Visual pollution

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Sign for the McDonald's restaurant adjacent to the Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré, Beaupré, Québec, Canada

Visual pollution is an aesthetic issue and refers to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a vista or view.

Visual pollution disturbs the visual areas of people by creating negative changes in the natural environment. Billboards, open storage of trash, space debris, telephone towers, electric wires, buildings and automobiles are forms of visual pollution. An overcrowding of an area causes visual pollution. Visual pollution is defined as the whole of irregular formations, which are mostly found in natural and built environments.[1][2]

Sources[edit]

Administrative negligence[edit]

The local management of urban areas lose control over what is built and assembled in public places. As businesses look for ways to increase profits, cleanliness, architecture, logic and use of space in urban areas are suffering from visual clutter.[3] Variations in the environment are determined by the location of various objects. For example, public transport stations, garbage cans, large panels and stalls. Insensitivity of local administration is another cause for visual pollution. For example poorly planned buildings and transportation systems create visual pollution. The increase in high-rise buildings brings negative change to the visual and physical characteristics of a city, which reduces the readability of the city and destroys natural environments.[4]

Excessive advertising[edit]

Advertising is a mirror and shaper of public outlook, social behaviors and standards.[5] A frequent criticism against advertising is that there is too much of it. On the other hand, with the introduction of new communication technologies the fragmentation and incentive nature of advertising methods will improve, reducing clutter. For example, with the increase of mobile device usage, more money is invested in advertising on social media websites and mobile device applications. Vandalism, in the form of graffiti is defined as street markings, offensive and inappropriate messages made without the owner’s consent.[6] Graffiti adds to visual clutter in neighborhoods as it makes a disturbance of view, and the writing is often a bad influence to those of younger age groups. Billboards are another example of excessive advertising. This form of visual pollution has been alleged as a distraction for drivers, corrupting public taste, boosting the infinite need of consumption and cluttering the land.[7]

Effects[edit]

Effects of exposure to visual pollution include: distraction, eye fatigue, decreases in opinion diversity, and loss of identity.[8]

Prevention[edit]

United States[edit]

In the United States, there are several initiatives gradually taking place to prevent visual pollution. The Federal Highway Beautification Act of 1965 limits billboards on Interstate highways and federally aided roads. It has drastically decreased the amount of billboards placed on these roads.[9] Another highway bill, The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 has made transportation facilities sync with the needs of communities. This bill created a system of state and national scenic byways and provided funds for biking trails, historic preservation and scenic conservation.[10]

The Dunn Foundation is an organization that increases public awareness of visual pollution and landscape appearance in America through educational programs.[11] The foundation has designed an educationally interactive package for students from grades 3-12 for raising awareness about visual pollution and they educate students on how to improve the visual environment in their communities. Another example of a company working toward prevention of visual clutter is Scenic America; a non-profit organization that envisions a future movement toward ensuring that scenic conservation boosts the economy and decreases visual pollution.[12] Businesses situated near and interstate can create problems of advertising through large billboards, however now an alternative solution for advertisers is gradually eliminating the problem. For example, logo signs that provide directional information for travelers without disfiguring the landscape are increasing and are a step toward decreasing visual pollution on highways in America.[13] Thus, researchers believe that planners should help and encourage citizens to maintain their communities as citizens have the power to influence government, especially local and regional management where most issues regarding appearance and disclosed.

Brazil[edit]

In September 2006, São Paulo passed the Cidade Limpa (Clean City Law), outlawing the use of all outdoor advertisements, including on billboards, transit, and in front of stores.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yilmaz, Demet (May 2011). "In the Context of Visual Pollution: Effects to Trabzon City Center Silhoutte". The Asian Social Science Journal 7 (5): 99. Retrieved March 30, 2013. 
  2. ^ http://bf4dv7zn3u.search.serialssolutions.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Cell+phone+towers+as+visual+pollution.+%28Symposium+on+the+Environment%29&rft.jtitle=Notre+Dame+Journal+of+Law%2C+Ethics+%26+Public+Policy&rft.au=Nagle%2C+John+Copeland&rft.date=2009&rft.pub=Thomas+J.+White+Center+on+Law+%26+Government&rft.issn=0883-3648&rft.volume=23&rft.issue=2&rft.spage=537&rft.externalDBID=n%2Fa&rft.externalDocID=206558294 Nagle, Copeland. (2009). Cell Phone Towers as Visual Pollution. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy.
  3. ^ Purice, Suzana. "Visual Pollution: A New Axiological Dimension Of Marketing?". University of Pite, Faculty of Management-Marketing in Economic Affairs Brilla. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Yilmaz, Demet (May 2011). "In the Context of Visual Pollution: Effects to Trabzon City Center Silhoutte". The Asian Social Science Journal 7 (5): 99. Retrieved March 30, 2013. 
  5. ^ Purice, Suzana. "Visual Pollution: A New Axiological Dimension Of Marketing?". University of Pite, Faculty of Management-Marketing in Economic Affairs Brilla. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  6. ^ Purice, Suzana. "Visual Pollution: A New Axiological Dimension Of Marketing?". University of Pite, Faculty of Management-Marketing in Economic Affairs Brilla. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  7. ^ http://bf4dv7zn3u.search.serialssolutions.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Cell+phone+towers+as+visual+pollution.+%28Symposium+on+the+Environment%29&rft.jtitle=Notre+Dame+Journal+of+Law%2C+Ethics+%26+Public+Policy&rft.au=Nagle%2C+John+Copeland&rft.date=2009&rft.pub=Thomas+J.+White+Center+on+Law+%26+Government&rft.issn=0883-3648&rft.volume=23&rft.issue=2&rft.spage=537&rft.externalDBID=n%2Fa&rft.externalDocID=206558294 Nagle, Copeland. (2009). Cell Phone Towers as Visual Pollution. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy.
  8. ^ Yilmaz, Demet (May 2011). "In the Context of Visual Pollution: Effects to Trabzon City Center Silhoutte". The Asian Social Science Journal 7 (5): 99. Retrieved March 30, 2013. 
  9. ^ Nagle, Copeland. (2009). Cell Phone Towers as Visual Pollution. http://bf4dv7zn3u.search.serialssolutions.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Cell+phone+towers+as+visual+pollution.+%28Symposium+on+the+Environment%29&rft.jtitle=Notre+Dame+Journal+of+Law%2C+Ethics+%26+Public+Policy&rft.au=Nagle%2C+John+Copeland&rft.date=2009&rft.pub=Thomas+J.+White+Center+on+Law+%26+Government&rft.issn=0883-3648&rft.volume=23&rft.issue=2&rft.spage=537&rft.externalDBID=n%2Fa&rft.externalDocID=206558294 Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy. Retrieved from
  10. ^ Maguire, M., Foote, R., & Vespe, F. (1997). Beauty as well as bread. American Planning Association.Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(3), 317-328. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229617956?accountid=14771
  11. ^ "Visual Pollution". The Dunn Foundation. 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Seven Principles of Scenic Conservation". Washington, DC: Scenic America. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  13. ^ Maguire, M., Foote, R., & Vespe, F. (1997). Beauty as well as bread. American Planning Association.Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(3), 317-328. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229617956?accountid=14771
  14. ^ "Five Years After Banning Outdoor Ads, Brazil's Largest City Is More Vibrant Than Ever". The Center for a New American Dream. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 

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