Vermont Republic

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Vermont Republic

 
NewHampshire1692Seal.png
1777–1791
Green Mountain Boys Flag Great Seal
Motto
Freedom and Unity on Great Seal
Stella quarta decima on Vermont coinage
in English "the fourteenth star"
Capital Windsor, then Castleton
Languages English
Government Republic
Governor
 -  1778–1789 Thomas Chittenden
 -  1789–1790 Moses Robinson
 -  1790–1791 Thomas Chittenden
Legislature House of Representatives of the Freemen of Vermont
Historical era American Revolution
 -  Independence January 15, 1777
 -  Admitted to Union March 4, 1791
Currency Vermont coppers
Vermont coin with the passage VERMONTIS. RES. PUBLICA. on the obverse, and the motto "STELLA QUARTA DECIMA" on the reverse
Engraving of Thomas Chittenden, first and third governor of the Vermont Republic, and first governor of the State of Vermont
The Old Constitution House in Windsor, Vermont, where the 1777 constitution was signed, is also called the birthplace of Vermont.

The term Vermont Republic has been used by later historians[1] for the government of what became modern Vermont from 1777 to 1791. In July 1777, partly in response to the Westminster massacre, delegates from 28 towns met and declared independence from jurisdictions and land claims of both British colonies and American states in New Hampshire and New York. They also abolished slavery within their boundaries. The people of Vermont took part in the American Revolution and considered themselves Americans, even if Congress did not recognize the jurisdiction.[2] Because of vehement objections from New York, which had conflicting property claims, the Continental Congress declined to recognize Vermont, then called the New Hampshire Grants. Vermont's overtures to join the British Province of Quebec failed.[3] In 1791, Vermont was admitted to the United States as the 14th state.

Vermont did not send or receive diplomats, but it coined a currency called Vermont coppers from a mint operated by Reuben Harmon in East Rupert (1785–1788),[4] and operated a postal system. While the Vermont coppers bore the legend Vermontis. Res. Publica (Latin for republic or state), the constitution and other official documents used the term "State of Vermont". It referred to its chief executive as a "governor". The 1777 constitution refers to Vermont both as "the State of Vermont", as in the third paragraph of the preamble, and in the preamble's last paragraph, the constitution refers to itself as "the Constitution of the Commonwealth".[5]

The Vermont Republic was called the "reluctant republic" because many early citizens favored political union with the United States rather than independence. Both popular opinion and the legal construction of the government made clear that the independent State of Vermont would eventually join the original 13 states. While the Continental Congress did not allow a seat for Vermont, William Samuel Johnson, representing Connecticut, was engaged by Vermont to promote its interests.[6] In 1785, Johnson was granted title to the former King's College Tract by the Vermont General Assembly as a form of compensation for representing Vermont.[7] The members of the Convention of 1787 assumed that Vermont was not yet separate from New York; however, Madison's notes on the Federal Convention of 1787 make clear that there was an agreement by New York to allow for the admission of Vermont to the union;[8] it was just a question of process, which was delayed by larger federal questions.

History[edit]

After 1724, the Province of Massachusetts Bay built Fort Dummer near Brattleboro, as well as three other forts along the northern portion of the Connecticut River to protect against raids by Native Americans further south into Western Massachusetts. After 1749, Benning Wentworth, the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, granted land to anyone in a land granting scheme designed to enrich himself and his family. After 1763, settlement increased due to easing security concerns after the end of the French and Indian Wars. The Province of New York had made grants of land, often in areas overlapping similar grants made by the Province of New Hampshire; this issue had to be resolved by the King in 1764, who granted the land to New York, but the area was popularly known as the New Hampshire Grants. The "Green Mountain Boys", led by Ethan Allen, was a militia force from Vermont that supported the New Hampshire claims and fought the British during the American Revolution.

Founding[edit]

Following controversy between the holders of the New York grants and the New Hampshire grants, Ethan Allen and his militia of "Green Mountain Boys" suppressed Loyalists. On January 15, 1777, a convention of representatives from towns in the territory declared the region independent, choosing the name the Republic of New Connecticut (although it was sometimes known colloquially as the Republic of the Green Mountains).[9] On June 2 of that year, the name of the fledgling nation was officially changed to "Vermont" (from the French, les Verts Monts, meaning the Green Mountains)[10] upon the suggestion of Dr. Thomas Young,[11] a Boston Tea Party leader and mentor to Ethan Allen.

John Greenleaf Whittier's poem The Song of the Vermonters, 1779 describes the period in ballad form. First published anonymously, the poem had characteristics in the last stanza that were similar to Ethan Allen's prose and caused it to be attributed to Allen for nearly 60 years.[12] The last stanza reads:

Come York or come Hampshire, come traitors or knaves,
If ye rule o'er our land ye shall rule o'er our graves;
Our vow is recorded—our banner unfurled,
In the name of Vermont we defy all the world!

Constitution and frame of government[edit]

The Constitution of Vermont was drafted and ratified at Elijah West's Windsor Tavern in 1777, and was the first written constitution for an independent state in North America. The settlers in Vermont, who sought independence from New York, justified their constitution on the same basis as the first state constitutions of the former colonies: authority is derived from the people.[13] As historian Christian Fritz notes in American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition before the Civil War:

They saw themselves as a distinct region outside the legitimate jurisdiction of New York. Possessing an identifiable population or "a people" entitled them to the same constitutional rights of self-government as other "Peoples" in the American confederacy.[14]

In addition to creating a new government for the original thirteen colonies, the claims for Vermont's independence raised the question of creating state governments. At the same time as they struggled for independence from Great Britain, Americans had to confront just how that formation should take place and who constituted "the people".[citation needed]

The New Hampshire Grants region petitioned Congress for entry into the American union as a state independent of New York in 1776. Sixteen years later it was admitted as the State of Vermont.

The Vermont constitution was modeled after the radically democratic constitution of Pennsylvania on the suggestion of Dr. Young, who worked with Thomas Paine and others on that 1776 document in Philadelphia. Vermont's was the first constitution in the New World to outlaw slavery and allow all adult males to vote, regardless of property ownership.[citation needed]

During the time of the Vermont Republic, the government issued its own coinage and currency, and operated a postal service. The governor of Vermont, Thomas Chittenden,[15] with consent of his council and the General Assembly, appointed commissioners to the American government seated in Philadelphia.[citation needed]

After a British regiment and allied Mohawks attacked and terrorized Vermont settlers, in the Royalton Raid, Ethan Allen led a group of Vermont politicians in secret discussions with Frederick Haldimand, the Governor General of the Province of Quebec, about rejoining the British Empire.[16] The discussions ended after the Treaty of Paris concluded the Revolutionary War.[citation needed]

Though Vermont had declared its independence in 1777, it was not admitted into the United States until 1791, in part due to ongoing border disputes with New York. Vermont eventually agreed to pay 30,000 Spanish milled dollars to resolve New York's remaining land claims in the territory.[citation needed]

Symbolism of fourteen[edit]

Much of the symbolism associated with Vermont in this period expressed a desire for political union with the United States. Vermont's coins minted in 1785 and 1786 bore the Latin inscription "STELLA QUARTA DECIMA (meaning "the fourteenth star"). The Great Seal of Vermont, designed by Ira Allen, centrally features a 14-branched pine tree.

Union[edit]

As a result of an act passed by the State of New York on October 7, 1790, regarding a settlement of New York's claims, the Vermont General Assembly authorized a convention to consider an application for admittance to the "Union of the United States of America". The convention met at Bennington, on January 6, 1791. On January 10, 1791 the convention approved a resolution to make an application to join the United States by a vote of 105 to 2 nays.[17] Vermont was admitted to the Union by 1 Stat. 191 on March 4, 1791. Vermont's admission act is the shortest of all state admissions, and Vermont is the only state admitted without conditions of any kind, either those prescribed by the congress or the state from which it was carved.[18] March 4 is celebrated in Vermont as Vermont Day.[19]

Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791 was in part as a free state counterweight to Kentucky, which joined as a slave state shortly after Vermont. The North, the smaller states, and states concerned about the impact of the sea-to-sea grants held by other states, all supported Vermont's admission. Thomas Chittenden served as governor for Vermont for most of this period, and became its first governor as a member-state in the United States.[citation needed]

The 1793 Vermont state constitution made relatively few changes to the 1777 Vermont state constitution. It retained many of its original ideas, as noted above, and kept the separation of powers. It remains in force with several amendments.[20]

See also[edit]

  • Second Vermont Republic, a present-day secessionist group seeking to return the state to its former independent status

References[edit]

  1. ^ Van DeWater, Frederic F. (1974) [1941]. The Reluctant Republic, Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. pp. 195, 218–219. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  2. ^ Onuf, Peter S. (1981). "State-Making in Revolutionary America: Independent Vermont as a Case Study". Journal of American History 67 (4): 806–7. JSTOR 1888050. 
  3. ^ Bemis, S.F. (1916). "Relations between the Vermont Separatists and Great Britain, 1789–1791". American Historical Review 21 (3): 547–560. doi:10.1086/ahr/21.3.547. 
  4. ^ Bucholt, Margaret (1991). "Manchester and the Mountains Chamber of Commerce". An Insider's Guide to Southern Vermont (Penguin). 
  5. ^ Vermont Office of the Secretary of State (2012-03-26). "The Constitution of 1777". The Vermont State Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  6. ^ Swift, Esther M. (1977). Vermont Place-Names, Footprints in History. The Stephen Greene Press. pp. 282–283. ISBN 0-8289-0291-7. 
  7. ^ Swift, Esther M. (1977). Vermont Place-Names, Footprints in History. The Stephen Greene Press. pp. 580, 587–588. ISBN 0-8289-0291-7. 
  8. ^ "Madison Debates: Tuesday August 29, 1787". Avalon Project. 
  9. ^ Van DeWater, Frederic F. (1974) [1941]. The Reluctant Republic, Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  10. ^ Van DeWater, Frederic F. (1974) [1941]. The Reluctant Republic, Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. pp. 195, 218–219. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  11. ^ Allen, Ira (1974) [1798]. The Natural and Political History of Vermont. Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle Co year=1969. p. 59. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  12. ^ "Song of the Vermonters; the Ode Attributed to Ethan Allen. Its authorship finally settled–John G. Whittier Acknowledges it as His, but Only as 'a Boy's Practical Joke'.". The New York Times. 1877-08-06. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  13. ^ Onuf, Peter S. (1981). "State-Making in Revolutionary America: Independent Vermont as a Case Study". Journal of American History 67 (4): 797–815. JSTOR 1888050. 
  14. ^ Fritz, Christian G. (2008). American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–67.  (describing Vermont's struggle for independence from New York during the American Revolution)
  15. ^ Allen, Ira (1969) [1798]. The Natural and Political History of Vermont. Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle Co. p. 72. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  16. ^ "Revolutionary War Timeline". Vermont Historical Society. 
  17. ^ Forbes, Charles Spooner (March 1902). "Vermont's Admission to the Union". The Vermonter 7 (8): 101–102. Retrieved January 25, 2011. 
  18. ^ Paul W. Gates, History of public land law development, p.286. Public Land Law Review Commission, Washington D.C. 1968
  19. ^ "March 4". History by Day. 
  20. ^ "1793 Vermont Constitution". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Allen, Ira (1969) [1798]. The Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont, One of the United States of America. Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  • Bellesiles, Michael A. (1993). Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier. 
  • Bryan, Frank & McClaughry, John (1989). The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 0-930031-19-9. 
  • Graffagnino, J. Kevin (1978). "'The Vermont 'Story': Continuity And Change In Vermont Historiography". Vermont History 46 (2): 77–99. 
  • Onuf, Peter S. (March 1981). "State-Making in Revolutionary America: Independent Vermont as a Case Study". Journal of American History 67 (4): 797–815. JSTOR 1888050. 
  • Orton, Vrest (1981). Personal Observations on the Republic of Vermont. Academy. ISBN 0-914960-30-X. 
  • Roth, Randolph A. (2003). The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850. 
  • Shalhope, Robert E. (1996). Bennington and the Green Mountain Boys: The Emergence of Liberal Democracy in Vermont, 1760–1850.  a standard scholarly history
  • Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  • The Constitution of the State of Vermont: a Facsimile Copy of the 1777 Original. The Vermont Historical Society. 1977. 

External links[edit]