Unilateral declaration of independence
A unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) is a variant declaration of independence that is established when the government of a constituent entity of a sovereign state declares itself independent from that state, and declares itself a sovereign state, without having a formal agreement with the state that the constituent entity declared its secession from. It was first formally recognized and described as UDI when Rhodesia declared independence in 1965 from the United Kingdom (UK) without an agreement with the UK. Other prominent recognized historical UDI examples include the that of the United States in 1776, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, and that of the Republic of Kosovo in 2008.
The method of UDI is considered controversial. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the government of the United States warned the governments of Slovenia and Croatia to drop the UDI plans because of the threat of major war erupting in the Balkans because of it, and threatened that it would oppose both countries UDIs on the basis of the Helsinki Final Act if they did so, however four days later both Slovenia and Croatia announced their UDIs from Yugoslavia. A UDI was of substantial concern with the 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty that asked whether the people of Quebec wished for Quebec to be a sovereign state, when a very narrow victory of the pro-unity "no" vote surpassed the pro-secession "yes" vote that was almost a 50/50 percentage split between the two sides.
- Douglas George Anglin. Zambian Crisis Behaviour: Confronting Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, 1965-1966. McGill-Queens, 1994.
- Don H. Doyle. Secession as an International Phenomenon: From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements. University of Georgia Press, 2010.
- United Nations. Index to Proceedings of the General Assembly 2008/2009: Subject Index. New York, New York, USA: United Nations, 2010. Pp. 138.
- Florian Bieber, Džemal Sokolović. Reconstructing multiethnic societies: the case of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ashgate, 2001. Pp. 41.
- David Schneiderman. The Quebec Decision: Perspectives on the Supreme Court Ruling on Secession. Pp. 126