Zeiss projector

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For other uses, see Zeiss (disambiguation).
The Mark I projector installed in the Deutsches Museum in 1923 was the world's first planetarium projector.
The Mark III modified projector installed in the Planetario Humboldt 1950 in Caracas - Venezuela.It is the oldest of Latin America.

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Marks II through VI utilized two small spheres of lenses separated along a central axis.
Beginning with Mark VII, Zeiss projectors adopted a new, egg-shaped design.
The Mark IX Universarium is currently the most advanced model. This example was installed in 2006 at The Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles.

A Zeiss projector is one of a line of planetarium projectors manufactured by the Carl Zeiss Company.

The first modern planetarium projectors were designed and built in 1924 by the Zeiss Works of Jena, Germany in 1924.[1] Zeiss projectors are designed to sit in the middle of a dark, dome-covered room and project an accurate image of the stars and other astronomical objects on the dome. They are generally large, complicated, and imposing machines.

The first Zeiss Mark I projector (the first planetarium projector in the world) was installed in the Deutsches Museum in Munich in August, 1923.[2] It possessed a distinctive appearance, with a single sphere of projection lenses supported above a large, angled "planet cage". Marks II through VI were similar in appearance, using two spheres of star projectors separated along a central axis that contained projectors for the planets. Beginning with Mark VII, the central axis was eliminated and the two spheres were merged into a single, egg-shaped projection unit.

History of development and production[edit]

The Mark I was created in 1923–1924 and was the world's first modern planetarium projector.[2] The Mark II was developed during the 1930s jointly by Carl Zeiss AG factories in Jena (East Germany) and Oberkochen (West Germany).[3] Following WWII and the division of Germany, each factory developed its own line of projectors.[3] Marks III – VI were developed in Oberkochen (West Germany) from 1957–1989. Meanwhile, the East German facility in Jena developed the ZKP projector line.[3] The Mark VII was developed in 1993 and was the first joint project of the two Zeiss factories following German reunification.[3]

As of 2011, Zeiss currently manufactures three main models of planetarium projectors. The flagship Universarium models continue the "Mark" model designation and use a single "starball" design, where the fixed stars are projected from a single egg-shaped projector, and moving objects such as planets have their own independent projectors or are projected using a full-dome digital projection system. The Starmaster line of projectors are designed for smaller domes than the Universarium, but also use the single starball design. The Skymaster ZKP projectors are designed for the smallest domes and use a "dumbbell" design similar to the Mark II-VI projectors, where two smaller starballs for the northern and southern hemispheres are connected by a truss containing projectors for planets and other moving objects.[4]

Partial list of planetariums that have featured a Zeiss projector[edit]

Between 1923 and 2011, Zeiss manufactured a total of 631 projectors.[5] Therefore the following table is highly incomplete.

Planetarium Zeiss Projector Model Acquisition Date End Date Remarks Ref.
Adler Planetarium, Chicago, Illinois, USA Mark II/III 1930 1969 Projector was converted from Mark II to Mark III from 1959–1961 [6][7]
Mark VI 1969 2011 Replaced with "Digital Starball" system from Global Immersion Ltd.
Planetario Luis Enrique Erro, Mexico City, Mexico Mark IV 1964 2006 It was the first planetarium in Mexico opened to general public and it is also one of the oldest in Latin America. [8]
Planetario Simon Bolivar, Maracaibo, Venezuela Starmaster 1968 Present It was the second planetarium in Venezuela.
Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Mark II 1939 1994 Now on exhibit (but not in operation) at the Carnegie Science Center.
Bangkok Planetarium, Bangkok, Thailand Mark IV 1964 Present [9]
Denki kagakukan, Osaka, Japan Mark Ⅱ(No.23) 1937 1989 First Planetarium in Japan
Preserved at Osaka Science Museum.
Tonichi Tenmonkan, Tokyo, Japan Mark Ⅱ(No.26) 1938 25 May 1945 Destroyed by Bombing of Tokyo
Gotoh Planetarium, Tokyo, Japan Mark IV(No.1) 1957 2001
Akashi Municipal Planetarium, Akashi, Japan Universal(UPP)23/3 1960 Present The oldest projector which is operating in Japan.
Nagoya City Science Museum, Nagoya, Japan Mark IV 1962 2010 Closed for renovation in August 2010
Mark IX 2011 Present Re-opened in March 2011 [10][11]
Fernbank Planetarium, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Mark V 1967/8? Present [12]
Hayden Planetarium, New York, New York, USA Mark II 1935 1960 [13]
Mark IV 1960 1973
Mark VI 1973 1997
Mark IX 1999 Present
Humboldt Planetarium, Caracas, Venezuela Mark III (modified) 1950 Present This planetarium is the oldest in Latin America. [14][15]
Johannesburg Planetarium, Johannesburg, South Africa Mark III (upgraded from Mark II) 1960 Present Acquired from the city of Hamburg and upgraded to Mark III prior to installation. [16]
Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Mark Vs 1967 Present [17]
Morehead Planetarium, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Mark II 1949 1969 [18]
Mark VI 1969 6 May 2011
James S. McDonnell Planetarium, St. Louis, Missouri, USA Mark IX 2001 Present replaced an Evans & Sutherland Digistar [19]
Samuel Oschin Planetarium, Griffith Park Observatory, Los Angeles, California, USA Mark IV 1964 2006 [citation needed]
Mark IX 2006 Present
Strasenburgh Planetarium, Rochester, New York, USA Mark VI 1968 Present Originally cost $240,234 – in 1968 dollars. [20]
Planetario de Bogotá, Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia Mark VI 1969 Present [21]
Fiske Planetarium, Boulder, Colorado, USA Mark VI 1975 2012 [22]
Planetario Universidad de Santiago, Santiago, Chile Mark VI 1972 Present [23][24]
Calouste Gulbenkian Planetarium, Lisbon, Portugal UPP 23/4 1965 2004 [25]
Mark IX 2005 Present
Delafield Planetarium, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Georgia, USA Skymaster ZKP-3 2000 Present [26]
Charles Hayden Planetarium, Boston Museum of Science, Boston, MA, USA Mark VI 1970 2010 [27]
Starmaster 2011 Present [28]
Nehru Planetarium, Mumbai, India Mark IV 1977 2003 Replaced by an Evans & Sutherland Digistar 3 [29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Christopher Dewdney. Acquainted with the Night: Excursions Through the World After Dark. Bloomsbury Publishing USA; 2005 [cited 14 October 2011]. ISBN 978-1-58234-599-4. p. 278–279.
  2. ^ a b Mark R. Chartrand. A Fifty Year Anniversary of a Two Thousand Year Dream – The History of the Planetarium. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d Carl Zeiss AG. Planetarium projector models since 1942. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  4. ^ "Carl Zeiss STARMASTER Models ZMP and ZMP-TD – Product Specifications". meditec.zeiss.com. 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  5. ^ Prager, Lutz (8 February 2011). "In Jena Optik-Kolloquium zu Planetariumsbau". Ostthüringer Zeitung (Gera). Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  6. ^ Glenn A. Walsh. The Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  7. ^ Steve Johnson (11 June 2011). "Countdown to 'wow'". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 23 June 2011. 
  8. ^ Planetario Luis Enrique Erro (IPN). Sitio oficial del Planetario Luis Enrique Erro del Instituo Politecnico Nacional. Instituto Politecnico Nacional. . (Spanish)
  9. ^ Bangkok Planetarium. "ความเป็นมา (History)". Bangkok Planetarium official website. Bangkok Planetarium. Retrieved 30 November 2008. . (Thai)
  10. ^ "Nagoya City Science Museum | Planetarium | About the Planetarium| Planetarium Outline". Ncsm.city.nagoya.jp. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "Nagoya Science Museum". Zeiss.de. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  12. ^ Fernbank Science Center Planetarium. Official website of the Fernbank Science Center. Retrieved 16 July 2009. 
  13. ^ The New York Times (11 August 1999). Updating City's Star System; Planetarium Introducing Mark IX for Outer Space. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  14. ^ Humboldt Planetarium. El Planetario – Reseña Histórica. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  15. ^ Planetario Humboldt at Spanish Wikipedia (Spanish)
  16. ^ Johannesburg Planterium. History of the Planetarium. Retrieved 26 January 2012. 
  17. ^ The Manitoba Museum. Planetarium General Information. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  18. ^ The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Morehead History. Retrieved 28 July 2008. 
  19. ^ The St. Louis Science Center. James S. McDonnell Planetarium. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  20. ^ Strasenburgh. RMSC Strasenburgh Planetarium – The Star Projector. Retrieved 4 September 2008. 
  21. ^ "Planetario de Bogotá – Historia". planetariodebogota.gov.co. 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.  (Spanish)
  22. ^ A Brief History of Fiske Planetarium. University of Colorado at Boulder. Retrieved 31 July 2010. 
  23. ^ USACH. Infraestructura Planetario USACH. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  24. ^ Carl Zeiss Planetarium Division. Planetario Universidad de Santiago. Retrieved 4 October 2013.  (Spanish)
  25. ^ Planetário Calouste Gulbenkian. Retrieved 18 July 2009.  (Portuguese)
  26. ^ The Council of Independent Colleges. "Historic Campus Architecture Project: Bradley Observatory and Delafield Planetarium". Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  27. ^ Rainy Day Science : Museum Of Science Planetarium – 31 January 2011. Rainydaymagazine.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-30.
  28. ^ Museum of Science Hosts World Premiere of Original Astronomy Show Undiscovered Worlds: The Search Beyond Our Sun at Grand Reopening of Charles Hayden Planetarium. Museum of Science. 13 February 2011
  29. ^ "Nehru Centre". Retrieved 26 March 2013. .Template:Ind icon

External links[edit]