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White ethnic is a term used in American sociology to refer to whites who are not of Northern European or White Anglo-Saxon Protestant background. They consist of a number of distinct groups, and within the United States make up approximately 9.4% of the population.
The term "white ethnic" carried the connotation of being blue collar, northeastern or Midwestern. The term generally refers to white immigrants and their descendants from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Caucasus.
White ethnic identities were thought to be the strongest in the late 19th and early 20th century (see Hyphenated American), but over time when white ethnics became more involved in community and later national politics (esp. from in the 1920s to 1950s), it demonstrated how the country was not strictly Anglo-Saxon and that white ethnics were an integral part of the national scene. A number of ethnic organization groups in the 1960s and 1970s were more vocal and supported promotion of the white ethnic cultures of the United States.
- Marger, Martin N. (2008). Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives (8 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 282. ISBN 0-495-50436-X. "Religion is the most critical factor in separating white ethnics in American society. As Catholics and secondarily Jews ... they were immediately set apart from the Protestant majority at the time of their entrance and given a strongly negative reception."
- Marger, Martin N. (2008). Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives (8 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 281. ISBN 0-495-50436-X.
- Pacyga, Dominic A. (May 1997). "Catholics, Race, and the American City". H-Net Reviews. Retrieved 16 December 2009.