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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|453 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||453 BC
|Ab urbe condita||301|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 73|
|- Pharaoh||Artaxerxes I of Persia, 13|
|Ancient Greek era||81st Olympiad, year 4|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||丁亥年 (Fire Pig)
2244 or 2184
— to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
2245 or 2185
|Coptic calendar||−736 – −735|
|Ethiopian calendar||−460 – −459|
|- Vikram Samvat||−396 – −395|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2648–2649|
|Iranian calendar||1074 BP – 1073 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1107 BH – 1106 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2364 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||90–91|
−326 or −707 or −1479
— to —
−325 or −706 or −1478
Year 453 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Quinctilius and Trigeminus (or, less frequently, year 301 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 453 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Pericles, the ruler of Athens, bestows generous wages on all Athens' citizens who serve as jurymen on the Heliaia (the supreme court of Athens).
- Achaea, on the southern shore of the Corinthian Gulf, becomes part of what is effectively now the Athenian Empire. The Delian League had changed from an alliance into an empire clearly under the control of Athens.
- May 8 – The Chinese city of Jinyang is severely flooded in the Battle of Jinyang, where the elite families of Jin, Zhao, Zhi, Wei and Han fight. The Wei and the Han swap allegiances to side with Zhao and eliminate the Zhi house, ending the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.