Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac
|Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac|
|Ushtria Çlirimtare e Preshevës, Medvegjës dhe Bujanocit
Participant in Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
|Area of operations||"Ground Safety Zone" and Preševo Valley, Serbia, FR Yugoslavia|
|Strength||5,000 (1,500 active)|
|Part of||Kosovo Liberation Army|
|Originated as||Kosovo Liberation Army|
|Became||National Liberation Army|
|Opponents||Republic of Serbia|
The Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Preshevës, Medvegjës dhe Bujanocit, UÇPMB) was an Albanian separatist militant insurgent group fighting for independence from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia for the three municipalities: Preševo, Bujanovac, and Medveđa, home to most of the Albanians in south Serbia, adjacent to Kosovo.
UÇPMB's uniforms, procedures and tactics mirrored those of the then freshly disbanded Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The 1,500-strong paramilitary raised the insurgency in the Preševo Valley from 1999 to 2001, with the goal to secede these municipalities from Yugoslavia and join them into the protectorate of Kosovo. The EU condemned the extremism and use of illegal terrorist actions by the group.
After the end of the Kosovo War in 1999, a three-mile "Ground Safety Zone" (GSZ) was established between Kosovo (governed by United Nations) and inner Serbia and Montenegro. Military of Serbia and Montenegro (VJ) units were not permitted there, and only the lightly armed Serb Ministry of Internal Affairs forces were left in the area. The exclusion zone included the predominantly Albanian village of Dobrosin, but not Preševo.
Kosovo terrorism was exported across the borders, with former KLA members quickly established bases in the demilitarized zone, and Serbian police had to stop patrolling the area to avoid being ambushed. Attacks were also made on ethnic Albanian politicians opposed to the KLA, including the assassination of Zemail Mustafi, the Albanian vice-president of the Bujanovac branch of Slobodan Milošević's Socialist Party of Serbia. Between June 21, 1999 and November 12, 2000, 294 attacks were recorded, most of them (246) in Bujanovac, 44 in Medveđa and six in Preševo. These attacks resulted in 14 people killed (of which six were civilians and eight were policemen), 37 people wounded (two UN observers, three civilians and 34 policemen) and five civilians kidnapped. In their attacks, UÇPMB used mostly assault rifles, machine guns, mortars and sniper rifles, but occasionally also RPGs, hand grenades, and anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. The UÇPMB included minors.
Seeing that the situation was getting out of control, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allowed the VJ to reclaim the demilitarized zone on May 24, 2001, at the same time giving the UÇPMB the opportunity to turn themselves over to Kosovo Force (KFOR), which promised to just take their weapons and note their names before releasing them. More than 450 UÇPMB members took advantage of KFOR's "screen and release" policy, among them Shefket Musliu, the commander of the UÇPMB, who turned himself over to KFOR at a checkpoint along the GSZ just after midnight of May 26, 2001.
- Jane's Terrorism and Security Monitor. Jane's Information Group. 2005. p. 51.
- Nigel Thomas, K. Mikulan, Darko Pavlović, The Yugoslav Wars, p. 51
- Rafael Reuveny; William R. Thompson (5 November 2010). Coping with Terrorism: Origins, Escalation, Counterstrategies, and Responses. SUNY Press. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-1-4384-3313-4.
- European Centre for Minority Issues Staf (1 January 2003). European Yearbook of Minority Issues: 2001/2. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 652–. ISBN 90-411-1956-6.
- "CER | A calm Kosovo moves towards a tense future". Ce-review.org. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Krstic, Ninoslav; Dragan Zivkovic. "Извођење операције решавања кризе на југу Србије изазване деловањем наоружаних албанских екстремиста (терориста)". Vojno delo. p. 180. ISSN 0042-8426.
- "Child Soldiers Global Report 2001 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". Child Soldiers International. 2001.
The UCPMB is an Albanian armed group operating in southern Serbia whose operations are reportedly controlled by the Political Council for Presovo. They are calling for the incorporation of the cities of Preshava, Medvegia and Bujanovci into Kosovo. Estimates of numbers vary between 200 and 15,000.
The Guardian newspaper reported in January 2001 that some sixty suspected members of the UCPMB guerrilla had been arrested by peacekeepers. UCPMB recruits include children in their mid teens to men in their forties.2166 Further confirmation of the participation of child soldiers came when KFOR detained 16 juveniles (aged 15-17) in the first two months of 2001 for alleged involvement in the conflict (although the degree of "involvement" is not clear). The international media claim that there is forced recruitment of juveniles into this group but this is not verified and numbers are small.2167 A 15-year-old Albanian male was reported shot dead on 23 March 2001 in the Ground Safety Zone near Gnjilane. Although no confirmations have been received, the circumstances suggest he may have been a child soldier.2168
- In Serbia, Albanian gunmen go silently to work, The Independent, 2 March 2000
- A War Waiting to Happen: Clashes between Serbs and ethnic Albanians in southern Serbia threaten to ignite a fresh conflict, TIME, March 13, 2000
- Albanian rebels training for Serbian war, BBC News, 12 February 2001
- Albanian separatists continue fighting in Kosovo buffer zone, World Socialist Web Site, 14 February 2001