Welkom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Welkom
Welkom's city center
Welkom's city center
Nickname(s): Circle City
Welkom is located in South Africa
Welkom
Welkom
 Welkom shown within South Africa
Coordinates: 27°58′59″S 26°43′15″E / 27.98306°S 26.72083°E / -27.98306; 26.72083Coordinates: 27°58′59″S 26°43′15″E / 27.98306°S 26.72083°E / -27.98306; 26.72083
Country South Africa
Province Free State
District Lejweleputswa
Municipality Matjhabeng
Established 1947
Area[1]
 • Total 212.7 km2 (82.1 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 211,011
 • Density 990/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)[1]
 • Black African 84.9%
 • Coloured 3.7%
 • Indian/Asian 0.4%
 • White 10.8%
 • Other 0.2%
First languages (2011)[1]
 • Sotho 58.3%
 • Afrikaans 14.6%
 • Xhosa 13.6%
 • English 5.0%
 • Other 8.5%
Postal code (street) 9459
PO box 9460
Area code 057

Welkom (Afrikaans pronunciation: [Velkom]) is a city in the Free State province of South Africa, located about 140 kilometres (90 mi) northeast of Bloemfontein, the provincial capital. Welkom is also known as Circle City, City Within A Garden, Mvela and Matjhabeng. The city's Sesotho name, Matjhabeng means 'where nations meet', derived from the migrant labour system, where people of various countries such as Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique etc. met to work in the mines of the gold fields.Welkom is now the second largest city in the Free State.

A settlement was laid out on a farm named "Welkom" (which is Afrikaans and Dutch for "welcome") after gold was discovered in the region, and it was officially proclaimed a town in 1948. The town became a municipality in 1961.[2] It now falls in the Matjhabeng Municipality, part of the Lejweleputswa District. Welkom was officially declared a city on 14 February 1968.

History[edit]

Much of the history of Welkom is centred around the discovery of gold in the northwestern Free State. It was proclaimed a town in 1948, nines years after a major gold discovery was made in Odendaalsrus, just north of Welkom.

Early mining activity[edit]

The first prospecting in the area was done by the Englishmen Mr Donaldson and Mr Hinds on a portion of the farm Zoeten-Inval in 1896. The men discovered a small outcrop which seemed to be a conglomerate pebble reef, but they failed to raise interest among mining companies who at that stage did not believe that there was gold to be discovered south of the Vaal River. They returned to England to test the samples they had extracted, but died before reaching their destination when their ship sank in the Bay of Biscay.

Prospecting Pit of Arthur Megson circa 1904

Prospector Arthur Megson heard of the their venture and decided to investigate near the town of Odendaalsrus in 1904. He gathered samples of exposed strata near the outcrop, which by then was part of Hendrik Petrus Klopper's farm Aandenk. He too did not succeed in obtaining any interest from companies until October 1932, when he presented his findings to Allan Roberts and Mannie Jacobs. The area needed to be tested by drilling, and the first borehole was started on 5 May 1933. Jacobs managed to interest two men, Fritz Marx and Peter Woolf, in the venture and the Wit Extensions Company was formed later that year. Although the borehole, which by then penetrated more than 1200 metres, yielded 120 pennyweights of gold, it was not enough to garner financial assistance and the operation had to close due to depleted finances.

However, the discovery of gold-bearing reef in the Klerksdorp area in 1933 by the Anglo American Corporation encouraged geologists and others with vision to see the northwestern Free State as a potential gold field. Prospecting intensified and the first high values of gold were discovered in 1939. By 1940, sufficient work had been done to prove the existence of gold in the area and thirteen mining areas were later demarcated around what would become the town of Welkom.

Development of the settlement[edit]

Welkom Central Business District 1950

Welkom officially came into being on 15 April 1947, six years after the first mining lease in the area was awarded to the St Helena Gold Mining Company, and was proclaimed a town on 23 July 1948. In 14 February 1968, after 21 years of existence, Welkom received city status, and celebrated this event with the opening of the Civic Centre by Mrs Martie du Plessis. The construction of this building commenced in 1964.

Apartheid era[edit]

During Apartheid in the years of segregation, the townships of Thabong and Bronville were established for black and Coloured people, respectively.

On 10 December 1976, Welkom experienced an earthquake measuring 5.2 on the Richter scale. The most significant damage caused was the total collapse of a six-storey block of flats about 75 minutes after the event. Widespread damage to many other buildings was experienced throughout the city. Despite extensive damage to surface and underground mining structures, only four deaths occurred.[3]

During the decline of the Apartheid era, race relations were particularly problematic as many White South Africans felt threatened by the eventuality of a regime change. This was the main cause of the events that transpired on the 13 May 1989, when the mayor, a Mr Gus Gouws, was tarred and feathered after officiating at a multiracial wheelchair marathon event. The National Party mayor ran foul of his White constituency when he proposed the opening of a taxi rank in the business district of Welkom.

Aggrieved residents of the city then sought to humiliate him in order to dissuade him from authorising the erection of the facility, by assaulting him and a security guard, while he was officiating at the event. Four men were arrested and charged with the assault.[4]

Recent history[edit]

On 20 March 1990, Welkom was struck by a multi-vortex tornado which scoured through the suburbs. This tornado was part of a 240 km long storm front and had a width of up to 1.7 km. This weather event proved to be the most devastating recorded (financially/insurance) in South Africa to date, destroying 4000 homes.[5][6][7] On 26 September 1990, Welkom experienced another seismic event with a magnitude of 4.2, which resulted in two deaths and five injuries.[5]

The mining company Pamodzi Gold applied for bankruptcy in 2009 even though it was sitting atop one of the richest and consistently-producing gold veins in the world. The gold mine, President Steyn, was previously owned by the Thistle Mining Co., up until February 2008, and reported a total sale of 487,069 troy ounces of gold from 2004 to 2006. In October 29, 2007, Thistle Gold Mining entered into a 'Sale of Shares and Claims Agreement' under the South African government's black economic empowerment laws, under which Thistle's direct and indirect interests were sold to Pamodzi Gold for $14-million. In 2010, Harmony Gold subsequently acquired President Steyn from the now liquidated Pamodzi Gold and resumed operations.[8]

Geography[edit]

Koppie Alleen is the only hill near Welkom and therefore is aptly named for its odditity. The terrain elevation above sea level is 1435 metres.

Koppie Alleen

The largest water catchment is the Sand River to the south-east of Welkom in Virginia’s direction.

Large saline pans such as Flamingo Pan and Theronia Pan are situated to the south-west of Welkom. Flamingo Pan is coded as an Important Bird Area (IBA)[9]

Veld types[edit]

Welkom is situated on two vegetation units, the Western Free State Clay Grassland and Vaal-Vet Sandy Grassland, these are differentiated by soil types, rainfall and frost.[10]

The dominant grass species are Hyparrhenia hirta, Themeda triandra, Sporobolus pyramidalis, Eragrostis sp, Aristida sp, and other grasses and herbs. Trees and shrubs are infrequent due to heavy frost in the winter months.

Flamingos over Lakeview

Gold-bearing reefs[edit]

Welkom is located on the south-western corner of the Witwatersrand Basin. This basin situated on the Kaapvaal Craton,[11] is filled by a 6-kilometre thick succession of sedimentary rocks, which extends laterally for hundreds of kilometres.[12]

The De Bron Fault[edit]

The Free State Goldfields are divided into two sections,[13] cut by the north-south striking De Bron Fault. This major structure has a vertical displacement of about 1500m as well as a lateral shift of 4 km. A number of other major faults lie parallel to the De Bron Fault. Dips occur mostly towards the east, averaging 30 degrees but this becomes steeper approaching the De Bron Fault. To the east of the fault, a dip occurs towards the west at 20 degrees, although structurally complex dips of up to 40 degrees have also been measured. Between these two blocks, lies the uplifted horst block of the West Rand Group of sediments with no reef preserved.[14]

The western margin area is bound by synclines and reverse thrusts faults and is structurally complex. Towards the south and east, reefs sub-crop against overlying strata, eventually cutting out against the Karoo to the east of the area. Most of the ore resource tends to be concentrated in reef bands located on one or two distinct unconformities.

Mining has taken place as mostly deep-level underground, exploiting the narrow, generally shallow dipping tabular reefs.

Harmony Gold Mine shaft on R30

Basal Reef[edit]

The Basal Reef, is the most common reef horizon. It varies from a single pebble lag to channels of more than 2m thick. It is commonly overlain by shale, which thickens northwards.

Leader Reef[edit]

The second major reef is the Leader Reef, located 15-20m above the Basal Reef. This is mostly mined at shafts to the south. Further north, it becomes poorly developed with erratic grades. The reef consists of multiple conglomerate units, separated by thin quartzitic zones, often totalling up to 4 metres thick.

A selected mining cut on the most economic horizon is often undertaken. The B Reef is a highly channelized ore-body located 140m stratigraphically above the Basal Reef. Within the channels, grades are excellent, but this falls away to nothing, outside of the channels. The A Reef is also a highly channelized reef, located some 40m above the B Reef. It consists of multiple conglomerate bands of up to 4m thick and a selected mining cut is usually required to optimise the ore-body.

Fossils of Matjhabeng[edit]

A 2007 paleontological study done in greater Matjhabeng began a programme of excavation of an early Pliocene locality. With an estimated age of 4.0-3.5 Ma, the locality also represents the only well-documented, river-deposited Pliocene locality in the central interior of southern Africa. After three years of excavation, a diverse fauna that includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals was recovered. Mammals ranged in size from rodents to mammoths, including an array of proboscideans, perissodactyls and artiodactyls, alongside rare carnivores.

In total, 29 taxa, including the oldest Ancylotherium and Megalotragus fossils in southern Africa were recovered. Some of the taxa from Matjhabeng are shared with Langebaanweg, and others with Makapansgat, confirming the intermediate status of this locality. Isotopic analysis revealed the earliest indication of extensive grasslands in South Africa, though these grasslands were part of an environmental mosaic that included significant woodland, and probable wetland, components.[15]

Climate[edit]

Welkom normally receives about 401mm to 550mm of rain per year, dependent on wet or dry cycles, with most rainfall occurring mainly during mid summer. It receives the lowest rainfall (0mm) in July and the highest (70mm) in January. The monthly distribution of average daily maximum temperatures ranges from 17 °C in June to 29 °C in January. The region is the coldest during July when the mercury drops to 0 °C on average during the night.

Climate data for Welkom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32
(90)
32
(90)
30
(86)
27
(81)
23
(73)
21
(70)
20
(68)
23
(73)
27
(81)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
27.3
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17
(63)
17
(63)
15
(59)
11
(52)
6
(43)
3
(37)
2
(36)
5
(41)
9
(48)
13
(55)
14
(57)
16
(61)
10.7
(51.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 53.5
(2.106)
22.7
(0.894)
47.5
(1.87)
18
(0.71)
16.9
(0.665)
3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
12.8
(0.504)
7.6
(0.299)
29.2
(1.15)
63.2
(2.488)
63.9
(2.516)
339.3
(13.362)
Avg. rainy days 11 7 9 6 4 2 10 0 2 2 13 13 79
Source #1: My Weather 2 [16]
Source #2: World Weather Online [17]

Flora and fauna[edit]

The grasslands surrounding Welkom also include small mammal communities of Yellow Mongoose, Ground Squirrel, Cape Porcupine, African Mole-rat, Pouched Mouse, Large-eared Mouse, Four-stripe Grass Mouse, and Multimammate Mouse. The De Rust Private Nature Reserve[18] is situated about 25 km from Welkom on the Kroonstad road and is registered with the Free State Department of Nature Conservation.

City layout[edit]

Traffic Circles[edit]

Welkom is well known for its efficient road traffic design mainly through the use of traffic circles, which has been the basis of world-wide studies[citation needed]. This is encouraged by flow design, the minimum of stop streets and the total absence of traffic lights and parking meters in the Central Business District. There are currently 33 large traffic circles.

Residential suburbs[edit]

  • Rheederpark
  • West bedelia
  • Grasvlei
  • Welkom ext
  • Jim Fouche Park
  • Alma
  • Flamingo Park
  • Seemeeu Park
  • Dagbreek
  • Reitzpark
  • Stateway
  • Doorn
  • Welkom Central
  • Jan Cilliers Park
  • Naudeville
  • St Helena
  • Bedelia
  • Lake View South
  • Lake View North
  • Orangia
  • Welkom North
  • Kroonheuwel
  • Riebeeckstad
  • Sandania

Economy[edit]

Mining[edit]

Welkom’s economy centres on the mining of gold and uranium and is the hub of the Free State Goldfields. Welkom has contributed 21% to the free world’s gold sales.[citation needed] The city and immediate surroundings are dominated by the headgears and reduction plants of several gold and uranium mining companies, including St Helena, Welkom, Western Holdings, Free State Geduld, President Brand, President Steyn, Erfdeel Dankbaarheid, Phakisa,[19] and Tshepong.

Harmony Phakisa shaft

Welkom also has significant coal reserves. The Theunissen coal field is located in the districts of Theunissen and Bultfontein, only some 12 km to the south of Welkom. The section of the reserve able to be mined covers an area of more than 23,500 hectares.[20]

Located about 7.5 km from Welkom, a kimberlite pipe, was discovered in 1890 and mined from a single shaft until the start of the Boer War in 1899. Mining continued after the war until a major aquifer, which was encountered at a depth of 259m, forced the mine to close. It was eventually re-opened by Samada Diamonds Pty Ltd and closed again in the early 1990s.

Petra Mining operated a fissure 40 km south of Welkom. The Star mine was renowned for its consistent production of high value diamonds. In 2013, Petra commenced a disposal process of its Fissure Mines portfolio. This process did not result in any acceptable offers for the mines and Star was subsequently placed into care and maintenance.

Other minerals found in the Welkom vicinity include calcite, iridium, isoferroplatinum, muscovite, pyrophylite, rutile and uranite.

Industry[edit]

Due to the declining gold price in the nineties, the manufacturing industry was promoted as a further means to support the local economy. Heavy machinery support for mining can be found in the Voorspoed area. Various other maintenance industries and services are well founded in Welkom which include engineering, and mechanical repairs.

Welkom produces goods such as steel, lumber, dairy products, and beef.

Agriculture[edit]

Maize production near the R34 leading into Welkom

The high water table in the north-western part of the district makes it very suitable for maize production and should remain an important maize producing area. The district is mostly covered by non-arable, moderate potential grazing land as well as marginal potential arable land.[21] The Welkom region forms part of the Maize Triangle, which stretches over three of South Africa's provinces. The region is also a major producer of sunflowers, poultry and beef cattle.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census, Welkom had a population of 211,011 people in an area of 212.7 square kilometres (82.1 sq mi), a population density of 992.1 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,570 /sq mi).[1] 84.9% of the inhabitants described themselves as "Black African", 10.8% as "White", 3.7% as "Coloured" and 0.4% as "Indian or Asian".[1]

As of 2011, the population of Welkom proper was 75,398, while the townships of Thabong and Bronville had a population of 126,013 and 9,600 respectively. This gives the urban area a total population of 211,011 people.

The racial groups of the population were 84.9% Black African, 10.8% White, 3.7% Coloured, 0.4% Indian or Asian and 0.2% other. Of those asked about their first language, 58.3% spoke Sotho, 14.6% spoke Afrikaans, 13.6% spoke Xhosa, 5.0% spoke English, 2.2% spoke Zulu, 1.9% spoke Tswana and 1.2% spoke Tsonga.[1]

Education[edit]

Welkom has a well established education system with some schools reaching their 60 years anniversary. Some prominent schools include:

Primary education[edit]

Secondary education[edit]

Special needs schools[edit]

  • Amari for mentally handicapped and
  • St Vincenzo School for the Deaf
  • Orion

Tertiary education[edit]

Campus of the Central University of Technology
  • Welkom Technical College
  • Welkom Technological Institute
  • Welkom Nursing College
  • FET College Goldfields - geared towards employment opportunities[24]
  • Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT) satellite campus - is also situated in Welkom. CUT’s core competencies are in science, engineering, and technology.[25]

Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Welkom is connected to Kroonstad and the N1 north via the R34, a dual carriageway. Alternatively if driving south to Bloemfontein via the R30 through Brandfort.

Buiten Street, Welkom

Rail[edit]

There is a goods rail link with Hennenman to the main Johannesburg – Bloemfontein line and a direct train to Johannesburg.

Air[edit]

Welkom is served by a small airport and a branch of the main railway between Johannesburg and Cape Town. Magnum Airlines and Comair have flights daily between Welkom and Johannesburg.

Sport[edit]

Motor-sports[edit]

Welkom’s most notable sport feature is the ultra-modern multi-million Rand Phakisa Raceway situated between Welkom and Odendaalsrus, which has been a venue for many international events and draws global media coverage. Phakisa is an international standard, multi-purpose motor sport facility. The track boasts a 4,24 km road course as well as a 2,4 km banked oval track similar to the highly acclaimed Las Vegas Motor Speedway in Nevada and is considered to be 3rd best in the world.

Phakisa Raceway hosts a stage of the FIM Superbike World Championship.[26]

Phakisa Raceway

Soccer[edit]

Harmony F.C.'s homeground is the Zuka Baloyi Stadium, a multi-sport facility, that is currently mostly used for soccer.

Rugby[edit]

The Griffons Rugby Union[27] was formed in 1968 when the late Dr Danie Craven, then the President of SA Rugby spread the game to rural areas in South Africa, Welkom was one of four new provinces formed and called North-Free State.

Hang gliding[edit]

Welkom's airport is also used on a regular basis for hang gliding championships on a National and International basis.

Stadia and other sports facilities[edit]

Museums, monuments and memorials[edit]

Welkom has several monuments including:

  • Aandek Monument - This borehole memorial is shaped in the form of a key and symbolises the unlocking of the Free State goldfields.
  • Afrikaans Language Monument
  • Joanne Pim Monument
  • WWII Monument
  • Voortrekker Memorial
  • Dog Monument
  • Old Indaba Bluegum Tree
  • MOTH Memorial
  • Gold Museum - A complete history of gold and its mining and production is on display. St Helena Gold Mine is a working mine. It is possible to visit the mine and its wine cellar at 857m below surface.
  • Museum of Welkom - The public library houses a display of the discovery of gold in Welkom, the town's history and bird and animal life indigenous to this region.
  • Local Apartheid Memorial - commemorating local citizen’s contribution to the Struggle in the Apartheid years.

Parks[edit]

  • Central Park
  • Peter Pan Park
  • Van Riebeeck Park
  • West Park

Hospitals and medical care[edit]

Welkom hosts a number of public and private hospitals as well as several specialised clinics:

  • Bongani Regional Hospital (Public)
  • Ernest Oppenheimer Hospital (Semi-private)
  • Goudveld Regional Hospital
  • Mediclinic Welkom (Private)[28]
  • St Helena Hospital (Private)

Various hospices also exist.[29] Thabong and Bronville also host various primary care clinics.

Welkom Mediclinic in Meulin Street

Notable people[edit]

  • Mark Richard Shuttleworth[30] - entrepreneur, cosmonaut, and founder of Canonical Ltd.
  • Lieschen Botes - international model
  • Sechaba - gospel musician.
  • Rev Stephen Brislin - Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cape Town, born in Welkom on 24 September 1956.

Sportspeople[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Sum of the following Main Places from Census 2011: Hani Park, Riebeeckstad, Thabong, Welkom.
  2. ^ Raper, P. E. (0947042067). Dictionary of South African Place Names. Lowry Publishers. p. 470. 
  3. ^ South African History Online
  4. ^ Mayor of Welkom, in the Free State, is tarred and feathered | South African History Online
  5. ^ a b Vista News
  6. ^ Goliger A.M. Retief J.V. Severe wind phenomena in Southern Africa and the related damage Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 95 (2007) 1065–1078
  7. ^ Grobler R A framework for modelling losses arising from natural catastrophes in South Africa, University of Pretoria July 1996
  8. ^ "Pamodzi mine liquidators slug it out". Mail & Guardian. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  9. ^ CWAC | Registered CWAC sites listing
  10. ^ Low, A.B. & Rebelo, A.G. (eds.) 1996. Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland . Pretoria: DEAT. This publication is available online at http://www.ngo.grida.no/soesa/nsoer/Data/vegrsa/vegstart.htm
  11. ^ James, D.E. Niu, F. Rokosky, J. Crustal structure of the Kaapvaal craton and its significance for early crustal evolutiona, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251, USA
  12. ^ Phillips G.N. Widespread fluid infiltration during metamorphism of the Witwatersrand goldfields: generation of chloritoid and pyrophyllite, Department of Geology, University of the Witwatersrand, 1988
  13. ^ Dwyer, G. The geology of the Welkom Goldfields with special reference to the A, B and Beatrix reefs, Rhodes University, 1993
  14. ^ Mineral resources and mineral reserves 2013 | Free State operations
  15. ^ D.J.; Brophy, J.K.; Lewis, P.J.; Kennedy, A.M.; Stidham, T.A.; Carlson, K.B.; Hancox, P. John, 2010: Preliminary investigation of Matjhabeng, a Pliocene fossil locality in the Free State of South Africa. Palaeontologia Africana 45
  16. ^ http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/South-Africa/Welkom/climate-profile.aspx
  17. ^ http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Welkom-weather-averages/Free-State/ZA.aspx
  18. ^ De Rust Private Nature Reserve Homepage
  19. ^ Harmony | Home
  20. ^ McCarthy, T. S. Pretorius, J. P. Coal mining on the Highveld and its implications for future water quality in the Vaal River system, School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand
  21. ^ http://www.ard.fs.gov.za/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/LEJWELEPUTSWA-PROFILE.pdf
  22. ^ Welkom High School
  23. ^ Goudveld Webwerf
  24. ^ Welcome to the Goldfields FET College
  25. ^ Central University of Technology, Thinking BeyondCentral University of Technology, Thinking Beyond
  26. ^ Events | Superbike | World Championships | Sport | Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme
  27. ^ Griffons | Home Page
  28. ^ Mediclinic Welkom
  29. ^ Nhiwatiwa, R; Sepitla, C; Free State Outcome of hospital-based TB in the Goldfields area, South African Medical Journal; Vol 94, No 4 (2004)
  30. ^ Shuttleworth Foundation - Shuttleworth Foundation

References[edit]