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|310 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1063|
|Balinese saka calendar||231–232|
|Chinese calendar||己巳年 (Earth Snake)|
3006 or 2946
— to —
庚午年 (Metal Horse)
3007 or 2947
|- Vikram Samvat||366–367|
|- Shaka Samvat||231–232|
|- Kali Yuga||3410–3411|
|Iranian calendar||312 BP – 311 BP|
|Islamic calendar||322 BH – 321 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1602 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||621/622 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||852–853|
436 or 55 or −717
— to —
437 or 56 or −716
Year 310 (CCCX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Andronicus and Probus (or, less frequently, year 1063 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 310 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- July 11 – Maximian, retired co-emperor, rebels against Constantine the Great while campaigning against the Franks. He attempts to make himself emperor at Arles. Constantine marches his army along the Rhine and embarks his troops at Chalon-sur-Saône. Maximian flees to Marseille and is captured. Constantine encourages his suicide and Maximian, age 60, hangs himself.
- Maximinus II and Constantine I are declared filii Augustorum ("Sons of the Augusti"). For the first time four emperors administer the Roman Empire.
- Constantine constructs near the town of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Cologne) a stone bridge over the Rhine, which is guarded by the castellum Divitia (modern Deutz).
- Constantine begins to build the Basilica of Constantine in Augusta Treverorum (Trier).
- A large Pictish raid southwards is attempted.
- Constantine at Trier orders the minting of a new coin, the solidus, in an effort to offset the declining value of the denarius and bring stability to the imperial currency by restoring a gold standard. The solidus (later known as the bezant) will be minted in the Byzantine Empire without change in weight or purity until the 10th century.
- April 18 – Pope Eusebius succeeds Pope Marcellus I as the 31st pope, but is banished on August 17 by the Emperor Maxentius to Sicily, where he dies, perhaps from a hunger strike.
- Ausonius, Roman poet and rhetorician (d. 395)
- Epiphanius of Salamis, Church Father (d. 403)
- Maximus of Ephesus, Greek Neoplatonist philosopher (approximate date)
- Wulfila, Gothic bishop and missionary (d. 383)
- Dan, empress of Xiongnu (Han Zhao)
- Liu He, emperor of Xiongnu (Han Zhao)
- Liu Yuan, founding emperor of Han Zhao
- Ōjin, emperor of Japan (approximate date)