lower blood cholesterol levels and reduced LDL cholesterol oxidation, and that it may also possibly influence inflammatory, thrombotic, hypertensive and vasodilatory mechanisms. Although epidemiological studies indicate that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet may be linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease, a cause and effect relationship has not yet been established with sufficient scientific evidence.
In the United States, producers of olive oil may place the following restricted health claim on product labels:
- Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.
This decision was announced November 1, 2004, by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.
Other possible effects of olive oil may be a property to balance omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats and to affect blood sugar levels and blood pressure, but these effects were dismissed in reviews by the Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority.
Preliminary research indicates that olive oil could possibly be a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but confirmation requires further in vivo study. Pilot studies showed that olive oil may affect oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, revealing a possible carcinogenic factor. Consumption of olive oil may affect onset of Alzheimer's disease, possibly through a mechanism related to oleocanthal inhibiting fibrillization of tau protein.
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2012)|
Culinary use 
Extra virgin olive oil is mostly used as a salad dressing and as an ingredient in salad dressings. It is also used with foods to be eaten cold. If uncompromised by heat, the flavor is stronger. It also can be used for sautéing.
The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated, the higher the risk of compromising its taste. When extra virgin olive oil is heated above 210–216 °C (410–421 °F), depending on its free fatty acid content, the unrefined particles within the oil are burned. This leads to deteriorated taste. Also, the pronounced taste of extra virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.
Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. The flavour of these oils varies considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. Also, people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils.
An important issue often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. A very fresh oil, as available in an oil producing region, tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. In time, oils deteriorate and become stale. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste, but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. After the first year, olive oil should be used for cooking, not for foods to be eaten cold, like salads.
The taste of the olive oil is influenced by the varietals used to produce the oil from and by the moment when the olives are harvested and ground (less ripe olives give more bitter and spicy flavors, which is a positive attribute - riper olives give a sweeter sensation in the oil).
Olive oil has more uses than as food; it also works as a natural and safe lubricant, such as lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders, blenders, cookware, etc.)It can also be used for illumination (oil lamps) or as the base for soaps and detergents. Many cosmetics also use olive oil as their base.
|Polyunsaturated fatty acids||Oleic acid
|Total poly||linolenic acid
|Canola (rapeseed)||7.365||63.276||28.142||-||-||-||400 °F (204 °C)|
|Coconut||91.00||6.000||3.000||-||2||6||350 °F (177 °C)|
|Corn||12.948||27.576||54.677||1||58||28||450 °F (232 °C)|
|Cottonseed||25.900||17.800||51.900||1||54||19||420 °F (216 °C)|
|Flaxseed/Linseed (European)||6 - 9||10 - 22||68 - 89||56 - 71||12 - 18||10 - 22||225 °F (107 °C)|
|Olive||14.00||72.00||14.00||-||-||-||380 °F (193 °C)|
|Palm||49.300||37.000||9.300||-||10||40||455 °F (235 °C)|
|Peanut||16.900||46.200||32.000||-||32||48||437 °F (225 °C)|
|8.00||15.00||75.00||-||-||-||410 °F (210 °C)|
|7.541||75.221||12.820||-||-||-||410 °F (210 °C)|
|Soybean||15.650||22.783||57.740||7||54||24||460 °F (238 °C)|
|10.100||45.400||40.100||0.200||39.800||45.300||440 °F (227 °C)|
|9.859||83.689||3.798||-||-||-||440 °F (227 °C)|
|Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.|
Religious use 
Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.
In Jewish observance, olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt, and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests, which is where the expression pure olive oil originates, stored in special containers. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC), when its contents lasted for far longer than they were expected to, allowing more time for more oil to be made. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah, oil containers are preferred, to imitate the original Menorah. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel, originating from King David. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel.
The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick or Unction). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent such as balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism, which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit), in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops, in the consecration of altars and churches, and, traditionally, in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings.
Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches, home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. To douse the flame, the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed, whereupon the rest of the cotton burns out. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries.
In Islam, olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of the Heavens and the Earth. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a torch, the torch is in a glass bulb, the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree, neither Eastern nor Western, its oil almost glows, even without fire touching it, light upon light." The Qur'an also mentions olives as a plant of significance: "By the fig and the olive, and the Mount Sinai, and this secure city." Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree."
- Olive oil may be used in soap making, as lamp oil, a lubricant, or as a substitute for machine oil.
- Olive oil has also been used as both solvent and ligand in the synthesis of cadmium selenide quantum dots.
- In one study, monounsaturated fats such as from olive oil benefited mood, decreased anger, and increased physical activity.
See also 
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
- Albanian cuisine
- Algerian cuisine
- Croatian cuisine
- Cuisine of the Mediterranean
- Eritrean cuisine
- French cuisine
- Greek cuisine
- Iraqi cuisine
- Israeli cuisine
- Italian cuisine
- Lebanese cuisine
- Moroccan cuisine
- Palestinian cuisine
- Portuguese cuisine
- Spanish cuisine
- Syrian cuisine
- Tunisian cuisine
- Turkish cuisine
- Extra Virginity
- Filippo Berio brand
- Mediterranean diet
- Olive leaf
- Olive oil extraction
- Pompeian, Inc. brand
- Davidson, s.v. Olives
- "International Olive Council". Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Ehud Galili et al., "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast, Israel", Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997); Pagnol, p. 19, says the 6th millennium in Jericho, but cites no source.
- F. R. Riley, "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties, Processing methods, and Storage life of Minoan olive oil", Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002)
- Guillaume Besnarda, André Bervillé, "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms", Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000); Catherine Breton, Michel Tersac and André Bervillé, "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster, Olea europaea L.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis", Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006)
- Gardiner, Alan H. (1916). Notes on the Story of Sinuhe. Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion.
- Thomas F. Scanlon, "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece", in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, ed. B. C. Verstraete and V. Provencal, Harrington Park Press, 2005
- Nigel M. Kennell, "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its By-products in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.), In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland, 2001; popis pp. 119–33
- Random House Unabridged Dictionary, s.v. "olive" and "oil"
- Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:127.
- "World Olive Oil Production breakdown". Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Sarah Schwager (August 31, 2010). "Australia Charts Five-Year Course for Olive Oil Industry". Olive Oil Times.
- G. Steven Sibbett, Louise Ferguson, Joann L Coviello, Margaret Lindstrand (2005). Olive Production Manual. ANR Publications. p. 158.
- Cape olive oil among world's best
- "Olivo". Sinavimo. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
- "Olisur Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Chile". http://www.biteofthebest.com/. October 26, 2010.
- International Olive Council
- New U.S. Olive Oil Standards in Effect Today Olive Oil Times
- Schwager, Sarah. "Group Says Olive Oil Tasting Panels Create "False Concern"". Olive Oil Times.
- Olive Oil Times
- Durant, John. U.S. Customs Department, Director Commercial Rulings Division Country of origin marking of imported olive oil; 19 CFR 134.46; "imported by" language 2000-09-05.
- United States International Trade Commission Rulings See reference to HQ 560944 ruling of the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on April 27, 1999 "blending of Spanish olive oil with Italian olive oil in Italy does not result in a substantial transformation of the Spanish product" 2006-02-28.
- McGee, Dennis. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- Raymond Francis. The Olive Oil Scandal. Beyond Health. 1998
- "Designations and definitions of olive oils". International Olive Council. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
- "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- Bone density scan ... Olive oil ... Bursitis." Women's Health Advisor 14.7 (2010): 8. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 28 March 2011.
- Deborah Bogle/Tom Mueller "Losing our Virginity" The Advertiser May 12, 2012 Pg 11-14
- Health Diaries.
- California Olive Ranch.
- Drummond, Linda, Sunday Telegraph (Australia), October 17, 2010 Sunday, Features; p. 10.
- Riding, Alan (1989-05-21). "Trial in Spain on Toxic Cooking Oil Ends in Uproar". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Mueller, Tom. Slippery Business The New Yorker. 2007-08-13.
- Moore, Malcolm (2007-05-07). "Murky Italian olive oil to be pored over". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- "草刈りは定期的に". Novaoliva.com. 2013-02-21. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
- Moore, Malcolm (2008-03-05). "Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud - Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- Pisa, Nick (2008-04-22). "Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam - Scotsman.com News". The Scotsman (Edinburgh).
- Investigations Into Deodorized Olive Oils Olive Oil Times. 2011-03-29.
- Mueller, Tom (13 August 2007). "Slippery Business". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
-  Olive Oil Times 2012.
-  The Book Bench 2012
- "FAOSTAT Crops processed 2010 data for olive oil"
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site
- "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.
- Daniel Williams (September 9, 2010). "Olive Pomace Oil: Not What You Might Think". Olive Oil Times.
- "Olive Oil : Chemical Characteristics".
- Beltran et al. (2004). Influence of Harvest Date and Crop Yield on the Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive Oils from Cv. Picual.
- The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. Tripoli, M. Giammanco, G. Tabacchi, D. Di Majo, S. Giammanco, and Maurizio La Guardia. Nutrition Research Reviews 18, 98–112 (2005) doi:10.1079/NRR200495
- Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. Kellie L Tuck and Peter J Hayball, The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, November 2002, Volume 13, Issue 11 , Pages 636-644 (abstract)
- The antioxidant/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil. R.W Owen, A Giacosa, W.E Hull, R Haubner, B Spiegelhalder and H Bartsch, European Journal of Cancer, June 2000, Volume 36, Issue 10, Pages 1235-1247, doi:10.1016/S0959-8049(00)00103-9
- Identification of Lignans as Major Components in the Phenolic Fraction of Olive Oil. Robert W. Owen, Walter Mier, Attilio Giacosa, William E. Hull, Bertold Spiegelhalder and Helmut Bartsch, Clinical Chemistry, July 2000, volume 46, number 7, pages 976-988 (anstract)
- Inhibition of platelet aggregation and eicosanoid production by phenolic components of olive oil. Anna Petroni, Milena Blasevich, Marco Salami, Nadia Papini, Gian F. Montedoro and Claudio Gallia, Thrombosis Research, 15 April 1995, Volume 78, Issue 2, Pages 151–160, doi:10.1016/0049-3848(95)00043-7
- Lucas, L.; Russell, A.; Keast, R. (2011). "Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal". Current pharmaceutical design 17 (8): 754–768. doi:10.2174/138161211795428911. PMID 21443487.
- Mayo Clinic. "Olive Oil: What are the health benefits?".
- "NDL/FNIC Food Composition Database Home Page". Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
- Grossman, A. J. (27 Sept. 2007). "Behind a Mysterious Balm, a Self-Made Pharaoh". New York Times. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2013.
- Nomikos, N. N.; Nomikos, G. N.; Kores, D. S. (2010). "The use of deep friction massage with olive oil as a means of prevention and treatment of sports injuries in ancient times". Archives of Medical Science 5 (5): 642–645. doi:10.5114/aoms.2010.17074. PMC 3298328. PMID 22419918.
- Shoji, K. (26 Feb. 2013). "The Japanese woman's perpetual quest for perfect skin". New York Times. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2013.
- Wołosik, K.; Knaś, M.; Zalewska, A.; Niczyporuk, M.; Przystupa, A. W. (2013). "The importance and perspective of plant-based squalene in cosmetology". Journal of cosmetic science 64 (1): 59–66. PMID 23449131.
- Al-Waili, N. S. (2005). "Mixture of Honey, Beeswax and Olive Oil Inhibits Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans". Archives of Medical Research 36 (1): 10–13. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2004.10.002. PMID 15777988.
- Carpenter, P.; Richards, K. (2011). "Olive versus mineral oil". Community practitioner : the journal of the Community Practitioners' & Health Visitors' Association 84 (2): 40–42. PMID 21388045.
- Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U.; Berger, C.; Inzinger, R. (2008). "The Effect of Daily Treatment with an Olive Oil/Lanolin Emollient on Skin Integrity in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial". Pediatric Dermatology 25 (2): 174–178. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2008.00627.x. PMID 18429773.
- Danby, S. G.; Alenezi, T.; Sultan, A.; Lavender, T.; Chittock, J.; Brown, K.; Cork, M. J. (2013). "Effect of Olive and Sunflower Seed Oil on the Adult Skin Barrier: Implications for Neonatal Skin Care". Pediatric Dermatology 30 (1): 42–50. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01865.x. PMID 22995032.
- Moore, J.; Kelsberg, G.; Safranek, S. (2012). "Clinical Inquiry: Do any topical agents help prevent or reduce stretch marks?". The Journal of family practice 61 (12): 757–758. PMID 23313995.
- Taavoni, S.; Soltanipour, F.; Haghani, H.; Ansarian, H.; Kheirkhah, M. (2011). "Effects of olive oil on striae gravidarum in the second trimester of pregnancy". Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 17 (3): 167–169. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.10.003. PMID 21742284.
- Impellizzeri, D.; Esposito, E.; Mazzon, E.; Paterniti, I.; Di Paola, R.; Bramanti, P.; Morittu, V. M.; Procopio, A. et al. (2011). "The effects of oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy". Clinical Nutrition 30 (4): 533–540. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2011.02.004. PMID 21411195.
- Bagigo, G. "Olive-oil-enriched diet: effect on serum lipoprotein levels and biliary cholesterol saturation.". Am J Clin Nutr. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Med Sci Monit. "Dietary supplementation with olive oil leads to improved lipoprotein spectrum and lower n-6 PUFAs in elderly subjects." 2004 Apr;10(4):PI49-54.
- Covas MI (March 2007). "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". Pharmacol. Res. 55 (3): 175–86. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.010. PMID 17321749.
- Mayo Clinic. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. 19 November 2007
- Keys A, Menotti A, Karvonen MJ et al. (December 1986). "The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study". Am. J. Epidemiol. 124 (6): 903–15. PMID 3776973.
- Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (2011). "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to olive oil and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1316, 1332), maintenance of normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides (ID 1316, 1332), maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations (ID 1316, 1332) and maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 4244) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". EFSA Journal (European Commission) 9 (4): 2044 [19 pp]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2044. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- "FDA allows qualified health claim (for monounsaturated fat in olive oil) to decrease risk of coronary heart disease". US Food and Drug Administration. November 2004. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Brackett RE (November 2004). "Letter Responding to Health Claim Petition dated August 28, 2003: Monounsaturated Fatty Acids from Olive Oil and Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No 2003Q-0559)". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Marian Burros (November 2, 2004). "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
- Ferrara LA, Raimondi AS, d'Episcopo L, Guida L, Dello Russo A, Marotta T. (27 March 2000). "Olive oil and reduced need for antihypertensive medications". Archives of Internal Medicine 160 (6): 837–842. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.6.837. PMID 10737284.
Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.ama-assn.org
- Coni et al. (2001). "Protective effect of oleuropein, an olive oil biophenol, on low density lipoprotein oxidizability in rabbits".
- Romero C, Medina E, Vargas J, Brenes M, De Castro A (February 2007). "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". J Agric Food Chem. 55 (3): 680–6. doi:10.1021/jf0630217. PMID 17263460.
"New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007
- Machowetz A, Poulsen HE, Gruendel S et al. (January 2007). "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". FASEB J. 21 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6328com. PMID 17110467.
"New Year's Resolution No. 1: Prevent Cancer, Use Olive Oil." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006.
- Medical News Today (22 Mar 2013). "How Extra Virgin Olive Oil Protects Against Alzheimer's Disease". Medical News Today.
- Monti, M. C.; Margarucci, L.; Tosco, A.; Riccio, R.; Casapullo, A. (2011). "New insights on the interaction mechanism between tau protein and oleocanthal, an extra-virgin olive-oil bioactive component". Food & Function 2 (7): 423–428. doi:10.1039/c1fo10064e. PMID 21894330.
- "Nutrient database, Release 24". United States Department of Agriculture. All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
- "Fats, Oils, Fatty Acids, Triglycerides". Scientific Psychic (R). All values for ω-3, ω-6, ω-9 fats (not hydrogenated) are from Scientific Psychic (R) unless otherwise cited.
- Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
- Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- Fatty acid composition of important plant and animal fats and oils (German) 21 December 2011, Hans-Jochen Fiebig, Münster
- (Italian) Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64.
- Sameer Sapra, Andrey L. Rogach and Jochen Feldmann (2006). "Phosphine-free synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals in olive oil". Journal of Materials Chemistry 16 (33): 3391–3395. doi:10.1039/B607022A.
- Kien CL et al. (2013). "Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood". Am J Clin Nutr 97 (4): 689–97. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.051730. PMID 23446891.
Further reading 
- Caruso, Tiziano / Magnano di San Lio, Eugenio (eds.). La Sicilia dell'olio, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania, 2008, ISBN 978-88-7751-281-9
- Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford, 1999. ISBN 0-19-211579-0.
- Mueller, Tom. Extra Virginity - The Sublime and Scandalous World of Olive Oil, Atlantic Books, London, 2012. ISBN 978-1-84887-004-8.
- Pagnol, Jean. L'Olivier, Aubanel, 1975. ISBN 2-7006-0064-9.
- Preedy, V.R. / Watson, R.R. (eds.). Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention, Academic Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-12-374420-3.
- Rosenblum, Mort. Olives: The Life and Lore of a Noble Fruit, North Point Press, 1996. ISBN 0-86547-503-2.
- Palumbo, Mary; Linda J. Harris (December 2011) "Microbiological Food Safety of Olive Oil: A Review of the Literature" (PDF), University of California, Davis