Vera Atkins

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Vera May Atkins
CBE
Vera Eatkins.jpg
Squadron Officer Vera Atkins, WAAF, in 1946
Born (1908-06-16)16 June 1908
Galați, Romania
Died 24 June 2000(2000-06-24) (aged 92)
Hastings, England, UK
Occupation SOE F Section intelligence officer

Vera Atkins, CBE (née Rosenberg; 16 June 1908, Galati, Romania − 24 June 2000, Hastings, England) was a Romanian-born British intelligence officer who worked in the French Section of the Special Operations Executive from 1941 to 1945 during World War II.

Early life[edit]

Atkins was born Vera-May Rosenberg to Max Rosenberg (d. 1932), a German Jewish father, and his British Jewish wife, Zeffro Hilda, known as Hilda, (d. 1947)[1][2] in Galați, Romania. She had four brothers.

She briefly attended the Sorbonne in Paris to study modern languages and a finishing school at Lausanne, where she indulged her passion for skiing, before training at a secretarial college in London.[3] Atkins' father, a wealthy businessman on the Danube delta, went bankrupt in 1932 and died a year later. Atkins remained with her mother in Romania until emigrating to Britain in 1937, a move made in response to the threatening political situation in Europe and the growing extremism and antisemitism in Romania.

During her somewhat-gilded youth in Romania, where she lived on the large estate bought by her father at Crasna (now in Ukraine), Atkins enjoyed the cosmopolitan society of Bucharest where she became close to the anti-Nazi German ambassador, Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg (executed after 1944 July Plot).[4] Later she became involved with a young British pilot, Dick Ketton-Cremer, whom she had met in Egypt, and to whom she may have been briefly engaged. He was killed in action in the Battle of Crete on 23 May 1941, and.[5] She was never to marry, and lived in a flat with her mother while working for SOE and until 1947 when Hilda died.

While in Romania, Atkins came to know several diplomats who were members of British Intelligence, some of whom were later to support her application for British nationality, and to whom in view of her and her family's strong pro-British views, she may have provided information as a 'stringer'.[6] She also worked as a translator and representative for an oil company.

The surname 'Atkins' was her South African-born mother's maiden name, itself an Anglicised version of the original 'Etkins', which she adopted as her own. She was a cousin of Rudolf Vrba.[7]

In her 2005 biography, Sarah Helm has written that in the spring of 1940, before joining SOE, Atkins travelled to the Low Countries to provide money for a bribe to an Abwehr officer for a passport for her cousin, Felix, to escape from Romania. Helm says that Atkins was stranded in the Netherlands when the Germans invaded on 10 March 1940, and, after going into hiding, she was able to return to England late in 1940 with the assistance of a Belgian resistance network.[8]

Atkins volunteered as an Air Raid Precautions warden in Chelsea in the period prior to working for SOE.

Special Operations Executive[edit]

In February 1941, despite not being a British national, Atkins joined the French section of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), originally in a secretarial capacity, but soon as assistant to section head Colonel Maurice Buckmaster and a de facto intelligence officer.[9]

She remained a civilian until August 1944, when she was commissioned a Flight Officer in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF).[10] In February 1944 Atkins had been naturalised a British subject, and was later officially appointed F Section's intelligence officer (F-Int).

Her primary role was related to the recruitment and deployment, after strenuous commando training, of British agents in occupied France. She was also given responsibility for the 37 women SOE agents who would work as couriers, and later wireless operators, for the various circuits established by SOE. Also, Atkins would take care of the 'housekeeping' related to the agent, such as ensuring they received their pay, checking that their clothing and papers were appropriate for their mission, and acting as SOE's liaison with their families, which included the sending out at regular intervals of anodyne pre-written letters.

Atkins would often accompany agents to the airfields from which they would depart for France, and would carry out final security checks before waving them off. She did this for almost all of the women agents, each of whom she regarded as one of her 'girls', and to whom she felt a close affinity despite never herself serving in the field or undergoing military or signals training.

Atkins did not usually arrive at F Section's Baker Street office until around 10 am, but she always attended the daily section heads meeting chaired by Buckmaster, and would often stay late in the signals room to await the decoded transmissions sent by agents in the field. Although not a popular officer with many of her colleagues, especially in view of her inability to admit to mistakes, she was trusted by Buckmaster for her integrity, good organisational skills and exceptional memory. She was 5 ft 9 in tall, liked to dress elegantly in tailored skirt-suits, and was a lifelong smoker, preferring the 'Senior Service' brand.

Controversy[edit]

Recently controversy has arisen[11] as to why clues that one of F section's main spy networks had been penetrated by the Germans were not picked up, and Buckmaster and Atkins failed to pull out agents at risk. Instead they sent in several more. A radio operator for the Prosper circuit, Gilbert Norman ('Archambaud'), had sent a message omitting his true security check - a deliberate mistake.[12] So why did she not challenge Buckmaster when other signals from captured radios came in without checks? Atkins, it is alleged,[13] was negligent in letting Buckmaster repeat his errors at the expense of agents' lives, including 27 arrested on landing who the Germans later killed. [14] Her biographer Sarah Helm believes that Atkins, who still had relatives in Nazi occupied Europe, may have travelled to the Netherlands in 1940 and helped a cousin to escape by bribing Abwehr officials, and then later escaped from occupied Belgium through a resistance 'lifeline'.[15] She did not tell SOE of this when she joined in 1941, and kept it secret for the rest of her life. Whatever the truth, Buckmaster was Atkins' superior officer, and thus ultimately responsible for running SOE's French agents, and she remained a civilian and not even a British national until February 1944. It was Buckmaster who recklessly sent a reply to the message supposedly sent by Norman telling him, and thus the actual German operator, that he had forgotten his 'true' check and to remember it in future.

It was not until after the end of the war that Atkins learnt of the almost total success the Germans had had by 1943 in destroying SOE networks in the Low Countries by playing the Funkspiel ('radio game'), by which radio operators were captured and forced to give up their codes and 'bluffs', so that German intelligence (Abwehr in the Netherlands; Sicherheitsdienst (SD) in France) officers could impersonate the agents and play them back against HQ in London. For some reason, Buckmaster and Atkins were not informed of the total collapse of the circuits in the Netherlands (N Section) and Belgium (T Section) due to the capture and control of wireless operators by the Abwehr. This may have been a result of inter-departmental or service rivalry, or just bureaucratic incompetence, but the failure of their superiors to tell F Section officially of these other SOE disasters (although rumours about N and T Sections circulated at Baker Street) may have led Buckmaster and Atkins to be overconfident in the security of their networks and too ready to ignore signals evidence that questioned their trust in the identity of the wireless operator.[16]

Notice should also be taken of the well-organised and skillful counter-espionage work of the SD at 84 Avenue Foch in Paris under Hans Josef Kieffer, who built up a deep understanding of how F Section operated in both London and France.

It has been suggested that Atkins' diligence in tracing agents still missing at the end of the war was motivated by a sense of guilt at having sent many to deaths that could have been avoided. It is also possible that she felt it her duty to find out what had happened to the men and women, each known personally to her, who had died serving SOE F Section in the most dangerous of circumstances.

In the end, what caused the complete collapse of the Prosper circuit of Francis Suttill and its extensive network of sub-circuits, were not errors in London, but the actions of Henri Dericourt ('Gilbert'), F Section's air-landing officer in France, who was at the heart of its operations, and who was literally giving SOE's secrets to the SD in Paris. What is not completely clear is whether Dericourt was, as is most likely, simply a traitor, or, as he was to claim, was working for the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) (unknown to SOE) as part of a complex deception plan in the run-up to D-Day.[17] However, it is beyond doubt that Dericourt was at least a double agent, and that he provided, first his friend, Karl Boemelburg, head of the SD in France, and then Kieffer, with large amounts of written evidence and intelligence about F Section's operations and operatives, which ultimately led to the capture, torture and execution of scores of British agents.[18]

The conclusions of M.R.D. Foot in his official history of F Section are that the errors made by Atkins, Buckmaster and other London officers were the products of the 'fog of war', that there were no conspiracies behind these failings, and that few individuals were culpable.[19]

Atkins never admitted to making mistakes, and went to considerable lengths to hide her errors, as in her original identification of Noor Inayat Khan, rather than (the then unknown to Atkins) Sonya Olschanezky, as the fourth woman executed at Natzweiler-Struthof on 6 July 1944.[20]

The search for F Section's missing agents[edit]

After the liberation of France and the allied victory in Europe, Atkins went to both France, and later, for just four days, Germany, where she was determined to uncover the fates of the fifty-one still unaccounted for F Section agents, of the 118 who had disappeared in enemy territory (117 of whom she was to confirm had died in German captivity). Originally she received little support and some opposition in Whitehall, but as the horrors of Nazi atrocities were revealed, and the popular demand for war crimes trials grew, it was decided to give official support for her quest to find out what had happened to the British agents, and to bring those who has perpetrated crimes against them to justice.

At the end of 1945 SOE was wound-up, but in January 1946 Atkins, now funded on the establishment of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), arrived in Germany as a newly promoted Squadron Officer in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force to begin her search for the missing agents, including 14 women. She was attached to the war crimes unit of the Judge Advocate-General's department of the British Army HQ at Bad Oeynhausen, which was under the command of Group Captain Tony Somerhaugh.[21]

Until her return to England in October 1946, Atkins searched for the missing SOE agents and other intelligence service personnel who had gone missing behind enemy lines, carried out interrogations of Nazi war crimes suspects, including Rudolf Hoess, ex-commandant of Auschwitz-Birkenau,[22] and testified as a prosecution witness in subsequent trials. In November 1946 Atkins' commission was extended so that she could return to Germany to assist the prosecution in the Ravensbrueck Trial which lasted into January 1947. She used this opportunity to complete her search for Noor Inayat Khan, who she now knew had not died at Natzweiler-Struthof, as she had originally concluded in April 1946, but at Dachau.

As well as tracing 117 of the 118 missing F Section SOE agents, Atkins established the circumstances of the deaths of all 14 of the women, twelve of whom had been murdered in concentration camps: Andree Borrel, Vera Leigh, Sonya Olschanezky (whom Atkins did not identify until 1947, but knew as the fourth woman to be killed) and Diana Rowden executed at Natzweiler-Struthof by lethal injection on 6 July 1944; Yolande Beekman, Madelaine Damerment, Noor Inayat Khan and Eliane Plewman executed at Dachau on 13 September 1944; Denise Bloch, Lilian Rolfe and Violette Szabo executed by shooting at Ravensbrueck on 5 February 1945, and Cecily Lefort gassed at Ravensbrueck sometime in February 1945. Yvonne Rudelat died of Typhus on 23 April 1945, eight days after the liberation of Bergen-Belsen, and Muriel Byck had died of meningitis in hospital in Ramorantin, France, on 25 May 1944. She had also persuaded the War Office that the twelve women, technically regarded as civilians, who had been executed, were not treated as having died in prison, as had been originally intended, but were recorded as Killed in Action.

Atkins' efforts in looking for her missing 'girls' meant not only did each now have a place of death, but by detailing their bravery before and after capture, she also helped to ensure that each (except Sonya Olschanezky, unknown to Atkins until 1947) received official recognition by the British government, including the award of a posthumous George Cross to both Violette Szabo in 1946 and, especially due to Atkins's efforts, Noor Inayat Khan in 1949[23] (Odette Sansom, who survived Ravensbrueck, also received the GC in 1946). However, when she did confirm that Sonya had been murdered at Natzweiler-Struthof, she failed to pass the information to Sonya's family.

Despite her stern manner on first meeting, Atkins became well-liked by her colleagues in Germany, and enjoyed relaxing, drinking and smoking in the officers' mess.

After World War II[edit]

Atkins was demobilised in 1947, and although nominated for an MBE, was not awarded a decoration in the postwar honours lists.

She went to work for UNESCO's Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges, as office manager from 1948, and director from 1952. She took early retirement in 1961, and retired to Winchelsea in East Sussex

In 1950 Atkins was an advisor on the film, 'Odette', about Odette Sansom (by then Mrs Peter Churchill), and in 1958 on the film of 'Carve Her Name With Pride', based upon the biography of the same name of Violette Szabo by R.J, Minney. She also assisted Jean Overton Fuller on her 1952 life of Noor Inayat Khan, 'Madelaine', but their friendship cooled after the author revealed the success of the German Funkspiel against F Section in her 1954 book, 'The Starr Affair', and Overton Fuller later came to believe that Atkins had been a Soviet agent.[24]

Atkins was also suspected by some former SOE officials of working for the Germans, but Sarah Helm dismisses these claims of her being a Soviet or Nazi spy, and suggests that Atkins' less straghtforward behaviour and secrecy can be explained by her determination not to reveal her 1940 mission to the continent.[25] Her position as a woman, a Jew and a non-British national in SOE would also explain Atkins' defensiveness during and after the war.

Atkins persuaded M.R.D. Foot, SOE's official historian, not to reveal her Romanian origins in his history.

She remained to her death a strong defender of F Section's wartime record, and ensured that each of the 12 women murdered in the three concentration camps of Natzweiler-Struthof, Dachau and Ravensbrueck are commemorated by memorial plaques close to where they were killed. She also supported the memorial at Valençay in the Loire Valley, unveiled in 1991, which is dedicated to the agents of SOE in France killed in the line of duty.

In 1996 Atkins wrote to the 'Daily Telegraph' to defend the decision to send Noor Inayat Khan to France, writing of Noor's initial success in evading capture, her two escape attempts, and her detention in Pforzheim prison manacled in chains as a dangerous prisoner: "This is the record of Nora Inayat Khan and her answer to those who doubted her."[26]

Honours and Decorations[edit]

Atkins was appointed CBE in 1997.

She was awarded the Croix de Guerre in 1948 and made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur by the French government in 1995.[27]

Death[edit]

Atkins died in a nursing home in Hastings on 24 June 2000, aged 92, shortly after contracting MRSA in hospital and breaking her hip.

Her gravestone is in Zennor churchyard in Cornwall, with the inscription "Vera May Atkins, Légion d'honneur Croix de Guerre".

In popular culture[edit]

Atkins is one of several women who has been speculated to be the basis for the character Miss Moneypenny in Ian Fleming's James Bond novels.[28]

References[edit]

Notes
Documentaries

"Fatal Femmes" (in English). Secret War. Season 1. Episode 9. February 28, 2012. Military Channel.

Bibliography[edit]

M.R.D. Foot, 'Atkins, Vera May (1908-2000), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (OUP, Oxford 2004); online edn, May 2008 [1]. 

Binney, Marcus (2002). The Women Who Lived for Danger: The Women Agents of SOE in the Second World War. London: Hodder and Stouton.