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The aims of work design are to improve job satisfaction, to improve through-put, to improve quality and to reduce employee problems (e.g., grievances, absenteeism).
Influence on work design
Under scientific management people would be directed by reason and the problems of industrial unrest would be appropriately (i.e., scientifically) addressed. This philosophy is oriented toward the maximum gains possible to employees. Managers would guarantee that their subordinates would have access to the maximum of economic gains by means of rationalized processes. Organizations were portrayed as rationalized sites, designed and managed according to a rule of rationality imported from the world of technique
Human Relations School
The Human Relations Movement takes the view that businesses are social systems in which psychological and emotional factors have a significant influence on productivity. The common elements in human relations theory are the beliefs that
- Performance can be improved by good human relations
- Managers should consult employees in matters that affect staff.
- Leaders should be democratic rather than authoritarian.
- Employees are motivated by social and psychological rewards and are not just "economic animals"
- The work group plays an important part in influencing performance
Socio-technical systems aims on jointly optimizing the operation of the social and technical system; the good or service would then be efficiently produced and psychological needs of the workers fulfilled. Embedded in Socio-technical Systems are motivational assumptions, such as intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Work reform states about the workplace relation and the changes made which are more suitable to management and employee to encourage increased workforce participation.
Motivational Work Design
The psychological literature on employee motivation contains considerable evidence that job design can influence satisfaction, motivation and job performance. It influences them primarily because it affects the relationship between the employee's expectancy that increased performance will lead to rewards and the preference of different rewards for the individual.
Hackman and Oldman developed the theory that a workplace can be redesigned to greater improve their core job characteristics. Their concept consist of:
- Making larger work units by combing smaller more specialized task.
- Mandating for worker to be responsible in having direct contact with clients.
- Having employee evaluation done frequently provide feedback for learning.
- Allowing workers to be responsible for their job by giving them authority and control.
- Hygiene Factors
- Motivational Factors
- Lawler, Edward (1973). Motivation in Work Organizations. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company INC. p. 148.
- Schultz, Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen (2010). Psychology and work today : an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed. ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. p. 227. ISBN 978-0205683581.