Wandsworth Bridge

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Wandsworth Bridge
Wandsworth Bridge.JPG
Carries A217 road
Crosses River Thames
Locale London, England
Designer Pierson Frank
Design Cantilever bridge
Material Steel
Total length 650 feet (200 m)
Width 60 feet (18 m)
Number of spans 3
Clearance below 39 feet (11.9 m) at lowest astronomical tide[1]
Opened 1940
Daily traffic 53,299 vehicles (2004)[2]
Coordinates 51°27′54″N 0°11′17″W / 51.46500°N 0.18806°W / 51.46500; -0.18806Coordinates: 51°27′54″N 0°11′17″W / 51.46500°N 0.18806°W / 51.46500; -0.18806

Wandsworth Bridge crosses the River Thames in west London. It carries the A217 road between the areas of Battersea, near Wandsworth Town Station, in the London Borough of Wandsworth on the south of the river, and the areas of Sands End and Parsons Green, in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, on the north side.

The first bridge on the site was a toll bridge built by Julian Tolmé in 1873, in the expectation that the western terminus of the Hammersmith and City Railway would shortly be built on the north bank, leading to a sharp increase in the number of people wanting to cross the river at this point. The railway terminus was not built, and problems with drainage on the approach road made access to the bridge difficult for vehicles. Wandsworth Bridge was commercially unsuccessful, and in 1880 it was taken into public ownership and made toll-free. Tolmé's bridge was narrow and too weak to carry buses, and in 1926 a Royal Commission recommended its replacement.

In 1937 Tolmé's bridge was demolished. The present bridge, an unadorned steel cantilever bridge designed by Sir Pierson Frank, was opened in 1940. At the time of its opening it was painted in dull shades of blue as camouflage against air raids, a colour scheme it retains. Although Wandsworth Bridge is one of the busiest bridges in London, carrying over 50,000 vehicles daily, it has been described as "probably the least noteworthy bridge in London".

Background[edit]

Although opposite each other across the River Thames, Fulham on the north bank and Wandsworth on the south bank were historically isolated from each other; the nearest crossing points were at Putney Bridge to the west and Battersea Bridge to the east, both over a mile from Wandsworth. The fast flowing but narrow River Wandle at Wandsworth was well-situated for driving watermills, leading to the rapid spread of industry in the area during the 19th century.[3] Nearby Battersea Railway Bridge opened in 1863,[4] but as the local population grew and London's built-up area began to encroach during the 19th century, pressure from local residents and businesses for a road bridge to be built increased.[5]

In 1864, it was expected that the newly formed Hammersmith and City Railway would build its western terminus on the north bank of the river between Chelsea and Fulham.[5] In 1864, in anticipation of the new railway line generating high demand for a river crossing, an Act of Parliament was passed granting permission to the Wandsworth Bridge Company to build a bridge, to be financed by tolls,[5] with the proviso that the bridge would be at least 40 feet (12 m) wide and cross the river with no more than three spans.[6] Rowland Mason Ordish designed an Ordish–Lefeuvre Principle bridge to comply with the Act's specifications, of a similar design to his nearby Albert Bridge.[5] Wandsworth Bridge and Albert Bridge were authorised on the same day, and were the last private tollbridges authorised in London.[7]

1873 bridge[edit]

Narrow lattice truss bridge crossing a wide river
The first Wandsworth Bridge

The company was unable to finance the building of Ordish's design,[5] and in 1870 a new Act of Parliament was passed giving the company permission to build a bridge 30 feet (9.1 m) wide, crossing the river with five spans.[6] Ordish was asked to design a cheaper bridge to the new specifications but refused to change the design, so Julian Tolmé was appointed designer in his place.[5] Tolmé designed a starkly functional lattice truss bridge of wrought iron.[5] It cost £40,000 (about £3.1 million as of 2014) to build,[6][8] and consisted of five identical spans, supported by four pairs of concrete-filled iron piers;[9] each of the cylindrical piers was sunk 14 feet (4.3 m) into the riverbed.[6] The bridge was due to open in early 1873, but the workmen building it went on strike, and a third Act of Parliament was necessary to give the company time to resolve the dispute and complete the project.[6]

Wandsworth Bridge was formally opened in a small ceremony in 1873, and a celebratory buffet was provided at the nearby Spread Eagle pub.[10] A utilitarian structure made of mismatched materials purchased for cheapness, the response to the new bridge was unenthusiastic;[10] the Illustrated London News remarked at the time of its opening that "No attempt has been made to produce architectural effect, the structure being substantial rather than ornamental".[11] A 12d toll was charged on pedestrians,[12] and carts were charged 6d.[13]

In 1867 the formerly independent Hammersmith and City Railway was absorbed by the Metropolitan Railway and the Great Western Railway, and was operated from then on by Metropolitan Railway trains. The plan for a terminus in Fulham was abandoned, and the line instead turned west at Hammersmith to run over London and South Western Railway tracks to Richmond.[14] Although Wandsworth Town railway station, near the southern end of the bridge, had provided direct connections to central London since 1846,[15] the lack of rail connections opening on the north bank meant the area on the Fulham side remained undeveloped, and bridge usage was low. Tolmé's design was not sturdy enough to carry heavy vehicles,[9] and drainage problems on the approach road to the north discouraged vehicles from using Wandsworth Bridge.[13]

Public ownership[edit]

Panel of five drawings. Clockwise from the top, they show: four men and a woman in an open-topped coach surrounded by police officers, in which one of the men is reading from a stack of papers; a large crowd of people running across a bridge; a crowd of men demolishing a large gate; a large crowd watching a procession of horse-drawn carriages crossing an ornate bridge bearing a large sign "Free for Ever"; a man holding a young girl up to a middle-aged woman.
The abolition of bridge tolls, 1880. Clockwise from top, the images show: the address being read at the opening of Wandsworth Bridge; a race to be the first across Putney Bridge; the toll gates from Putney Bridge being thrown into the river; the Prince and Princess of Wales leaving Hammersmith Bridge; the bridge-keeper's daughter with the Princess of Wales at Putney Bridge.

Wandsworth Bridge never raised enough toll revenue to cover the costs of repairs and maintenance. In 1877 the Metropolis Toll Bridges Act was passed, and in 1880 Wandsworth Bridge, along with other London bridges, was taken into the public ownership of the Metropolitan Board of Works.[9] Despite having run at a loss throughout its lifetime, the Board of Works paid £53,313 (about £4.4 million as of 2014) for the bridge,[8][12] a substantial premium on its £40,000 construction cost. On 26 June 1880 Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra, Princess of Wales presided over a ceremony abolishing tolls over the three bridges.[9]

By the time it was taken into public ownership, the bridge was in very poor condition. In 1891 a weight limit of 5 tons was introduced, and in 1897 a 10 mph (16 km/h) speed limit was imposed. With its narrowness and weight restrictions, by this point it was effectively a footbridge.[9] As narrowness and weight restrictions meant that it was unable to carry buses,[16] in 1926 a Royal Commission recommended its replacement and the London County Council agreed to finance a new bridge on the site. In 1928 it was decided instead to give priority to widening the much busier Putney Bridge, and the replacement of Wandsworth Bridge was delayed.[17]

1940 bridge[edit]

In 1935, the Ministry of Transport agreed to finance 60 percent of the projected £503,000 (about £30.5 million as of 2014) cost of a replacement bridge,[8][17] and the London County Council approved a new design, by Sir Pierson Frank, for a three-span steel cantilever bridge 60 feet (18 m) in width, allowing two lanes of traffic in each direction, and designed to allow widening to 80 feet (24 m) if necessary.[9][18] The design featured distinctive low curves, intended to reflect the low riverbanks in the area.[19] The design was presented to the Royal Fine Art Commission for approval, with a covering note stating that "in the design of the bridge a severe simplicity of treatment has been carried out, expressed in a technique essentially related to the material proposed for its construction". Although the Commission expressed concern that the bridge might be too narrow, the design was approved.[20] The work was put out for tender, with a stipulation that all materials used in the construction of the new bridge should be of British origin or manufacture.[20]

The contract for the new bridge was awarded to Messrs Holloway Brothers (London), and work began in 1937.[20] A temporary footbridge that had been used during the redevelopment of Chelsea Bridge between 1935 and 1937 was re-erected alongside Wandsworth Bridge, and the existing bridge demolished. The new bridge was expected to be complete in 1939; however, a shortage of steel in the build up to the Second World War delayed its opening until 25 September 1940.[19] The steel panels cladding the bridge were painted in varying shades of blue to camouflage it from German and Italian air raids, a colour scheme it retains today.[16] Although it is one of London's busiest bridges, carrying over 50,000 vehicles per day,[2] its drab colour scheme and minimalist design have led to it being described as "probably the least noteworthy bridge in London".[21]

Later developments[edit]

A long low bridge across a wide river. The bridge is painted in varying shades of blue, which render it hard to see against the water and sky.
The current Wandsworth Bridge

Historically, the southern approach roads had been in poor condition and confusing to use. In 1969 the Greater London Council built the A214 road, a three-lane dual carriageway linking the southern end of Wandsworth Bridge to Tooting.[19] At the immediate southern end of the bridge is a large roundabout adjacent to Wandsworth Town railway station, where Bridgend Road (A217), York Road (A3205), Swandon Way (A217) and Trinity Road (A214) meet. The roundabout is a noted example of 1960s modernist design,[22] and served as the setting for parts of A Clockwork Orange in 1971.[19][22] In 2007 approval was granted for a series of 40-foot (12 m) glass cone-shaped "flames" designed by architect Steven Lenczner, which will change colour with the tides, to be added to the bridge deck.[21] The "flames" will be raised above the sightlines of drivers to avoid causing a distraction.[23][n 1]

A pedestrian tunnel runs underneath on the south side of the Thames. This links up Battersea Reach and the Thames path to the west.[24]

Wandsworth Bridge now marks the boundary above which speed limits on the Thames are enforced.[25] A 12 Knots speed limit is now in force downstream from Wandsworth to Margaretness but because of the number of rowers using the upper reaches of the river, all of the Thames upstream of Wandsworth Bridge is subject to a strictly enforced speed limit of 8 knots (15 km/h).[25]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ As of August 2010 the "flames" are not yet in place.
References
  1. ^ "Thames Bridges Heights". Port of London Authority. Retrieved 2011-08-23. 
  2. ^ a b Cookson 2006, p. 316
  3. ^ Cookson 2006, p. 111
  4. ^ Cookson 2006, p. 116
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Matthews 2008, p. 60
  6. ^ a b c d e Cookson 2006, p. 112
  7. ^ Roberts 2005, p. 138
  8. ^ a b c UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Matthews 2008, p. 61
  10. ^ a b Roberts 2005, p. 139
  11. ^ Illustrated London News, 1873-09-26, quoted Matthews 2008, p. 61.
  12. ^ a b "The Freeing of the Bridges". The Times. 1880-06-28. p. 12. 
  13. ^ a b Pay, Lloyd & Waldegrave 2009, p. 83
  14. ^ Demuth 2003, p. 6
  15. ^ Hornby 2000, p. 84
  16. ^ a b Roberts 2005, p. 140
  17. ^ a b Cookson 2006, p. 113
  18. ^ Davenport 2006, p. 75
  19. ^ a b c d Matthews 2008, p. 62
  20. ^ a b c Cookson 2006, p. 114
  21. ^ a b Westbrook, Andrew (2007-07-02), "Bright idea to make a landmark of Wandsworth Bridge", Wimbledon Guardian (London), retrieved 2009-04-30 
  22. ^ a b "Fast Forward: The loafer's guide to popular culture", The Observer (London), 2000-02-13, retrieved 2009-04-30 
  23. ^ Barney, Katherine (2007-06-26), "Wandsworth Bridge set to go up in 'flames'", Evening Standard (London), retrieved 2009-04-30 [dead link]
  24. ^ http://www.walklondon.org.uk/uploads/File/leaflets/tp1southdirections_31032011081437.pdf
  25. ^ a b Roberts 2005, p. 143
Bibliography