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- For other meanings, see: Vrdnik (disambiguation).
Vrdnik (Serbian Cyrillic: Врдник, pronounced [vř̩dniːk]) is a village in northern Syrmia, in the Vojvodina province of Serbia. It is located at southern slopes of Fruška Gora, at the border of the national park. Administratively, it belongs to Irig municipality. According to the 1991 census, the village had 3,488 residents, while according to the 2002 census, number of inhabitants was 3,704. Most of the inhabitants of Vrdnik are ethnic Serbs.
Although small, the village has several distinctive features: a thermal spa, Vrdnik-Ravanica monastery from the 16th century, former coal mine with steam power plant built in 1911,  but destroyed during NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, and a ruined castle, known as Castellum Rednek or Vrdnička kula (Tower of Vrdnik).
Vrdnik is placed near the heart of Fruška Gora, in a valley surrounded by its slopes, at elevation of 181–260 m and coordinates Coordinates: . The valley is formed by three creeks named Dubočaš, Morintov potok and Veliki potok. Most houses are built in lines (colonies) along steep streets leading uphill from the town center.
9th century BC graves of Bosut culture were found in Vrdnik.
Tower of Vrdnik is significant historical monument, whose basements date from the Roman period. The tower's builder supposedly was Roman emperor Probus in 287 During the reign of the Kingdom of Hungary, a new fortress was built in the 14th century on its remains, of which only the today's tower remained. The Castellum Redneck, as it was called, was probably used for protection of Vrdnik and partly Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica).
This first written data about Vrdnik fortress date from 1315, but they consistently reappeared only after 1702  The village developed along the nearby monastery, and the population consisted of emigrants from all sides who worked as serfs at the monastery's property. They lived at the settlement called Prnjavor which was separate from the Village.
The key year for the development of Vrdnik was 1804, when a brown coal mine was opened following the discovery of large deposits. For almost a century and a half, it was the key feature of the village's development. Miners from entire Habsburg Monarchy settled in the town, forming new parts of the settlement, first of which is now known as the Old Colony (Stara Kolonija). Lipovac developed next, along the road to village and monastery Jazak. The smallest part is New Colony, raised between 1890 and 1908 and lies at the western part of the town. The part named "Clerk's line" (Činovnički red) was apparently housed by clerks from the mine and administration.
The mine was closed in 1968 because deposits were largely exhausted, and coal exploitation became unviable. The village's population is in a decay since.
- 1961: 4,610
- 1971: 4,072
- 1981: 3,612
- 1991: 3,495
The population in 2002 was:
The traces of mine exploitation are still present all over the village, like entries to the shafts (Barbara, Gustav, Južno pomoćno, Zora, Glavno) and a number of buildings. The "Miners' house" is scheduled for transformation into an ethno-tourist attraction.
After the mine's closure, most of the population turned back to agriculture. For its favorable geographic position, the area of Vrdnik is suitable for winemaking.
The spa, accompanied with hotel with annex, bungalows, 260 beds total, and two Olympic-size swimming pools presents an important touristic asset and a source of income. The water temperature is 32.8 °C, and the spa is suitable for treatment of rheumatoid ailments, postoperative conditions, various painful disorders, and general balneologic recuperation.
Famous people from Vrdnik
- Milica Stojadinović-Srpkinja, famous Serbian poet, spent most of her life in Vrdnik.
- Franjo Ožegović, Croatian geologist, founder of Croatian petroleum geology and coal geology
- Milan Stepanović, Serbian poet from Vrdnik.
- Prof. Zvonko Turkali, Architect at Frankfurt am Main, Master at Harvard University, Prof. at Leibniz University Hannover
- Academic Painter Slobodan Vukovic'Picasso" (https://www.facebook.com/#!/slobodan.vukovic1)
- List of spa towns in Serbia
- List of places in Serbia
- List of cities, towns and villages in Vojvodina
- "Official site of Irig municipality - Vrdnik".
- "Fruška Gora mountain". Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments of Serbia.
- "A large number of cultural monuments in Serbia damaged". Tanjug. 1999-06-12.
- Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vrdnik.|
- Brvnara Vrdnik smeštaj u Vrdniku
- Vrdnik – naselje, tvrđava, rudnik, banja, manastir (Serbian)
- Vrdnik spa