USS Freedom (LCS-1)

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For other ships of the same name, see USS Freedom.
USS-Freedom-130222-N-DR144-174-crop.jpg
Freedom shows off her new dazzle camouflage scheme on sea trials in February 2013 before her first deployment
Career (US)
Ordered: May 2004 (NVR states 15 December 2004)
Builder: Marinette Marine, Marinette, Wisconsin
Laid down: 2 June 2005
Launched: 23 September 2006
Acquired: 18 September 2008
Commissioned: 8 November 2008 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin[1]
In service: 18 September 2008
Homeport: Naval Base San Diego[1]
Motto: Fast, Focused, Fearless
Status: in active service, as of 2014
Badge: USS Freedom LCS1 Crest.png
General characteristics
Class & type: Freedom-class littoral combat ship
Displacement: 3,000 t (3,000 t) (full load)[2]
Length: 378 ft (115 m)
Beam: 57.4 ft (17.5 m)
Draft: 12.8 ft (3.9 m)
Installed power: Electrical: 4 Isotta Fraschini V1708 diesel engines, Hitzinger generator units, 800 kW each
Propulsion: 2 Rolls-Royce MT30 36 MW gas turbines, 2 Colt-Pielstick diesel engines, 4 Rolls-Royce waterjets
Speed: 47 knots (87 km/h; 54 mph) (sea state 3)[3]
Range: 3,500 nmi (6,500 km; 4,000 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)[4]
Endurance: 21 days (336 hours)
Boats & landing
craft carried:
11 m (36 ft) Rigid-hulled inflatable boat, 40 ft (12 m) high-speed boats
Complement: 50 core crew, 98 or more with mission package and air detachment crew (Blue and Gold crews)
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • EADS TRS-3D 3D air and surface search radar[5]
  • Lockheed Martin COMBATSS-21 combat management system[5]
  • AN/SQR-20 Multi-Function Towed Array (As part of ASW mission module)[6][7]
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried:

USS Freedom (LCS 1) is the lead ship of the Freedom class of littoral combat ships (LCS). She is the third vessel of the United States Navy to be so named for the concept of freedom. She is the design competitor produced by the Lockheed Martin consortium, in competition with the General Dynamics-designed USS Independence. She was officially accepted by the Supervisor of Shipbuilding Gulf Coast on behalf of the US Navy from the Lockheed Martin/Marinette Marine/Gibbs and Cox team in Marinette, WI on 18 September 2008.[9]

She is designed for a variety of missions in shallow waters, capable against submarines, small ships, minesweeping and humanitarian relief but not designed to take on large Warships. The ship is a semi-planing monohull design capable of over 40 knots (74 km/h; 46 mph).[10]

Commissioned in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on 8 November 2008, USS Freedom is home-ported in San Diego.[1]

Design[edit]

USS Freedom with original gray paint scheme in September 2009

The USS Freedom is the first of two dramatically different LCS designs being produced; the other, USS Independence (LCS 2), is a trimaran built by a team led by General Dynamics' Bath Iron Works and Austal USA in Mobile, Alabama. USS Freedom is designed to be a fast, maneuverable and networked surface combatant for missions such as anti-mine warfare, anti-submarine warfare, surface warfare and humanitarian relief.[11]

The ship is a semi-planing steel monohull with an aluminum superstructure. The friction stir welded aluminum deckhouse is very flat, which, combined with an angular design, makes it difficult for radar systems to spot.[12] The ship is 377 feet (115 m) in length, displaces 3,000 metric tons (2950 metric tons) and can go faster than 40 knots (46 mph; 74 km/h).[10]

The design incorporates a large reconfigurable seaframe to allow rapidly interchangeable mission modules, a flight deck with integrated helicopter launch, recovery and handling system and the capability to launch and recover boats (manned and unmanned) from both the stern and side.

The flight deck is 1.5 times the size of that of a standard surface ship, and uses a Trigon traversing system to move helicopters in and out of the hangar. The ship has two ways to launch and recover various mission packages: a stern ramp and a starboard side door near the waterline. The mission module bay has a 3-axis crane for positioning modules or cargo.[13] The fore deck has a modular weapons zone which can be used for a 57 mm gun turret or missile launcher. A Rolling Airframe Missile launcher is mounted above the hangar for short-range defense against aircraft and cruise missiles, and .50-caliber gun mounts are provided topside.

The core crew will be 40 sailors, usually joined by a mission package crew and an aviation detachment for a total crew of about 75. Automation allows a reduced crew, which greatly reduces operating costs, but workload can still be "grueling."[14]

Four 750-kilowatt Fincantieri Isotta-Fraschini diesel generators provide 3 megawatts of electrical power to power the ship systems.[15]

Freedom has relaxed stability so it can rapidly change course.[16]

Concept of operations[edit]

The operational concept includes deployment of a two or three-ship squadron to operate in the littorals to counter anti-access forces and to support the operations of US Navy and other friendly surface ships. The operational concept is in direct support of the Navy's Maritime Strategy, "A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower."[17]

Principal capabilities include shallow-water anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures and defense against attacking small boats. LCS ships are to be networked to share tactical information with other units. Freedom will be initially based in San Diego with two crews which will alternate four-month tours of sea duty.[18]

The Congressional Budget Office estimates that fuel will account for only "8 percent to 18 percent" of the total life-cycle costs for Freedom.[19] Senator Jeff Sessions has called the report into question and has suggested that Independence, built in his state, would be more fuel efficient and that less frequent refuelings would have an impact on military operations beyond the cost of fuel.[20]

History[edit]

Construction[edit]

The construction contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin's LCS team (Lockheed Martin, Gibbs & Cox, Marinette Marine, Bollinger Shipyards) in May 2004. Her keel was laid down on 2 June 2005, by Marinette Marine in Marinette, Wisconsin.[21] The ship was sponsored by Birgit Smith, the widow of United States Army Sergeant 1st Class Paul Ray Smith, who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Mrs. Smith's initials are welded on the ship's keel. The couple's Saint Christopher medal and wedding bands are embedded in the ship's mast.[18]

LCS-1 during commissioning in 2008

The USS Freedom was christened on 23 September 2006,[22][23] delivered to the Navy on 18 September 2008, and commissioned in Milwaukee on 8 November.[1]

Cost overruns during Freedom '​s construction combined with projected future overruns led the government to issue a "Stop-work" in January 2007.[24] On 25 April 2008 the New York Times ran a highly critical article, arguing that both Freedom and competitor Independence demonstrated a failure of the Navy's littoral combat ship program.[25]

Prior to delivery, the Navy's Board of Inspection and Survey (INSURV) conducted acceptance trials aboard LCS-1, 17–21 August. INSURV found the ship to be "capable, well-built and inspection-ready" and recommended that the Chief of Naval Operations authorize delivery of the ship. Because the trials were conducted in Lake Michigan, some ship systems, including aviation and combat systems, could not be demonstrated. Systems not demonstrated during recent trials will be presented to INSURV in early 2009 trials in Norfolk and in the open ocean.[9] The inspection discovered 2,600 total discrepancies, of which 21 were considered high-priority deficiencies.[26]

"As part of LCS 1 acceptance trials, the Navy’s Board of Inspection and Survey (INSURV) identified 21 critical “starred” deficiencies and recommended the Chief of Naval Operations authorize delivery of LCS-1 after correction or waiver of these deficiencies. According to Navy officials, only 9 of these deficiencies were corrected prior to delivery. Navy officials report that transiting the ship away from Marinette, Wisconsin, prior to the winter freeze was a higher priority than timely correction of starred deficiencies. The Navy intends to correct remaining deficiencies during planned post-delivery maintenance availabilities."[27]

One of the issues with the ship is that it is six percent overweight and therefore more likely to sink if damaged. This seems to have been caused by design changes during construction. The Navy says that the ship will require special operating procedures until this is corrected.[28] The workaround selected will be to install external tanks for additional buoyancy.[29] And the Navy states that LCS-1 now meets the damage stability requirement with the addition of the external tanks and that the design of USS Fort Worth (LCS-3) includes additional stability improvements.[30]

Other issues include difficulty with the slow speed operations required for deep sea refueling, no ability to UNREP other supplies aboard other than by helicopter, and problems with side-door launches of remotely operated vehicles.[3]

On 12 June 2009, the Navy confirmed that CNO Roughead had ordered a study of an early deployment of Freedom, before the expected date of 2012. Anonymous sources inside Lockheed Martin reported that Roughead wanted to use the first LCS to patrol for pirates off the coast of Somalia.[31]

On 13 October 2009, the Department of Defense announced Freedom would be deployed two years ahead of schedule.[32] For this deployment 20 additional sailors will be carried for Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure operations in two shipping containers in the mission module cargo area. These containers will not include sanitary facilities, so they will be forced to use the ones in the ship's berthing spaces.[33] About half of the 20 member boarding team will be temporarily replaced with United States Coast Guard law enforcement officers for some portion of the deployment.[34] John C. Harvey, Jr. said that while the deployment was a success, manning may need adjustment.[35]

Operations[edit]

In her limited time at sea, Freedom has been "plagued by flawed designs and failed equipment since being commissioned, has at least 17 known cracks, and has repeatedly been beset by engine-related failures."[36]

On 15 February 2010, Freedom set sail from Naval Station Mayport on its first deployment to support SOUTHCOM operations.[37] On 22 February, off the coast of Colombia, the ship pursued a possible drug-running boat. The boat fled back into Colombian coastal waters and Freedom's crew recovered 1/4 ton of cocaine that had been dumped overboard by the boat's crew.[38]

On 4 April 2010 Freedom entered the 3rd Fleet area of responsibility; carrying Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron 22, Det. 2, a LCS Surface Warfare Mission Package, and a U.S. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment.[39]

She was expected to be dry docked in San Diego’s Nassco shipyard so that her outer starboard waterjet can be replaced.[40]

On 12 September 2010, the starboard Rolls-Royce MT30 gas turbine broke down and the ship had to rely on her diesel engines to return to port.[41] Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Gary Roughead said that the media had overhyped the issue and that such breakdowns were not uncommon.[42]

During a heavy-weather ocean trial in February 2011, the ship sprung a six-inch crack in its hull that leaked 5 gallons of water an hour. The Navy is investigating.[43] The problem appears to be due to faulty welds rather than a design error.[44] The repairs were scheduled to begin on 27 June 2011,[45] and last until 19 September.[46]

On February 2012, Freedom suffered minor flooding while underway off Southern California. An inflatable boot seal was deployed in a successful effort to contain the flooding, and the ship returned to San Diego on its own power.[47] This marks a return to the dry dock before the ship even completed its last post-repair shakedown.[48] A "special trial" conducted in May 2012 found the ship fit for the deployment.[49]

In July 2012, Freedom was dry docked in order to expand berthing by 20 and for firefighting and boat handling improvements.[50] After another docking to apply a new paint scheme and apply yet another fix for the aft ramp, she will depart for Singapore with a core crew of 50 plus 3 trainees, plus a mission crew with berthing for 98. Additional crew above that level will again be bedded in the cargo spaces.[51]

On 15 January 2013, the Defense Department’s director of operational test and evaluation released a judgement of the LCS in an annual study. The report said that the USS Freedom was "not expected to be survivable" in combat. Helicopters on board the ship cannot tow its mine-hunting sensors, so it must rely on unmanned systems for mine countermeasures, although those systems are not in service, and will not be for several years. Its 30 mm Mk44 Bushmaster IIs "exhibit reliability problems." The Mk 110 57 mm gun is differently designed on the Freedom Class, which cause vibrations at high speeds that make accurate firing difficult. The integrated weapons systems and air/surface search radar have “performance deficiencies” that affect the ship’s “tracking and engagement of contacts.”[52]

Freedom in February 2013 showing her large helideck and RAM launcher on the hangar.

In early 2013 the vessel took part in the National Geographic TV show "21st Century Warship" along with USS Independence. The show premiered in the UK on the 10th of February 2013.

Freedom left for a 10 month deployment to Singapore in March 2013.[53][54] On 11 March 2013, Freedom became the first LCS to reach Hawaii.[55] On March 16 the ship's diesel engines, which have had years of problems, shut down in mid-ocean, leaving the ship adrift.[56] On April 18, the Freedom arrived at the Changi Naval Base in Singapore, set to participate in joint military exercises.[57] On May 18–19, Freedom participated in the Republic of Singapore Navy Open House 2013 at Changi Naval Base. Visitors to the Open House were allowed to board and visit Freedom.[58] On May 21, Freedom's first venture from Singapore harbor was cut short by yet another equipment breakdown,[59] followed on 20 July 2013 by yet another breakdown requiring a return to port.[60] The frequent breakdowns found the crew short of the Navy's sleep requirement, even with the maximum possible core crew and help from contractors and the mission module crew.[61] Although billed as a trip for training and international cooperation exercises, the Freedom conducted standard patrols while in the South China Sea. Despite suffering several breakdowns, the deployment was deemed a success from a research and development platform standpoint; while deployed for 10 months, the ship had 70 percent availability, on par with most other forward deployed ships in the fleet.[62]

In November 2013, Freedom delivered relief supplies to the Philippines in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan from 16 nautical miles (30 km) off shore, using her own and another ship's helicopters.[63]

From 25 April-16 May 2014, the Freedom conducted the future concept of operations (CONOPS) for manned and unmanned helicopters aboard littoral combat ships. Operations had the manned MH-60R working together with the unmanned MQ-8B Fire Scout. The demonstration included one MH-60R and one MQ-8B flying with the surface warfare (SUW) mission package installed, intended to provide fleet protection against small boats and asymmetric threats.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d This story was written by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Rhonda Burke. "USS Freedom Commissioned in Milwaukee". Navy.mil. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  2. ^ "Littoral Combat Ship datasheet". Acquisition.navy.mil. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Refueling tops list of LCS crew challenges". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  4. ^ "LCS Littoral Combat Ship". Retrieved 20 September 2008. [dead link]
  5. ^ a b c "Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) High-Speed Surface Ship". naval-technology.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  6. ^ "AN/SQR-20". Deagel.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Littoral Combat Ship at the Joint Meeting INTERNATIONAL HYDROFOIL SOCIETY SNAME Panel SD-5". Foils.org. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  8. ^ "Surface Warfare Mission Package Capabilities". Navsea.navy.mil. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "Navy Accepts Delivery of Future USS Freedom". Program Executive Office Ships Public Affairs. Navy.mil. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Dan Petty. "The US Navy – Fact File: Littoral Combat Ship Class – LCS". Navy.mil. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  11. ^ US Navy LCS website
  12. ^ "Friction stir welding fuses engineering research and Wisconsin industry". Engr.wisc.edu. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  13. ^ "Nation’s First Littoral Combat Ship Demonstrates Key Mission Package Launch And Recovery System". Lockheed Martin. 11 October 2007.  Good photo of stern door
  14. ^ "Duty Aboard the Littoral Combat Ship: ‘Grueling but Manageable’". Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  15. ^ USS Freedom demonstrates its power plant can handle vessel’s sensors and electronics
  16. ^ Freeman, Ben. "Off Course: Did Navy Underplay Steering Problem Before Awarding Ship Contract?" POGO, 16 August 2012.
  17. ^ Dan Petty (17 October 2007). "The US Navy". Navy.mil. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  18. ^ a b Jones, Meg (5 November 2008). "Navy's Vessel Of Versatility". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 
  19. ^ Life-Cycle Costs of Selected Navy Ships[dead link]
  20. ^ bignews.biz – Free Press Release Distribution Center (29 April 2010). "CBO Report Calls into Question Navy’s LCS Evaluation". Bignews.biz. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  21. ^ Onley, Dawn. "Lockheed Martin to build advanced Navy ship". Government Computer News. Retrieved 23 September 2006. 
  22. ^ "First Littoral Combat Ship Christened". Navy News. Retrieved 28 September 2006. 
  23. ^ "Lockheed Martin Team Delivers Nation's First Littoral Combat Ship to U.S. Navy". Retrieved 20 September 2008. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Cost Growth Leads To Stop-Work On Team Lockheed LCS-3 Construction". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 16 April 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  25. ^ Lesson on How Not to Build a Navy Ship
  26. ^ Ewing, Philip, "Navy: InSurv recommends accepting LCS 2", Military Times, 9 December 2009.
  27. ^ "GAO-09-326SP Assessments of Major Weapon Programs, page 106" (PDF). Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  28. ^ "US Navy Adds 3 LCS Ships, 1st Ship Too Heavy". Javno.com. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  29. ^ "EXCLUSIVE-Early tests show Lockheed LCS problems-report". Forexyard.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  30. ^ 2010.pdf "Congressional Research Service RL33741 Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress Ronald O'Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs 4 May 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  31. ^ "orders study of early LCS 1 deployment". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  32. ^ DoD Press Release 797-09 USS Freedom to Deploy Early
  33. ^ "20 to join LCS crew on trial deployment". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  34. ^ "Freedom deployment to have CG boarding team". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  35. ^ Phil, Ewing (29 July 2010). "In their own words: Harvey’s caution on LCS". Navy Times. 
  36. ^ Liebelson, Dana. "Failed Equipment, Flawed Designs Plague Lockheed Littoral Combat Ship." POGO. 23 April 2012.
  37. ^ "USS Freedom marks first deployment". Upi.com. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  38. ^ Ewing, Philip, "LCS 1 seizes drugs in smuggler encounter", Military Times, 24 February 2010.
  39. ^ USS Freedom (LCS 1) enters 3rd Fleet[dead link]
  40. ^ "LCS Freedom heads for 5-day dry dock repairs". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  41. ^ "Gas turbine engine on LCS Freedom breaks". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  42. ^ Clark, Colin Land Forces Will Fade, Navy Rise DOD Buzz, 13 October 2010
  43. ^ Bloomberg L.P., "Crack In Lockheed Martin's Warship Spurs Navy Review", Arizona Republic, 19 March 2011.
  44. ^ Fabey, Michael (11 April 2011). "Welds Implicated In LCS Cracks". Aviation Week. 
  45. ^ "Navy books 3 warships for repairs in San Diego.". Signonsandiego.com. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  46. ^ Robbins, Gary (27 June 2011). "Fleet News: Freedom Heads To BAE For Upgrades". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 
  47. ^ "LCS Freedom suffers leak while underway". Navytimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  48. ^ Cavas, Christopher P. (1 March 2012). "LCS Freedom returns to dry dock for repairs". Navy Times. 
  49. ^ Cavas, Christopher P. "Hunt says LCS Freedom ‘is fit for service’." Navy Times, 30 May 2012.
  50. ^ Cavas, Christopher P. "U.S. Navy Boosting LCS Core Crew Up to 50%." Defense News, 2 July 2012.
  51. ^ "Special Report: Littoral Warfare."
  52. ^ Navy’s $670 Million Fighting Ship Is ‘Not Expected to Be Survivable,’ - Wired.com, January 15, 2013
  53. ^ "Combat ship Freedom goes to sea."
  54. ^ "U.S. plans 10-month warship deployment in Singapore". Reuters. 10 May 2012. 
  55. ^ "New type of Navy combat ship docks at Pearl Harbor."
  56. ^ "First Littoral Combat Ship Loses, Regains Power."
  57. ^ "USS Freedom arrives in Singapore as part of US 'pivot'". BBC News. 18 April 2013. 
  58. ^ [1]
  59. ^ "USS Freedom Cuts Short Initial Singapore Underway."
  60. ^ "LCS Freedom Suffers Propulsion Loss at Sea."
  61. ^ Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (4 April 2014). "Sleepless In Singapore: LCS Is Undermanned & Overworked, Says GAO". breakingdefense.com. Breaking Media, Inc. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  62. ^ Navy: Freedom LCS Conducted More Than Training Missions in South China Sea - News.USNI.org, 6 January 2014
  63. ^ "USS Freedom Delivers Relief Supplies to Tacloban, Philippines". navy.mil. United States Navy. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  64. ^ Navy Conducts Initial Fire Scout, H-60 Helicopter Demonstration Aboard LCS - Navy.mil, 16 May 2014

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here.

External links[edit]