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Polish Socialist Party

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Polish Socialist Party
Polska Partia Socjalistyczna
PresidentWojciech Konieczny
  • 1892 (original form)
  • 1987 (current form)
Headquartersal. Niepodległości 161 lok. 2
IdeologyDemocratic socialism
Political positionLeft-wing
National affiliationThe Left
Colours  Red
AnthemThe Standard of Revolt
0 / 460
1 / 100
European Parliament
0 / 52
Regional assemblies
0 / 552
City Presidents
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ppspl.eu Edit this at Wikidata
Timeline of Polish socialist/social democratic parties after 1986
Polish Socialist Party (1987–)
Polish Social Democratic Union (1990–1992)
Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (1990–1999)
Democratic-Social Movement (1991–1992)
Labour Union (1992–)
National Party of Retirees and Pensioners (1994–)
Democratic Left Alliance (1999–2021)
Reason Party (2002–2013)
Social Democracy of Poland (2004–)
Freedom and Equality (2005–)
Polish Left (2008–)
Left Together (2015–)
Spring (2019–2021)
New Left (2021–)

The Polish Socialist Party (Polish: Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) is a socialist political party in Poland.

It was one of the most important parties in Poland from its inception in 1892 until its merger with the communist Polish Workers' Party to form the Polish United Workers' Party in 1948. Józef Piłsudski, founder of the Second Polish Republic, belonged to and later led the PPS in the early 20th century.

The party was re-established in 1987, near the end of the Polish People's Republic. However, it remained in the margins of Polish politics until 2019, when it was able to win a seat in the Senate of Poland.



The PPS was founded in Paris in 1892 (see the Great Emigration). In 1893 the party called Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, (SDKPiL), emerged from the PPS, with the PPS being more nationalist and oriented towards Polish independence, and the SDKPiL being more revolutionary and communist. In November 1892 the leading personalities of the PPS agreed on a political program. The program, largely progressive for the time of its creation, accented: independent Republic of Poland based on democratic principles, direct universal voting rights, equal rights for all nations living in Poland, equal rights for all citizens, regardless of race, nationality, religion and gender, freedom of press, speech, and assembly, progressive taxation, eight-hour workday, minimum wage, equal wages for men and women, ban on child labour (till age 14), free education, and social support in case of injury in the workplace.[4]

After the Revolution of 1905 in the Russian Empire, the party membership drastically increased from several hundred active members to a mass movement of about 60,000 members.[5] Another split in the party occurred in 1906, with the Revolutionary Faction following Józef Piłsudski, who supported the nationalist and independence ideals, and the Left faction which allied itself with the SDKPiL. However, the Revolutionary Faction became dominant and renamed itself back again to the PPS, while the Left was eclipsed, and in 1918 merged with SDKPiL forming the Communist Party of Poland. In 1917-18 the party participated in the Central Council of Ukraine and the Government of Ukraine.

During the Second Polish Republic, the PPS at first supported Józef Piłsudski, including his May Coup, but later moved into the opposition to his authoritarian Sanacja regime by joining the democratic 'centrolew' (center-left) opposition movement. Many PPS leaders and members were put on trial by Piłsudski's regime and jailed in the infamous Bereza Kartuska prison.

The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1923 and 1940.[6]

The party supported the Polish resistance during World War II as the underground Polish Socialist Party – Freedom, Equality, Independence (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna – Wolność, Równość, Niepodległość). In 1948 it suffered a fatal split, as the Communists applied the salami tactics to dismember any opposition. One faction, which included Edward Osóbka-Morawski wanted to join forces with the Polish Peasant Party and form a united front against the Communists. Another faction, led by Józef Cyrankiewicz, argued that the Socialists should support the Communists in carrying through a socialist program while opposing the imposition of one-party rule. Pre-war political hostilities continued to influence events, and Stanisław Mikołajczyk, leader of the Peasant Party, would not agree to form a united front with the Socialists. The Communists played on these divisions by dismissing Osóbka-Morawski and making Cyrankiewicz the Prime Minister.

In 1948, Cyrankiewicz's faction of Socialists merged with the Communist Polish Workers' Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers' Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza; PZPR), the ruling party in the People's Republic of Poland; remnants of the other faction survived on emigration in the Polish government-in-exile and because of that Polish Socialist Party was still active on emigration. Cyrankiewicz's faction isn't really treated as proper PPS.

Refoundation and present


A new party with the same name, which seeks to carry on the tradition of the original PPS, was established by left-wing opposition figures such as Jan Józef Lipski in 1987. However, the new PPS remains a marginal group within the political landscape of the Third Republic, having representation in the Sejm only between 1993 and 2001. However, in the 2019 Polish parliamentary election the PPS saw its leader Wojciech Konieczny elected to the Senate of Poland under the banner of The Left.[7] Other members of the Sejm and the Senate later joined the PPS, which currently has two deputies and two senators.

Its main propaganda outlet was the Robotnik ('The Worker') newspaper. The current party published the Nowy Robotnik ("The New Worker"), a continuation of the original publication, from 2003 to 2006.

On 16 November 2020, the party founded its first foreign branch in the United Kingdom, in the city of Coventry,[8] home to a British Polish population founded by Polish Army Exiles.[9]

On the 25 June 2022, factions of the party formed an alliance with Social Democracy of Poland, Freedom and Equality, Labour Union and Polish Left to compete in the next Polish parliamentary election. The alliance also included the Feminist Initiative, the Democratic Left Association (SLD), and the Working People's Movement.[10] In February 2023, after an internal conflict,[11] PPS, together with the Labour Union, re-joined The Left.[12]



It historically advocated for a mix of socialism and nationalism,[13][14] and was considered to be on the left-wing on the political spectrum.[15][16] They opposed Bolshevism, and more favored Mensheviks.[17] Recently, the party has self-declared itself as a democratic socialist force; it was also described as a leftist party with a strong emphasis on democracy by their parliamentary leader Wojciech Konieczny.[18]

Election results



Year Popular vote % of vote Seats +/– Government
1919 515,062 9.2 (#4)
35 / 394
New Coalition (1919)
Opposition (1919-1920)
Coalition (1920-1921)
Opposition (1921-1922)
1922 906,537 10.3 (#5)
41 / 444
Increase 6 Opposition (1922-1925)
Coalition (1925-1926)
Opposition (1926)
Coalition (1926-1928)
1928 1,482,097 13.0 (#2)
64 / 444
Increase 23 Opposition
1930 1,965,864 17.3 (#2)
23 / 444
Decrease 41 Opposition
As part of the Centrolew coalition, which won 79 seats in total.
1935 Boycotted
0 / 206
Decrease 23 Extra-parliamentary
1938 Boycotted
0 / 208
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary
1947 9,003,682 26.13 (#1)
116 / 444
Increase 116 Coalition
As part of the Democratic Bloc coalition, which won 394 seats in total.[note 1]
1991 230,975 2.1 (#13)
0 / 460
Decrease 116 Extra-parliamentary
As part of the Labour Solidarity coalition, which won 4 seats in total.
1993 2,815,169 20.4 (#1)
4 / 460
Increase 4 Coalition
As part of the Democratic Left Alliance coalition, which won 171 seats in total.
1997 3,551,224 27.1 (#2)
3 / 460
Decrease 1 Opposition
As part of the Democratic Left Alliance coalition, which won 164 seats in total.
2001 13,459 0.1 (#11)
0 / 460
Decrease 3 Extra-parliamentary
2005 91,266 0.8 (#11)
0 / 460
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary
As part of the Polish Labour Party committee, which won no seats.
2007 160,476 1.0 (#7)
0 / 460
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary
As part of the Polish Labour Party committee, which won no seats.
2015 1,147,102 7.6 (#5)
0 / 460
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary
As part of the United Left coalition, which won no seats.
2019 2,319,946 12.6 (#3)
0 / 460
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary
As part of The Left coalition, which won 49 seats in total.
2023 1,859,018 8.6 (#4)
0 / 460
Steady 0 Extra-parliamentary
As part of The Left coalition, which won 26 seats in total.


Year Popular vote % of vote Seats Seat change
1922 468,147 8.4 (#5)
7 / 111
1928 715,556 11.2 (#3)
10 / 111
Increase 3
1930 As part of Centrolew coalition, which won 13 seats in total.
1935 Boycotted
1938 Boycotted
1993 4,993,061 35.7 (#1)
1 / 100
Increase 1
As part of the Democratic Left Alliance coalition, which won 37 seats in total.
1997 6,091,721 45.7 (#2)
3 / 100
Increase 2
As part of the Democratic Left Alliance coalition, which won 28 seats in total.
2001 131,987 0.5 (#11)
0 / 100
Decrease 3
2019 415,745 2.3 (#4)
1 / 100
Increase 1
As part of The Left coalition, which won 2 seats in total.


Second Polish Republic
Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
votes % votes %
1922 Ignacy Daszyński 49 9.1 (#5) 1 0.2 (#5)
1926 Supported Józef Piłsudski[note 2] 292 60.2 (#1)
1926 Zygmunt Marek 56 11.6 (#3) 1 0.2 (#3)
Third Polish Republic
Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote
1995 Supported Tadeusz Zieliński 631,432 3.5 (#6)
2000 Piotr Ikonowicz 38,672 0.2 (#10)
2005 Supported Daniel Podrzycki[note 3]
2020 Supported Robert Biedroń 432,129 2.2 (#6)

European Parliament

Year Popular vote % of vote Seats
2004 48,667 0.80
0 / 54
As part of KPEiR-PLD coalition, which won no seats.
2009 1,331 0.02
0 / 50

Notable people who were members or were associated with PPS


Presidents and heads of state


Prime Ministers


Other figures


See also



  1. ^ Only communist faction.
  2. ^ Declined to take the office.
  3. ^ Podrzycki died a day prior the election in a car accident.


  1. ^ "Refleksje w Dniu walki z faszyzmem i antysemityzmem" [Reflection of the day to do with fighting with fascism and antisemitism]. Polska Partia Socjalistyczna.
  2. ^ "PPS w paradzie rownosci tak dla praw lgbt nie dla bankow i korporacji" [PPS at pride parades for LGBT rights, not for banks or corporations]. Polska Partia Socjalistyczna.
  3. ^ "Deklaracja ideowa Polskiej Partii Socjalistycznej" [Ideological declaration of the Polish Socialist Party]. Polska Partia Socjalistyczna. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019.
  4. ^ Friszke, Andrzej (1989). O kształt niepodległej. Warszawa: Biblioteka "Więzi". p. 22. ISBN 83-7006-014-5.
  5. ^ Friszke, Andrzej (1989). O kształt niepodległej. Warszawa: Biblioteka "Więzi". p. 45. ISBN 83-7006-014-5.
  6. ^ Kowalski, Werner (1985). Geschichte der sozialistischen arbeiter-internationale: 1923 - 19 [History of the Socialist Workers' International: 1923 - 19th Century]. Berlin: Dt. Verl. d. Wissenschaften. p. 316.
  7. ^ "Wojciech Konieczny". wnp.pl. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  8. ^ "Polska Partia Socjalistyczna". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  9. ^ "BBC - Coventry and Warwickshire Features - History of Poles in Coventry". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Cztery partie lewicowe podpisały porozumie. Chcą iść razem do wyborów". 25 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Konflikt w PPS. Zakaz używania nazwy przez parlamentarzystów". www.rmf24.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  12. ^ Lewicy, Rzecznik Nowej (27 February 2023). "Lewica łączy siły na wybory. Porozumienie Nowej Lewicy, partii Razem, Polskiej Partii Socjalistycznej i Unii Pracy podpisane!". Nowa Lewica (in Polish). Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  13. ^ Luxemburg, Rosa (2019). The complete works of Rosa Luxemburg. Peter Hudis, Paul Le Blanc, David Fernbach, Joseph G. Fracchia, George Shriver, Nicholas Gray. London. ISBN 978-1-84467-974-4. OCLC 857863128.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  14. ^ Marzec, Wiktor; Turunen, Risto (1 June 2018). "Socialisms in the Tsarist Borderlands". Contributions to the History of Concepts. 13 (1): 22–50. doi:10.3167/choc.2018.130103. ISSN 1807-9326. S2CID 149702151.
  15. ^ Suławka, Adam Radosław (31 December 2015). "Prasa Komitetu Centralnego Komunistycznej Partii Zachodniej Białorusi (KC KPZB) wydawana w języku Rosyjskim". Studia z Dziejów Rosji i Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej. 50 (2): 55. doi:10.12775/SDR.2015.2.03. ISSN 2353-6403. S2CID 131755073.
  16. ^ Kowalski, Stanisław (2018). Dzieje Kępna : od początku istnienia do 2015 r. Kępno. Urząd Miasta i Gminy (Wydanie pierwsze ed.). Kępno: Gmina Kępno. ISBN 978-83-66149-00-7. OCLC 1088955807.
  17. ^ Dubnow, Simon (1916). History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, from the Earliest Times Until the Present Day, Vol. 3. Forgotten Books. ISBN 9781440042393.
  18. ^ ""Chcemy być demokratyczni". Konieczny o kulisach powstania koła parlamentarnego PPS". Polskie Radio (in Polish). Retrieved 9 February 2022.