M18 recoilless rifle

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M18 Recoilless Rifle
M18 57mm Recoilless Rifle pic1.JPG
M18 on a M1917A1 Tripod
Type Recoilless anti-tank weapon
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1945–1960s
Used by United States
Republic of China (Nationalist)
People's Republic of China (Type 36 variant)
North Vietnam
Wars World War II
Second Sino-Japanese War
Chinese Civil War
Korean War
Vietnam War (limited)
Production history
Designer Kroger and Musser
Designed 1942
Produced October 1944
Variants Type 36
Weight 44.4 lb (20.1 kg)[1]
Length 61.6 in (1,560 mm)[1]
Crew 1 or 2

Shell 57×303mmR
HEAT (5.3 lb (2.4 kg))[2]
HE (5.3 lb (2.4 kg))[2]
WP (5.3 lb (2.4 kg))[2]
Caliber 57 mm (2.26 inches)
Action Interrupted lug rotating breachblock[1]
Recoil Recoilless
Carriage M1917A1 Machinegun Tripod Mount
Elevation +65° to -27°
Traverse 360°
Muzzle velocity 1,200 ft/s (370 m/s)[1]
Effective firing range 450 m (490 yd)
Maximum firing range 4,340 yd (3.97 km)[1]
Sights Telescope M86C 2.8-power[3]
US Army Soldier firing a 57 mm M18A1 recoilless rifle from the shoulder. 9th Infantry, 2nd Infantry Division in Korea, 5 September 1951

The M18 recoilless rifle was a 57 mm shoulder fired anti-tank recoilless rifle used by the U.S. Army in World War II and the Korean War. Recoilless rifles are capable of firing artillery-type shells at reduced velocities comparable to those of standard cannon, but with greater accuracy than anti-tank weapons that used unguided rockets, and almost entirely without recoil. The M18 was a breech-loaded, single-shot, man-portable, crew-served weapon. It could be used in both anti-tank and anti-personnel roles. The weapon could be both shoulder fired or fired from a prone position. The T3 front grip doubled as an adjustable monopod and the two-piece padded T3 shoulder cradle could swing down and to the rear as a bipod for the gunner. The most stable firing position was from the tripod developed for the water-cooled Browning M1917 machine gun.[4]

Origins and development[edit]

During World War II, the U.S. Army's Artillery Section was working on a 105 mm recoilless cannon, based on captured German models that used a plastic blow out plug in the cartridge case. At the same time, there was a freelance research by the U.S. Army's Infantry Section of a man-portable recoilless 57 mm cannon by two engineers, named Kroger and Musser. Instead of a blowout plug, the infantry section's recoilless cannon used a British development in which the cartridge case had hundreds of small holes in the side walls with a lining of plastic on the inside of the cartridge case walls to keep water and other elements out until the round was fired. Another unique innovation was the use of pre-engraving bands on the 57 mm projectile that engaged the barrel's rifling.[note 1] The belief was this feature would reduce friction on firing, allowing more of the propellant gases to be used to force the shell towards the target and less being used to achieve the recoilless effect and therefore giving their design a much higher muzzle velocity than most recoilless cannon at that time period had achieved.[5][note 2]

The "Kromuskit", as the new 57 mm weapon was called (a word play on the engineers' family names) was officially designated the T15 and first tested in November 1943. The tests proved that the Infantry Section's concept for a recoilless weapon was superior to the Artillery Section's concept and the development of the 105 mm weapon was canceled.[6] In late 1944, the T15 was redesignated the M18 57 mm Recoilless. The cannon and 57 mm ammunition were placed in mass production. Four types of ammunition were initially produced:[note 3] an anti-tank HEAT round (T20E2 / M307), an HE round (T22 / M306), a Smoke (White Phosphorus) "bursting smoke" round (T23 / M308), and a Training Practice round.[7] By early 1945, over 2,000 M18 recoilless rifles and 800,000 rounds of ammunition were on order.[8] After World War II ended, a canister round (T25E5) with a range of 175 meters was also produced.

US service[edit]

The weapon was crewed by a two-man team, the gunner and the loader, who fired it from a prone or kneeling position. It could also be awkwardly carried, fired from the shoulder and reloaded by one man in an emergency, fired prone from the extended T3 monopod and bipod, or fired from a fixed position on a cradle mounted on the M1917A1 machine gun tripod. The weapon was carried in a T27 Cover with two padded shoulder straps, designed to be simultaneously carried by two men in line with the straps slung over their shoulder on one side.

Ammunition was packed four shells to a wooden crate, each crate weighing about 40 lbs and had a volume of 0.86 cubic feet. Three 57mm Recoilless Rifle shells could be carried per M6 Rocket Bag and slung on one shoulder by the ammunition bearers assigned to the weapon.

World War II[edit]

The first fifty[9] production M18 57 mm cannons and ammunition were rushed from the factories to the European Theater in March 1945. Further examples were subsequently sent to the Pacific Theater. The first combat the new cannon saw was with the U.S. Army's 17th Airborne Division near Essen, Germany. While the performance of the high explosive (HE) warhead was impressive, the M18's 57 mm HEAT round was slightly less so, only about 76.2 mm (3in.) of armor penetration at 90 degrees,[10][11] compared with the M6A3 rocket for the Bazooka which had a penetration of 100 mm [12][13][14]

In the Pacific Theater, the new lightweight 57 mm cannon was an absolute success as "pocket artillery" for the soldiers of U.S. Army infantry units that were issued the M18. It was first used in the Pacific Theater during the Battle of Okinawa on June 9, 1945, and proved with its HE and white phosphorus rounds it was the perfect weapon for the hard fighting that took place against the dug-in Japanese in the hills of that island. The only complaint the U.S. Army had was the lack of sufficient 57 mm ammunition for the M18.[15]

Korean War[edit]

Each U.S. rifle company in the Korean War was authorized three M18 recoilless rifles.[16] Veterans of the Korean War have mentioned the use of the M18 against enemy machine gun nests.[17] For anti-tank tasks, however, the M18 was too weak; the Soviet-built T-34 tank was extremely hard to penetrate even for the 2.36 inch (60 mm) Bazooka of World War II. The only way would have been flank or rear shots. U.S. infantry, initially with very few capabilities against these targets, solved the problem with new weapons like the 3.5 inch (89 mm) M20 Super Bazooka, which was powerful enough to destroy T-34s.[18]

Vietnam War[edit]

Although obsolete as an anti-tank weapon, the M18 was still used by ARVN and its allied forces in an anti-personnel role. It was able to use the NATO-standard M74 tripod.

US Navy Swift Boats used paired mounts containing triple-mounted M18s and a .50 M2HB Machine gun on the bow. It was used for fire support or demolishing obstacles.


Ammunition for the 57-mm rifle M18

Ammunition for the 57-mm M18 consisted of fixed rounds, that is to say, the propelling charge is not adjustable and an integral part of the ammunition. It is easily identified by a preengraved rotating band, a perforated cartridge case, and a positioning band.

In 1948, four rounds were available for the 57-mm M18:

General characteristics of 57-mm rifle ammunition.[19]
Type of round Weight of round (lb.) Length of round (in.) Weight (lb.) of projectile as fired Type of filler Weight (lb.) of filler Weight (lb.) of propellant Type of fuze Action of fuze Weight of 4 rounds in a box (lb.)
HE (M306) 5.3 17.54 2.75 TNT .6 .93 M89 PD, SQ 44
HE, AT (M307) 5.3 18.78 2.75 - .39 .93 M90 PI, BD non-delay 45
Smoke WP (M308) 5.3 16.83 2.75 WP .27 .93 M89 PD, SQ 43
TP (M306) 5.3 17.54 2.75 Inert and black powder .45 & .07 .93 M89 PD, SQ 42

Production and use outside the US[edit]

The M18 was copied by the People's Republic of China as the Type 36. The U.S. had provided Nationalist China the blueprints for the weapon. When the communist Chinese seized the factory, they took advantage of the facilities and blueprints to make their own copy of the weapon.[20] China provided the communist Vietnamese the Type 36 in 1963 for use in the Vietnam War.[21] Tanzania was also a user of the Type 36. In a strange twist, the Chinese version of the M18 can fire both U.S. and Chinese manufactured ammunition, but U.S. made M18s cannot fire Chinese ammunition.[22] This was done deliberately by increasing the bore of their weapons and ammunition by 1mm, making their munitions too large for use by NATO weapons in the event of capture, but not vice versa.

As late as 1984, the M18 57 mm recoilless rifle was still being produced under license in Brazil by Hydroar in São Paulo.[23]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ While many sources claim the pre-engraving on the M18 projectiles drive band in 1943 was a first, the Germans in World War I had this feature on projectiles for their famous Paris Gun. Later it was discovered that pre-engraving the band gave no advantage and future rounds were produced without this feature
  2. ^ With most recoilless cannon, there is a 1-to-9 ratio—meaning that when the weapon is fired, 1 part of the propellant gases is used to force the shell forward and the other 9 parts of the propellant gases are expelled to the back to counter act that forward force, achieving a recoilless effect.
  3. ^ The "T" designation was for experimental or early production shells and is similar to the modern "XM" designation. The "M" designation is used for standardized items.
  1. ^ a b c d e FM 23-80: 57-mm Rifle M18, June 1948, p.3
  2. ^ a b c FM 23-80: 57-mm Rifle M18, June 1948, p.43
  3. ^ FM 23-80: 57-mm Rifle M18, June 1948, p.69
  4. ^ Jane's Infantry Weapons 1976, page 571.
  5. ^ Ian Hogg The Guns 1939-45 page 151 Ballantine Books 1970.
  6. ^ Weapons and Warfare, p. 879, Vol. 8, 1978.
  7. ^ TM 9-1300-204, Ammunition for Recoilless Rifles, p. 9, Washington: Department of the Army, 1959
  8. ^ Ian Hogg The Guns 1939-45 page 151 Ballantine Books 1970.
  9. ^ Engineering Design Handbook: Recoilless Rifle Weapon Systems, p. 1-7, Army Material Command, 15 January 1976.
  10. ^ http://bulletpicker.com/pdf/OP%201720,%20Shape%20Charge%20Ammunition.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.lonesentry.com/manuals/recoilless-weapons/
  12. ^ http://www.mcclellan.army.mil/documents/Remedial%20Actions%20Removal%20Responses/Final_Conventional_ESS_OE_RA_Eastern_Bypass_October_2001/Part05_Amend_1.pdf.
  13. ^ http://www.90thidpg.us/Reference/Manuals/FM%206-40.pdf.
  14. ^ http://bulletpicker.com/pdf/OP%201720,%20Shape%20Charge%20Ammunition.pdf The M18's M307 HEAT round used a hemispherical (rounded) liner rather than the normal conical liner to counteract the effect of rotation
  15. ^ Weapons and Warfare, p. 890, Vol. 8, 1978.
  16. ^ US Army Forces in the Korean War, Donald W. Boose, p.27, Oxford: Osprey, 2005.
  17. ^ rt66.com webpage Archived 2010-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ www.rt66.com Archived 2011-05-23 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference FM23-40--p.43 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Ian Hogg, Jane's Infantry Weapons, pp. 693 & 695, 1984-85, London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1984.
  21. ^ Simon Dunstan, Vietnam Tracks, p. 56, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2004.
  22. ^ Jane's Infantry Weapons 1976 page 571.
  23. ^ Ian Hogg, Jane's Infantry Weapons, pp. 693 & 695, 1984-85, London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1984.

External links[edit]