Żegota

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Żegota Council to Aid Jews
Zegota(Rada Pomocy Zydom)1946.jpg
3rd anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Żegota members, Warsaw, April 1946. Seated, from right: Piotr Gajewski, Ferdynand Marek Arczyński, Władysław Bartoszewski, Adolf Berman, Tadeusz Rek (pl).
Predecessor Provisional Committee to Aid Jews
Formation September 27, 1942; 75 years ago (1942-09-27)
Founder Henryk Woliński,
Type Underground organization
Purpose Help and distribution of relief funds to Polish Jews in World War II
Headquarters Warsaw
Location
Region
German occupied Poland
Key people
Henryk Woliński, Julian Grobelny, Ferdynand Arczyński, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka, Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz, Adolf Berman, Leon Feiner, Władysław Bartoszewski

Żegota (pronounced [ʐɛˈɡɔta] (About this sound listen), full codename: the "Konrad Żegota Committee"[1][2]) was the Polish Council to Aid Jews with the Government Delegation for Poland (Polish: Rada Pomocy Żydom przy Delegaturze Rządu RP na Kraj), an underground Polish resistance organization, and part of the Polish Underground State, active 1942–45 in German-occupied Poland.[3] It was the successor to the Provisional Committee to Aid Jews.[4][5]

Richard C. Lukas estimated that 60,000, or about half of the Jews who survived the Holocaust in occupied Poland (such estimates vary), were aided in some shape or form by Żegota. Czesław Łuczak estimates the number of aid recipients at about 30,000.[6]

Operatives of Żegota worked in extreme circumstances - under threat of death by the Nazi forces, and often in the midst of a hostile population. Their work required exceptional bravery, and many were recognized as Righteous Among the Nations after the war.

Background and organization[edit]

1941 German poster, in German and Polish, on death to Jews outside ghetto and to Poles who helped Jews
Zofia Kossak-Szczucka's Protest! against killing of Jews, distributed in German-occupied Poland, 28 August 1942
Żegota letter to Polish Government-in-Exile, requesting funds to aid Jews, January 1943
Polish Prime Minister Władysław Sikorski's leaflet appeal to help Jews, Warsaw, May 1943

The Council to Aid Jews, or Żegota, was the continuation of an earlier aid organization, the Provisional Committee to Aid Jews (Tymczasowy Komitet Pomocy Żydom), that was founded on 27 September 1942 by Polish Catholic activists Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz ("Alinka"). The Provisional Committee cared for as many as 180 people, but due to political and financial reasons it was dissolved and replaced by Żegota on December 4, 1942.[2] Żegota was the brainchild of Henryk Woliński of the Home Army (AK).[clarification needed]

Kossak-Szczucka initially wanted Żegota to become an example of a "pure Christian charity", arguing that Jews had their own international charity organizations.[clarification needed] Nevertheless, Żegota was run by both Jews and non-Jews from a wide range of political movements.[7] Julian Grobelny, an activist in the prewar Polish Socialist Party, was elected as General Secretary, and Ferdynand Arczyński - a member of the Polish Democratic Party - as treasurer. Adolf Berman and Leon Feiner represented the Jewish National Committee (an umbrella group representing the Zionist parties) and the Marxist General Jewish Labour Bund. Both parties operated independently, channeling funds donated by Jewish organizations abroad to Żegota and other underground operations. Other members included the Polish Socialist Party, the Democratic Party (Stronnictwo Demokratyczne) and the Catholic Front for the Rebirth of Poland (Front Odrodzenia Polski) led by Kossak-Szczucka and Witold Bieńkowski, editors of its underground publications.[8] The right-wing National Party (Stronnictwo Narodowe) refused to take part in the organization.

Kossak-Szczucka went on to act in the Social Self-Help Organization (Społeczna Organizacja Samopomocy - SOS) as a liaison between Żegota and Catholic convents and orphanages as well as other public orphanages, which jointly hid many Jewish children.[non sequitur]

Operations[edit]

Żegota had around one hundred cells that provided food, medical care, money, and false identification documents to some 4,000 Polish Jews hiding in the "Aryan" side of the German occupation zone. The organization was active chiefly in Warsaw, where it helped some 3,000 Jews who were in hiding, but it also provided money, food, and medicines for prisoners in several forced-labor camps,[9][further explanation needed] as well as to refugees in Kraków, Wilno (Vilnius), and Lwów (L'viv). Żegota's activities overlapped to a considerable extent with those of the other major organizations - the Jewish National Committee, which cared for some 5,600 Jews; and the Bund, which cared for an additional 1,500. Together, the three organizations were able to reach some 8,500 of the 28,000 Jews hiding in Warsaw, and perhaps another 1,000 hiding elsewhere in Poland.[citation needed]

Żegota was supported by the Home Army, which provided facilities for forging German identification papers.[10][11] Żegota also forged about 50,000 other documents such as marriage certificates, baptismal records, death certificates and employment cards to help Jews pass off as Christians.[12]

Żegota's children's section in Warsaw, headed by social worker Irena Sendler, cared for 2,500 of the 9,000 Jewish children smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto. Many were placed with foster families, in public orphanages, church orphanages, and convents. Żegota sometimes paid for the children's care. At war's end Sendler tried to return the children to their parents,[quantify] but nearly all of the parents had died at Treblinka.[further explanation needed]

Żegota repeatedly asked the Polish Government-in-Exile and the Government Delegation for Poland to appeal to the Polish people to help the persecuted Jews.[2] The Government in Exile gradually increased its funding for Żegota throughout the war.[13][14]

Major incidents[edit]

Zofia Kossak-Szczucka was arrested in 1943 by a Gestapo unaware of the extent of her underground activities, transported to Auschwitz and liberated in 1944.[8]

Operational difficulties[edit]

Under the German occupation, hiding or assisting Jewish refugees was punishable by death.[15][16] However, it was no less dangerous due to the risk posed by fellow Poles, who did not see kindly lending help for Jews. Irena Sendler is quoted as saying "during the war it was easier to hide a tank under the carpet than sheltering a Jewish child."[17]

According to Richard C. Lukas, "The number of Poles who perished at the hands of the Germans for aiding Jews" may have been as high as fifty thousand.[18]

Financial situation[edit]

The Polish Government-in-Exile, based in London, faced immense difficulties funding its institutions in German-occupied Poland; this affected funding for Żegota as well. Part of the funds had to be sent in via highly inefficient airdrops (only some 17% of which succeeded) and some could only be delivered late in the war.[19]

Martin Winstone writes that Żegota fought an uphill battle for funding and received more support from Jewish organizations than from the Polish Government-in-Exile. He also notes that the Polish right-wing parties completely refused to support it.[20]

Antony Polonsky writes that "Zegota's successes—it was able to forge false documents for some 50,000 persons—suggest that, had it been given a higher priority by the Delegatura and the government in London, it could have done much more." He quote Wladyslaw Bartoszewski as saying that the organization was considered a "stepchild" of the underground; and Emanuel Ringelblum, who wrote that "a Council for Aid to the Jews was formed, consisting of people of good will, but its activity was limited by lack of funds and lack of help from the government."[21]

Shmuel Krakowski writes that the funding was modest and that the Polish government could have allocated more to funding the organization. He writes that "[the funding] was indeed very little considering not only the needs of the council and the immensity of the Jewish tragedy, but also the resources at the Polish underground’s disposal... they could have been much more generous in allocating resources needed to save human lives."[22]

Joseph Kermish describes the relationship between Żegota and the Government Delegation for Poland as strained, with frequent disagreements about funding and the extent of the humanitarian crisis Żegota was trying to address.[23]

Marcin Urynowicz claims the percentage of the funds allocated by the Polish Government-in-Exile to help Jews, including through Żegota, was based on their percentage in Poland's prewar general population.[24]

Funds allocated by the Government Delegation for Poland[22][25][26][27][28]
Funds allocated to Żegota
Date Sum Type Notes
May 1943 - Feb. 1944 6,250,000 zł total [25]
Jan. 1943 - May 1944 11,250,000 zł total According to Witold Bieńkowski[25]
Before May 1944 30,000 zł monthly
After May 1944 338,000 zł monthly
Nov. 1944 - Dec. 1944 14,000,00 zł total Allotted to help 1,500-1,800 Jews hiding on Warsaw's left bank[25]
Nov. 1944 - Dec. 1944 $32,000 n/a [25]
March 1945 - April 1945 $65,000 n/a [25]
By Sept. 1945 1,000,000 zł monthly
1939-1945 $250,000 total Sum of all funds allocated to Żegota expressed in USD[22]
Funds allocated to all Jewish organizations
1939-1945 37,400,000 zł

$1,000,000

200,000 CHF

total Combined total, including the funds allocated to Żegota
Funds allocated to all organizations
1939-1945 $35,000,000

DM 20,000,000

total Based on partial data - actual figure probably higher[22]

Prominent activists[edit]

In a letter from February 26, 1977 Adolf Berman mentions the following activists as especially meritorious:[29]

Postwar recognition[edit]

Żegota plaque, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel

In 1963 Żegota was memorialised in Israel with the planting of a tree in the Avenue of the Righteous at Yad Vashem, with Władysław Bartoszewski present.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Specific

  1. ^ Gunnar S. Paulsson (2002). Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945. Yale University Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-300-09546-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Yad Vashem Shoa Resource Center, Zegota
  3. ^ Władysław Bartoszewski: środowisko naturalne korzenie Michal Komar, Wladyslaw Bartoszewski Świat Ksia̜żki, page 238, 210
  4. ^ "The Council to Aid Jews "Żegota" | Polscy Sprawiedliwi". sprawiedliwi.org.pl (POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews). Warsaw. Retrieved 2018-06-22. The Council to Aid Jews, Żegota, was the only state-sponsored organization in occupied Europe which was set up with the aim of saving Jews. 
  5. ^ Golarz, Raymond J.; Golarz, Marion J. (2011-04-25). Sweet Land of Liberty. AuthorHouse. p. 95. ISBN 9781456746605. This was the only organization in German-occupied countries established specifically to save Jews. 
  6. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Assistance to Jews". Poland's Holocaust. McFarland & Company. p. 118. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. 
  7. ^ Bartrop, Paul R.; Dickerman, Michael (2017-09-15). The Holocaust: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 737. ISBN 9781440840845. Poland was the only country in Nazi-occupied Europe where such an organization, run jointly by Jews and non-Jews from a wide range of political movements, existed 
  8. ^ a b Robert Alvis (2016). White Eagle, Black Madonna: One Thousand Years of the Polish Catholic Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 212, 214. ISBN 0823271730. 
  9. ^ Andrzej Sławiński, Those who helped Polish Jews during WWII. Translated from Polish by Antoni Bohdanowicz. Article on the pages of the London Branch of the Polish Home Army Ex-Servicemen Association. Last accessed on March 14, 2008.
  10. ^ Żydzi w Polsce: dzieje i kultura : leksykon Jerzy Tomaszewski, Andrzej Żbikowski Wydawnictwo Cyklady, 2001, page 552
  11. ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, volumes 3-4 Israel Gutman Macmillan Library Reference USA, page 1730
  12. ^ Kirk, Heather (2004). A Drop of Rain. Dundurn. ISBN 9781894917100. 
  13. ^ Zagłada Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej: 1945-1947 - page 129 Aleksander Gella - 1998
  14. ^ https://sprawiedliwi.org.pl/pl/aktualnosci/75-lat-temu-powstala-krakowska-zegota "Żegota" in Kraków Established 75 Years Ago Mateusz Szczepaniak / English translation: Andrew Rajcher, 14th March 2018 POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews
  15. ^ Segel, Harold B. (1996). Stranger in Our Midst: Images of the Jew in Polish Literature. Cornell University Press. ISBN 080148104X. 
  16. ^ "Death Penalty for Aiding Jews — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2018-06-01. 
  17. ^ Michman, Dan; Dreifuss, Havi; Silberklang, David (2018-07-05). "תגובת ההיסטוריונים של יד ושם להצהרה המשותפת של ממשלות פולין וישראל בנוגע לתיקון מיום 26 בינואר 2018 לחוק "המכון לזיכרון לאומי" של פולין" [Reply by the historians of Yad Vashem to the joint statement by the governments of Poland and Israel on the 26 January 2018 amendment to the law of the "Institute of National Remembrance" of Poland] (PDF) (Press release) (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. Haaretz. Retrieved 2018-08-21. 
  18. ^ Richard C. Lukas, Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust University Press of Kentucky, 1989; 201 pp.; p. 13; also in Richard C. Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles under German Occupation, 1939-1944, University Press of Kentucky, 1986; 300 pp.
  19. ^ Waldemar Grabowski, "Rada Pomocy Żydom »Żegota« w strukturach Polskiego Państwa Podziemnego" ("Żegota within the Structures of the Polish Underground State"), Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Bulletin of the Institute of National Remembrance), no. 11 (120), November 2010, IPN, pp 50-51.
  20. ^ Winstone, Martin (2014). The Dark Heart of Hitler's Europe: Nazi rule in Poland under the General Government. London: Tauris. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-1-78076-477-1. 
  21. ^ Holocaust: Responses to the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. Holocaust: critical concepts in historical studies. 5. book chapter by Antony Polonsky, edited by David Cesarani & Sarah Kavanaugh. London ; New York: Routledge. 2004. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-415-27509-5. 
  22. ^ a b c d Contested memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust and its aftermath. Joshua D. Zimmerman (ed.), chapter by Shmuel Krakowski. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 2003. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8135-3158-8. 
  23. ^ Kermish, Joseph. "The Activities of the Council for Aid to Jews ("Żegota") In Occupied Poland". www.yadvashem.org. Retrieved 2018-06-20. 
  24. ^ Marcin Urynowicz, “Zorganizowana i indywidualna pomoc Polaków dla ludności żydowskiej eksterminowanej przez okupanta niemieckiego w okresie drugiej wojny światowej” ("Poles' Organized and Individual Help to the Jewish Population Being Exterminated by the Occupying Germans during World War II"), in Andrzej Żbikowski, ed., Polacy i Żydzi pod okupacją niemiecką 1939–1945 (Poles and Jews under the German Occupation, 1939–1945), Warsaw, IPN, 2006, p. 225–26.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Waldemar Grabowski, "Rada Pomocy Żydom »Żegota« w strukturach Polskiego Państwa Podziemnego" ("Żegota within the Structures of the Polish Underground State"), Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Bulletin of the Institute of National Remembrance), no. 11 (120), November 2010, IPN
  26. ^ Aleksander Gella, Zagłada Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej: 1945-1947 (The Demise of the Polish Second Republic: 1945–1947), 1998, p. 129
  27. ^ https://sprawiedliwi.org.pl/pl/aktualnosci/75-lat-temu-powstala-krakowska-zegota ("Żegota Was Established in Kraków 75 Years Ago").
  28. ^ Stefan Korboński, Polacy, Żydzi i Holocaust (The Poles, the Jews, and the Holocaust), 1999, p. 58.
  29. ^ Jewish Resistance: Konrad Żegota Committee, Jewish Virtual Library

General

External links[edit]