168 BC

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Millennium: 1st millennium BC
168 BC in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 168 BC
Ab urbe condita 586
Ancient Egypt era XXXIII dynasty, 156
- Pharaoh Ptolemy VI Philometor, 13
Ancient Greek era 153rd Olympiad (victor
Assyrian calendar 4583
Balinese saka calendar N/A
Bengali calendar −760
Berber calendar 783
Buddhist calendar 377
Burmese calendar −805
Byzantine calendar 5341–5342
Chinese calendar 壬申(Water Monkey)
2529 or 2469
    — to —
癸酉年 (Water Rooster)
2530 or 2470
Coptic calendar −451 – −450
Discordian calendar 999
Ethiopian calendar −175 – −174
Hebrew calendar 3593–3594
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat −111 – −110
 - Shaka Samvat N/A
 - Kali Yuga 2933–2934
Holocene calendar 9833
Iranian calendar 789 BP – 788 BP
Islamic calendar 813 BH – 812 BH
Javanese calendar N/A
Julian calendar N/A
Korean calendar 2166
Minguo calendar 2079 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar −1635
Seleucid era 144/145 AG
Thai solar calendar 375–376
Tibetan calendar 阳水猴年
(male Water-Monkey)
−41 or −422 or −1194
    — to —
(female Water-Rooster)
−40 or −421 or −1193

Year 168 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Macedonicus and Crassus (or, less frequently, year 586 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 168 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.


By place[edit]


  • The king of Illyria, Gentius, is defeated at Scodra by a Roman force under Lucius Anicius Gallus and then brought to Rome as a captive to be interned in Iguvium. This loss removes Illyria as an important ally for Macedonia and effectively weakens Perseus of Macedon in his battle with Rome.
  • The Roman general, Lucius Aemilius Paulus, is elected consul and arrives in Thessaly to lead the Roman army which has been trapped by Perseus' forces.
  • June 22 – The Battle of Pydna (in southern Macedonia) gives Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Paulus a crushing victory over Perseus and his Macedonian forces, thus ending the Third Macedonian War. Perseus is captured by the Romans and will spend the rest of his life in captivity at Alba Fucens, near Rome.
  • The Macedonian kingdom is broken up by the Romans into four smaller states, and all the Greek cities which have offered aid to Macedonia, even just in words, are punished. The Romans take hundreds of prisoners from the leading families of Macedonia, including the historian Polybius.


Seleucid Empire[edit]

  • The fleet of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV wins a victory off Cyprus, whose governor then surrenders the island to him.
  • Antiochus IV then invades Egypt again and occupies Lower Egypt and his forces camp outside Alexandria. However, the Roman ambassador in Alexandria, Gaius Popillius Laenas, intervenes. He presents Antiochus IV with an ultimatum that he evacuate Egypt and Cyprus immediately. Antiochus, taken by surprise, asks for time to consider. Popillius, however, draws a circle in the earth (i.e. "a line in the sand") around the king with his walking stick and demands an unequivocal answer before Antiochus leaves the circle. Fearing the consequences of a war with Rome, the king agrees to comply with the ambassador's demands. In return, the Romans agree that Antiochus IV can retain southern Syria, to which Egypt has laid claim, thus enabling Antiochus IV to preserve the territorial integrity of his realm.
  • Jason removes Menelaus as High Priest in Jerusalem, which Antiochus IV regards as an affront to his majesty.


  • Tiberius Gracchus, Roman politician who would create turmoil in the Republic through his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms in the Roman Republic (d. 133 BC)