|Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
|Largest city||Yangon (Rangoon)|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Official scripts||Burmese script|
|Ethnic groups ()|
|Demonym||Burmese / Myanma|
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|Legislature||Assembly of the Union|
|-||Upper house||House of Nationalities|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Pagan Dynasty||23 December 849|
|-||Toungoo Dynasty||16 October 1510|
|-||Konbaung Dynasty||29 February 1752|
(from United Kingdom)
|4 January 1948|
|-||Coup d'état||2 March 1962|
|-||New constitution||30 March 2011|
|-||Total||676,578 km2 (40th)
261,227 sq mi
|-||2014 census||51,486,253 (25th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.524
low · 150th
|Currency||Kyat (K) (MMK)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+06:30)|
|Drives on the||rightb|
|ISO 3166 code||MM|
|a.||Some governments recognise Yangon (Rangoon) as the
|b.||Road infrastructure is still for driving on the left.|
Burma (i// BUR-mə), in old texts Birmah, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and commonly shortened to Myanmar (i// mee-ahn-MAR, // mee-EN-mar or // my-AN-mar (also with the stress on first syllable); Burmese pronunciation: [mjəmà]),[nb 1] is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand. One-third of Burma's total perimeter of 1,930 km (1,200 miles) forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Burma's recent census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Burma is 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi) in size. Burma's capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).
Early civilizations in Burma included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu in Upper Burma and the Mon in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Burmans of the Kingdom of Nanzhao entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Empire in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Empire fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Burma and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British conquered Burma after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Burma became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a democratic nation and then, following a coup in 1962, a military dictatorship. While the military dictatorship formally ended in 2011, most of the party leaders are former military officers.
For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and Burma's myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed. While former military leaders still wield enormous power in the country, Burmese Military have taken steps toward relinquishing control of the government. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, however, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of the Muslim Rohingya minority and its poor response to the religious clashes.
Burma is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP (nominal) stood at US$56.7 billion and its GDP (PPP) at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. As of 2013, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), Burma had a low level of human development, ranking 150 out of 187 countries.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 4.1 Political culture
- 4.2 Foreign relations
- 4.3 Military
- 4.4 Human rights and internal conflicts
- 4.4.1 Child soldiers
- 4.4.2 Child/forced/slave labour, systematic sexual violence and human trafficking
- 4.4.3 Genocide allegations and crimes against Rohingya people
- 4.4.4 Freedom of speech
- 4.4.5 Praise for the 2011 government reforms
- 4.4.6 2013 onwards
- 4.5 Nuclear weapons programme
- 5 Economy
- 6 Society
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar". The renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.
The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" (ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်, Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw, pronounced: [pjìdàʊɴzṵ θàɴməda̰ mjəmà nàɪɴŋàɴdɔ̀]). Some countries, however, have not recognised this name and use the long form "Union of Burma" instead.
In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar" i//. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group. Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Bama (pronounced: [bəmà]) or Myamah (pronounced: [mjəmà]). The name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century.
Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of many countries, including the United Kingdom and Canada. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma (Myanmar)" and Barack Obama has referred to the country as Myanmar. The United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, Germany, China, India, Norway, and Japan.
Archaeological evidence shows that Homo erectus lived in the region now known as Burma as early as 400,000 years ago. The first evidence of Homo sapiens is dated to about 11,000 BC, in a Stone Age culture called the Anyathian with discoveries of stone tools in central Burma. Evidence of neolithic age domestication of plants and animals and the use of polished stone tools dating to sometime between 10,000 and 6,000 BC has been discovered in the form of cave paintings near the city of Taunggyi.
The Bronze Age arrived circa 1500 BC when people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice and domesticating poultry and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so. The Iron Age began around 500 BC with the emergence of iron-working settlements in an area south of present-day Mandalay. Evidence also shows the presence of rice-growing settlements of large villages and small towns that traded with their surroundings as far as China between 500 BC and 200 AD. Iron Age Burmese cultures also had influences from outside sources such as India and Thailand, as seen in their funerary practices concerning child burials. This indicates some form of communication between groups in Burma and other places, possibly through trade.
Around the 2nd century BC the first-known city-states emerged in central Burma. The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant, from present-day Yunnan. The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, importing Buddhism as well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organisation.
By the 9th century AD several city-states had sprouted across the land: the Pyu states in the central dry zone, Mon states along the southern coastline and Arakanese states along the western littoral. The balance was upset when the Pyu states came under repeated attacks from the Kingdom of Nanzhao between the 750s and the 830s. In the mid-to-late 9th century the Mranma (Burmans/Bamar) of Nanzhao founded a small settlement at Pagan (Bagan). It was one of several competing city-states until the late 10th century when it grew in authority and grandeur.
Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia. The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century.
Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287.
Pagan's collapse was followed by 250 years of political fragmentation that lasted well into the 16th century. Like the Burmans four centuries earlier, Shan migrants who arrived with the Mongol invasions stayed behind. Several competing Shan states came to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Irrawaddy valley. The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizable powers, Ava Kingdom and Hanthawaddy Kingdom, emerged. In the west, a politically fragmented Arakan was under competing influences of its stronger neighbours until the Kingdom of Mrauk U unified the Arakan coastline for the first time in 1437.
Early on, Ava fought wars of unification (1385–1424) but could never quite reassemble the lost empire. Having held off Ava, Hanthawaddy entered its golden age, and Arakan went on to become a power in its own right for the next 350 years. In contrast, constant warfare left Ava greatly weakened, and it slowly disintegrated from 1481 onward. In 1527, the Confederation of Shan States conquered Ava itself, and ruled Upper Burma until 1555.
Like the Pagan Empire, Ava, Hanthawaddy and the Shan states were all multi-ethnic polities. Despite the wars, cultural synchronisation continued. This period is considered a golden age for Burmese culture. Burmese literature "grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse", and the second generation of Burmese law codes as well as the earliest pan-Burma chronicles emerged. Hanthawaddy monarchs introduced religious reforms that later spread to the rest of the country. Many splendid temples of Mrauk U were built during this period.
Political unification returned in the mid-16th century, due to the efforts of one tiny Toungoo (Taungoo), a former vassal state of Ava. Toungoo's young, ambitious king Tabinshwehti defeated the more powerful Hanthawaddy in 1541. His successor Bayinnaung went on to conquer a vast swath of mainland Southeast Asia including the Shan states, Lan Na, Manipur, the Chinese Shan states, Siam, Lan Xang and southern Arakan. However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia unravelled soon after Bayinnaung's death in 1581, completely collapsing by 1599. Siam seized Tenasserim and Lan Na, and Portuguese mercenaries established Portuguese rule at Syriam (Thanlyin).
The dynasty regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in 1613 and Siam in 1614. It restored a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan states, Lan Na and upper Tenasserim. The Restored Toungoo kings created a legal and political framework whose basic features would continue well into the 19th century. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. From the 1720s onward, the kingdom was beset with repeated Manipuri raids into Upper Burma, and a nagging rebellion in Lan Na. In 1740, the Mon of Lower Burma founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. Hanthawaddy forces sacked Ava in 1752, ending the 266-year-old Toungoo Dynasty.
After the fall of Ava, one resistance group, Alaungpaya's Konbaung Dynasty defeated Restored Hanthawaddy, and by 1759, had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French and the British who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy. By 1770, Alaungpaya's heirs had subdued much of Laos (1765), defeated Siam (1767), and defeated four invasions by China (1765–1769).
With Burma preoccupied by the Chinese threat, Siam recovered its territories by 1770, and went on to capture Lan Na by 1776. Burma and Siam went to war until 1855, but all resulted in a stalemate, exchanging Tenasserim (to Burma) and Lan Na (to Siam). Faced with a powerful China and a resurgent Siam in the east, King Bodawpaya turned west, acquiring Arakan (1785), Manipur (1814) and Assam (1817). It was the second largest empire in Burmese history but also one with a long ill-defined border with British India.
The breadth of this empire was short lived. Burma lost Arakan, Manipur, Assam and Tenasserim to the British in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826). In 1852, the British easily seized Lower Burma in the Second Anglo-Burmese War. King Mindon tried to modernise the kingdom, and in 1875 narrowly avoided annexation by ceding the Karenni States. The British, alarmed by the consolidation of French Indo-China, annexed the remainder of the country in the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885.
Konbaung kings extended Restored Toungoo's administrative reforms, and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion. For the first time in history, the Burmese language and culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley. The evolution and growth of Burmese literature and theatre continued, aided by an extremely high adult male literacy rate for the era (half of all males and 5% of females). Nonetheless, the extent and pace of reforms were uneven and ultimately proved insufficient to stem the advance of British colonialism.
British Burma (1824–1948)
The country was colonised by Britain following three Anglo-Burmese Wars (1824–1885). British rule brought social, economic, cultural and administrative changes.
With the fall of Mandalay, all of Burma came under British rule, being annexed on 1 January 1886. Throughout the colonial era, many Indians arrived as soldiers, civil servants, construction workers and traders and, along with the Anglo-Burmese community, dominated commercial and civil life in Burma. Rangoon became the capital of British Burma and an important port between Calcutta and Singapore.
Burmese resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralysed Yangon (Rangoon) on occasion all the way until the 1930s. Some of the discontent was caused by a disrespect for Burmese culture and traditions such as the British refusal to remove shoes when they entered pagodas. Buddhist monks became the vanguards of the independence movement. U Wisara, an activist monk, died in prison after a 166-day hunger strike to protest against a rule that forbade him from wearing his Buddhist robes while imprisoned.
On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered colony of Great Britain and Ba Maw the first Prime Minister and Premier of Burma. Ba Maw was an outspoken advocate for Burmese self-rule and he opposed the participation of Great Britain, and by extension Burma, in World War II. He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. In 1940, before Japan formally entered the Second World War, Aung San formed the Burma Independence Army in Japan.
A major battleground, Burma was devastated during World War II. By March 1942, within months after they entered the war, Japanese troops had advanced on Rangoon and the British administration had collapsed. A Burmese Executive Administration headed by Ba Maw was established by the Japanese in August 1942. Wingate's British Chindits were formed into long-range penetration groups trained to operate deep behind Japanese lines. A similar American unit, Merrill's Marauders, followed the Chindits into the Burmese jungle in 1943. Beginning in late 1944, allied troops launched a series of offensives that led to the end of Japanese rule in July 1945. The battles were intense with much of Burma laid waste by the fighting. Overall, the Japanese lost some 150,000 men in Burma. Only 1,700 prisoners were taken.
Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese as part of the Burma Independence Army, many Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, served in the British Burma Army. The Burma National Army and the Arakan National Army fought with the Japanese from 1942 to 1944 but switched allegiance to the Allied side in 1945. Under Japanese occupation, 170,000 to 250,000 civilians died.
Following World War II, Aung San negotiated the Panglong Agreement with ethnic leaders that guaranteed the independence of Burma as a unified state. Aung Zan Wai, Pe Khin, Bo Hmu Aung, Sir Maung Gyi, Dr. Sein Mya Maung, Myoma U Than Kywe were among the negotiators of the historical Panglong Conference negotiated with Bamar leader General Aung San and other ethnic leaders in 1947. In 1947, Aung San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma, a transitional government. But in July 1947, political rivals assassinated Aung San and several cabinet members.
On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, Burma did not become a member of the Commonwealth. A bicameral parliament was formed, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Nationalities, and multi-party elections were held in 1951–1952, 1956 and 1960.
The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.
In 1961, U Thant, then the Union of Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations, a position he held for ten years. Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was a young Aung San Suu Kyi, who went on to become winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize.
Military rule (1962–2011)
On 2 March 1962, the military led by General Ne Win took control of Burma through a coup d'état and the government has been under direct or indirect control by the military since then. Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general. Almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) were nationalised or brought under government control under the Burmese Way to Socialism, which combined Soviet-style nationalisation and central planning.
A new constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma was adopted in 1974. Until 1988, the country was ruled as a one-party system, with the General and other military officers resigning and ruling through the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP). During this period, Burma became one of the world's most impoverished countries.
There were sporadic protests against military rule during the Ne Win years and these were almost always violently suppressed. On 7 July 1962, the government broke up demonstrations at Rangoon University, killing 15 students. In 1974, the military violently suppressed anti-government protests at the funeral of U Thant. Student protests in 1975, 1976 and 1977 were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force.
In 1988, unrest over economic mismanagement and political oppression by the government led to widespread pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country known as the 8888 Uprising. Security forces killed thousands of demonstrators, and General Saw Maung staged a coup d'état and formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). In 1989, SLORC declared martial law after widespread protests. The military government finalised plans for People's Assembly elections on 31 May 1989. SLORC changed the country's official English name from the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989.
In May 1990, the government held free elections for the first time in almost 30 years and the National League for Democracy (NLD), the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, won 392 out of a total 492 seats (i.e., 80% of the seats). However, the military junta refused to cede power and continued to rule the nation as SLORC until 1997, and then as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) until its dissolution in March 2011.
On 23 June 1997, Burma was admitted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). On 27 March 2006, the military junta, which had moved the national capital from Yangon to a site near Pyinmana in November 2005, officially named the new capital Naypyidaw, meaning "city of the kings".
In August 2007, an increase in the price of diesel and petrol led to a series of anti-government protests that were dealt with harshly by the government. The protests then became a campaign of civil resistance (also called the Saffron Revolution.) led by Buddhist monks, hundreds of whom defied the house arrest of democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi to pay their respects at the gate of her house.
The government cracked down on them on 26 September 2007. The crackdown was harsh, with reports of barricades at the Shwedagon Pagoda and monks killed. There were also rumours of disagreement within the Burmese armed forces, but none was confirmed. The military crackdown against unarmed Saffron Revolution protesters was widely condemned as part of the International reaction to the 2007 Burmese anti-government protests and led to an increase in economic sanctions against the Burmese Government.
In May 2008, Cyclone Nargis caused extensive damage in the densely populated, rice-farming delta of the Irrawaddy Division. It was the worst natural disaster in Burmese history with reports of an estimated 200,000 people dead or missing, and damage totalled to 10 billion US Dollars, and as many as 1 million left homeless. In the critical days following this disaster, Burma's isolationist government was accused of hindering United Nations recovery efforts. Humanitarian aid was requested but concerns about foreign military or intelligence presence in the country delayed the entry of United States military planes delivering medicine, food, and other supplies.
In early August 2009, a conflict known as the Kokang incident broke out in Shan State in northern Burma. For several weeks, junta troops fought against ethnic minorities including the Han Chinese, Wa, and Kachin. During 8–12 August, the first days of the conflict, as many as 10,000 Burmese civilians fled to Yunnan province in neighbouring China.
The goal of the Burmese constitutional referendum of 2008, held on 10 May 2008, is the creation of a "discipline-flourishing democracy". As part of the referendum process, the name of the country was changed from the "Union of Myanmar" to the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar", and general elections were held under the new constitution in 2010. Observer accounts of the 2010 election describe the event as mostly peaceful; however, allegations of polling station irregularities were raised, and the United Nations (UN) and a number of Western countries condemned the elections as fraudulent.
The military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party declared victory in the 2010 elections, stating that it had been favoured by 80 percent of the votes; however, the claim was disputed by numerous pro-democracy opposition groups who asserted that the military regime had engaged in rampant fraud. One report documented 77 percent as the official turnout rate of the election. The military junta was dissolved on 30 March 2011.
Opinions differ whether the transition to liberal democracy is underway. According to some reports, the military's presence continues as the label 'disciplined democracy' suggests. This label asserts that the Burmese military is allowing certain civil liberties while clandestinely institutionalising itself further into Burmese politics. Such an assertion assumes that reforms only occurred when the military was able to safeguard its own interests through the transition—here, "transition" does not refer to a transition to a liberal democracy, but transition to a quasi-military rule.
Since the 2010 election, the government has embarked on a series of reforms to direct the country towards liberal democracy, a mixed economy, and reconciliation, although doubts persist about the motives that underpin such reforms. The series of reforms includes the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission, the granting of general amnesties for more than 200 political prisoners, new labour laws that permit labour unions and strikes, a relaxation of press censorship, and the regulation of currency practices.
The impact of the post-election reforms has been observed in numerous areas, including ASEAN's approval of Burma's bid for the position of ASEAN chair in 2014; the visit by United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in December 2011 for the encouragement of further progress—it was the first visit by a Secretary of State in more than fifty years (Clinton met with the Burmese president and former military commander Thein Sein, as well as opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi); and the participation of Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) party in the 2012 by-elections, facilitated by the government's abolition of the laws that previously barred the NLD. As of July 2013, about 100 political prisoners remain imprisoned, while conflict between the Burmese Army and local insurgent groups continues.
In 1 April 2012 by-elections the NLD won 43 of the 45 available seats; previously an illegal organisation, the NLD had never won a Burmese election until this time. The 2012 by-elections were also the first time that international representatives were allowed to monitor the voting process in Burma. Following announcement of the by-elections, the Freedom House organisation raised concerns about "reports of fraud and harassment in the lead up to elections, including the March 23 deportation of Somsri Hananuntasuk, executive director of the Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL), a regional network of civil society organisations promoting democratization."
Civil wars have been a constant feature of Burma's socio-political landscape since the attainment of independence in 1948. These wars are predominantly struggles for ethnic and sub-national autonomy, with the areas surrounding the ethnically Burman central districts of the country serving as the primary geographical setting of conflict. Foreign journalists and visitors require a special travel permit to visit the areas in which Burma's civil wars continue.
In October 2012 the number of ongoing conflicts in Burma included the Kachin conflict, between the Pro-Christian Kachin Independence Army and the government; a civil war between the Rohingya Muslims, and the government and non-government groups in Arakan State; and a conflict between the Shan, Lahu and Karen minority groups, and the government in the eastern half of the country. In addition al-Qaeda signalled an intention to become involved in Burma. In a video released 3 September 2014 mainly addressed to India, the militant group's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri said al-Qaeda had not forgotten the Muslims of Burma and that the group was doing "what they can to rescue you". In response, the military raised its level of alertness while the Burmese Muslim Association issued a statement saying Muslims would not tolerate any threat to their motherland.
Armed conflict between ethnic Chinese rebels and the Myanmar Armed Forces have resulted in the Kokang offensive in February 2015. The conflict had forced 40,000 to 50,000 civilians to flee their homes and seek shelter on the Chinese side of the border. During the incident the government of China was accused of giving military assistance to the ethnic Chinese rebels.
Burma has a total area of 678,500 square kilometres (262,000 sq mi). It lies between latitudes 9° and 29°N, and longitudes 92° and 102°E. As of February 2011, Burma consisted of 14 states and regions, 67 districts, 330 townships, 64 sub-townships, 377 towns, 2,914 Wards, 14,220 village tracts and 68,290 villages.
Burma is bordered in the northwest by the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh and the Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh states of India. Its north and northeast border is with the Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan province for a Sino-Burman border total of 2,185 km (1,358 mi). It is bounded by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. Burma has 1,930 km (1,200 mi) of contiguous coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which forms one quarter of its total perimeter.
In the north, the Hengduan Mountains form the border with China. Hkakabo Razi, located in Kachin State, at an elevation of 5,881 metres (19,295 ft), is the highest point in Burma. Many mountain ranges, such as the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, the Shan Hills and the Tenasserim Hills exist within Burma, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas.
The mountain chains divide Burma's three river systems, which are the Irrawaddy, Salween (Thanlwin), and the Sittaung rivers. The Irrawaddy River, Burma's longest river, nearly 2,170 kilometres (1,348 mi) long, flows into the Gulf of Martaban. Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains. The majority of Burma's population lives in the Irrawaddy valley, which is situated between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.
Burma is divided into seven states (ပြည်နယ်) and seven regions (တိုင်းဒေသကြီး), formerly called divisions. Regions are predominantly Bamar (that is, mainly inhabited by the dominant ethnic group). States, in essence, are regions that are home to particular ethnic minorities. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages.
Below are the number of districts, townships, cities/towns, wards, village groups and villages in each divisions and states of Burma as of 31 December 2001:
Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of rain annually. Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while average annual rainfall in the Dry Zone in central Burma is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). The Northern regions of Burma are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Coastal and delta regions have an average maximum temperature of 32 °C (89.6 °F).
Burma's slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment and ecosystems. Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuable teak in lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country, including areas of acacia, bamboo, ironwood and Magnolia champaca. Coconut and betel palm and rubber have been introduced. In the highlands of the north, oak, pine and various rhododendrons cover much of the land.
Heavy logging since the new 1995 forestry law went into effect has seriously reduced forest acreage and wildlife habitat. The lands along the coast support all varieties of tropical fruits and once had large areas of mangroves although much of the protective mangroves have disappeared. In much of central Burma (the Dry Zone), vegetation is sparse and stunted.
Typical jungle animals, particularly tigers and leopards, occur sparsely in Burma. In upper Burma, there are rhinoceros, wild buffalo, wild boars, deer, antelope, and elephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals, particularly in the lumber industry. Smaller mammals are also numerous, ranging from gibbons and monkeys to flying foxes and tapirs. The abundance of birds is notable with over 800 species, including parrots, peafowl, pheasants, crows, herons, and paddybirds. Among reptile species there are crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons, and turtles. Hundreds of species of freshwater fish are wide-ranging, plentiful and are very important food sources. For a list of protected areas, see List of protected areas of Burma.
Government and politics
The constitution of Burma, its third since independence, was drafted by its military rulers and published in September 2008. The country is governed as a presidential republic with a bicameral legislature, with a portion of legislators appointed by the military and others elected in general elections. The current head of state, inaugurated as President on 30 March 2011, is Thein Sein.
The legislature, called the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, is bicameral and made up of two houses: the 224-seat upper house Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities) and the 440-seat lower house Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives). The upper house consists of 224 members, of whom 168 are directly elected and 56 are appointed by the Burmese Armed Forces. The lower house consists of 440 members, of whom 330 are directly elected and 110 are appointed by the armed forces.
The major political parties are the National League for Democracy, National Democratic Force and the two backed by the military: the National Unity Party, and the Union Solidarity and Development Party.
Burma's army-drafted constitution was approved in a referendum in May 2008. The results, 92.4% of the 22 million voters with an official turnout of 99%, are considered suspect by many international observers and by the National League of Democracy with reports of widespread fraud, ballot stuffing, and voter intimidation.
The elections of 2010 resulted in a victory for the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party. Various foreign observers questioned the fairness of the elections. One criticism of the election was that only government sanctioned political parties were allowed to contest in it and the popular National League for Democracy was declared illegal. However, immediately following the elections, the government ended the house arrest of the democracy advocate and leader of the National League for Democracy, Aung San Suu Kyi, and her ability to move freely around the country is considered an important test of the military's movement toward more openness. After unexpected reforms in 2011, NLD senior leaders have decided to register as a political party and to field candidates in future by-elections.
Burma rates as a corrupt nation on the Corruption Perceptions Index with a rank of 157th out of 177 countries worldwide and a rating of 2.1 out of 10 (10 being least corrupt and 0 being highly corrupt) as of 2012.
Though the country's foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have been strained, relations have thawed since the reforms following the 2010 elections. After years of diplomatic isolation and economic and military sanctions, the United States relaxed curbs on foreign aid to Burma in November 2011 and announced the resumption of diplomatic relations on 13 January 2012 The European Union has placed sanctions on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.
Sanctions imposed by the United States and European countries against the former military government, coupled with boycotts and other direct pressure on corporations by supporters of the democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from the country of most U.S. and many European companies. On 13 April 2012 British Prime Minister David Cameron called for the economic sanctions on Burma to be suspended in the wake of the pro-democracy party gaining 43 seats out of a possible 45 in the 2012 by-elections with the party leader, Aung San Suu Kyi becoming a member of the Burmese parliament.
Despite Western isolation, Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in the country and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction. The country has close relations with neighbouring India and China with several Indian and Chinese companies operating in the country. Under India's Look East policy, fields of co-operation between India and Burma include remote sensing, oil and gas exploration, information technology, hydro power and construction of ports and buildings.
In 2008, India suspended military aid to Burma over the issue of human rights abuses by the ruling junta, although it has preserved extensive commercial ties, which provide the regime with much-needed revenue. The thaw in relations began on 28 November 2011, when Belarusian Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich and his wife Ludmila arrived in the capital, Naypyidaw, the same day as the country received a visit by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, who also met with pro-democracy opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. International relations progress indicators continued in September 2012 when Aung San Suu Kyi visited to the US followed by Burma's reformist president visit to the United Nations.
In May 2013, Thein Sein became the first Myanmar president to visit the White House in 47 years; the last Burmese leader to visit the White House was Ne Win in September 1966. President Barack Obama praised the former general for political and economic reforms, and the cessation of tensions between Myanmar and the United States. Political activists objected to the visit due to concerns over human rights abuses in Myanmar but Obama assured Thein Sein that Myanmar will receive U.S. support. The two leaders discussed to release more political prisoners, the institutionalisation of political reform and rule of law, and ending ethnic conflict in Myanmar—the two governments agreed to sign a bilateral trade and investment framework agreement on 21 May 2013.
In June 2013, Myanmar held its first ever summit, the World Economic Forum on East Asia 2013. A regional spinoff of the annual World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, the summit was held on 5–7 June and attended by 1,200 participants, including 10 heads of state, 12 ministers and 40 senior directors from around the world.
Burma has received extensive military aid from China in the past Burma has been a member of ASEAN since 1997. Though it gave up its turn to hold the ASEAN chair and host the ASEAN Summit in 2006, it is scheduled to chair the forum and host the summit in 2014. In November 2008, Burma's political situation with neighbouring Bangladesh became tense as they began searching for natural gas in a disputed block of the Bay of Bengal. Controversy surrounding the Rohingya population also remains an issue between Bangladesh and Burma.
Burma's armed forces are known as the Tatmadaw, which numbers 488,000. The Tatmadaw comprises the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. The country ranked twelfth in the world for its number of active troops in service. The military is very influential in Burma, with all top cabinet and ministry posts usually held by military officials. Official figures for military spending are not available. Estimates vary widely because of uncertain exchange rates, but Burma's military forces' expenses are high. Burma imports most of its weapons from Russia, Ukraine, China and India.
Burma is building a research nuclear reactor near Pyin Oo Lwin with help from Russia. It is one of the signatories of the nuclear non-proliferation pact since 1992 and a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1957. The military junta had informed the IAEA in September 2000 of its intention to construct the reactor. The research reactor outbuilding frame was built by ELE steel industries limited of Yangon/Rangoon and water from Anisakhan/BE water fall will be used for the reactor cavity cooling system.
In 2010 as part of the Wikileaks leaked cables, Burma was suspected of using North Korean construction teams to build a fortified Surface-to-Air Missile facility.
Until 2005, the United Nations General Assembly annually adopted a detailed resolution about the situation in Burma by consensus. But in 2006 a divided United Nations General Assembly voted through a resolution that strongly called upon the government of Burma to end its systematic violations of human rights. In January 2007, Russia and China vetoed a draft resolution before the United Nations Security Council calling on the government of Burma to respect human rights and begin a democratic transition. South Africa also voted against the resolution.
Human rights and internal conflicts
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (January 2013)|
There is consensus that the military regime in Burma is one of the world's most repressive and abusive regimes. In November 2012, Samantha Power, Barack Obama's Special Assistant to the President on Human Rights, wrote on the White House blog in advance of the president's visit that "Serious human rights abuses against civilians in several regions continue, including against women and children." Members of the United Nations and major international human rights organisations have issued repeated and consistent reports of widespread and systematic human rights violations in Burma. The United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly called on the Burmese Military Junta to respect human rights and in November 2009 the General Assembly adopted a resolution "strongly condemning the ongoing systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms" and calling on the Burmese Military Regime "to take urgent measures to put an end to violations of international human rights and humanitarian law."
International human rights organisations including Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and the American Association for the Advancement of Science have repeatedly documented and condemned widespread human rights violations in Burma. The Freedom in the World 2011 report by Freedom House notes, "The military junta has ... suppressed nearly all basic rights; and committed human rights abuses with impunity." In July 2013, the Assistance Association for Political Prisoners indicated that there were approximately 100 political prisoners being held in Burmese prisons.
Child soldiers have and continue to play a major part in the Burmese Army as well as Burmese rebel movements. The Independent reported in June 2012 that "Children are being sold as conscripts into the Burmese military for as little as $40 and a bag of rice or a can of petrol." The UN's Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Radhika Coomaraswamy, who stepped down from her position a week later, met representatives of the Government of Myanmar on 5 July 2012 and stated that she hoped the government's signing of an action plan would "signal a transformation." In September 2012, the Myanmar Armed Forces released 42 child soldiers and the International Labour Organization met with representatives of the government as well as the Kachin Independence Army to secure the release of more child soldiers. According to Samantha Power, a US delegation raised the issue of child soldiers with the government in October 2012. However, she did not comment on the government's progress towards reform in this area.
A Bangkok Post article on 23 December 2012 reported that the Myanmar Armed Forces continued to use child soldiers including during the army's large offensive against the KIA in December 2012. The newspaper reported that "Many of them were pulled off Yangon streets and elsewhere and given a minimum of training before being sent to the front line."[unreliable source?]
Child/forced/slave labour, systematic sexual violence and human trafficking
Forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour are common. The military is also notorious for rampant use of sexual violence, a practice continuing as of 2012. In 2007 the international movement to defend women's human rights issues in Burma was said to be gaining speed.
Genocide allegations and crimes against Rohingya people
The Rohingya people have consistently faced human rights abuses by the Burmese regime that has refused to acknowledge them as Burmese citizens (despite some of them having lived in Burma for over three generations)—the Rohingya have been denied Burmese citizenship since the enactment of a 1982 citizenship law. The law created three categories of citizenship: citizenship, associate citizenship, and naturalized citizenship. Citizenship is given to those who belong to one of the national races such as Kachin, Kayah (Karenni), Karen, Chin, Burman, Mon, Rakhine, Shan, Kaman, or Zerbadee. Associate citizenship is given to those who cannot prove their ancestors settled in Myanmar before 1823, but can prove they have one grandparent, or pre-1823 ancestor, who was a citizen of another country, as well as people who applied for citizenship in 1948 and qualified then by those laws. Naturalized citizenship is only given to those who have at least one parent with one of these types of Burmese citizenship or can provide "conclusive evidence" that their parents entered and resided in Burma prior to independence in 1948. The Burmese regime has attempted to forcibly expel Rohingya and bring in non-Rohingyas to replace them—this policy has resulted in the expulsion of approximately half of the 800,000 Rohingya from Burma, while the Rohingya people have been described as "among the world's least wanted" and "one of the world's most persecuted minorities." But the origin of ‘most persecuted minority’ statement is unclear.
Rohingya are also not allowed to travel without official permission, are banned from owning land and are required to sign a commitment to have no more than two children. As of July 2012, the Myanmar Government does not include the Rohingya minority group—classified as stateless Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982—on the government's list of more than 130 ethnic races and, therefore, the government states that they have no claim to Myanmar citizenship.
In 2007 the German professor Bassam Tibi suggested that the Rohingya conflict may be driven by an Islamist political agenda to impose religious laws, while non-religious causes have also been raised, such as a lingering resentment over the violence that occurred during the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II—during this time period the British allied themselves with the Rohingya and fought against the puppet government of Burma (composed mostly of Bamar Japanese) that helped to establish the Tatmadaw military organisation that remains in power as of March 2013.
Since the democratic transition began in 2011, there has been continuous violence as 280 people have been killed and 140,000 forced to flee from their homes in the Rakhine state. A UN envoy reported in March 2013 that unrest had re-emerged between Burma's Buddhist and Muslim communities, with violence spreading to towns that are located closer to Yangon. The BBC News media outlet obtained video footage of a man with severe burns who received no assistance from passers-by or police officers even though he was lying on the ground in a public area. The footage was filmed by members of the Burmese police force in the town of Meiktila and was used as evidence that Buddhists continued to kill Muslims after the European Union sanctions were lifted on 23 April 2013.
Rohingya Fleeing by boat
Rohingya have been fleeing Rakhine State by boat in recent years. Often, the boats are very small and dangerous on the open seas. An estimated 100,000 Rohingya have fled Myanmar in the last two years in fear of persecution and violence. They have been fleeing to Thailand, Malaysia, or even Australia for refuge. Over 200 have died in recent years and over 7,000 have been held in detention centres even after surviving the boat trip.
2012 Rakhine State riots
A widely publicised Burmese conflict was the 2012 Rakhine State riots, a series of conflicts that primarily involved the ethnic Rakhine Buddhist people and the Rohingya Muslim people in the northern Rakhine State—an estimated 90,000 people were displaced as a result of the riots.
The immediate cause of the riots is unclear, with many commentators citing the killing of ten Burmese Muslims by ethnic Rakhine after the rape and murder of a Rakhine woman as the main cause. Whole villages have been "decimated". Over 300 houses and a number of public buildings have been razed. According to Tun Khin, the president of the Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK (BROUK), as of 28 June 2012, 650 Rohingyas have been killed, 1,200 are missing, and more than 80,000 have been displaced. According to the Myanmar authorities, the violence, between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and thousands of homes destroyed. It displaced more than 52,000 people.
The government has responded by imposing curfews and by deploying troops in the regions. On 10 June 2012, a state of emergency was declared in Rakhine, allowing the military to participate in administration of the region. The Burmese army and police have been accused of targeting Rohingya Muslims through mass arrests and arbitrary violence. A number of monks' organisations that played a vital role in Burma's struggle for democracy have taken measures to block any humanitarian assistance to the Rohingya community.
Freedom of speech
Restrictions on media censorship were significantly eased in August 2012 following demonstrations by hundreds of protesters who wore shirts demanding that the government "Stop Killing the Press." The most significant change has come in the form that media organisations will no longer have to submit their content to a censorship board before publication. However, as explained by one editorial in the exiled press The Irrawaddy, this new "freedom" has caused some Burmese journalists to simply see the new law as an attempt to create an environment of self-censorship as journalists "are required to follow 16 guidelines towards protecting the three national causes — non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity, perpetuation of sovereignty — and "journalistic ethics" to ensure their stories are accurate and do not jeopardise national security." In July 2014 five journalists were sentenced to 10 years in jail after publishing a report saying the country was planning to build a new chemical weapons plant. Journalists described the jailings as a blow to the recently-won news media freedoms that had followed five decades of censorship and persecution.
Praise for the 2011 government reforms
According to the Crisis Group, since Burma transitioned to a new government in August 2011, the country's human rights record has been improving. Previously giving Burma its lowest rating of 7, the 2012 Freedom in the World report also notes improvement, giving Burma a 6 for improvements in civil liberties and political rights, the release of political prisoners, and a loosening of restrictions. In 2013, Burma improved yet again, receiving a score of five in civil liberties and a six in political freedoms
The government has assembled a National Human Rights Commission that consists of 15 members from various backgrounds. Several activists in exile, including Thee Lay Thee Anyeint members, have returned to Burma after President Thein Sein's invitation to expatriates to return home to work for national development. In an address to the United Nations Security Council on 22 September 2011, Burma's Foreign Minister Wunna Maung Lwin confirmed the government's intention to release prisoners in the near future.
The government has also relaxed reporting laws, but these remain highly restrictive. In September 2011, several banned websites, including YouTube, Democratic Voice of Burma and Voice of America, were unblocked. A 2011 report by the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations found that, while contact with the Myanmar government was constrained by donor restrictions, international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) see opportunities for effective advocacy with government officials, especially at the local level. At the same time, international NGOs are mindful of the ethical quandary of how to work with the government without bolstering or appeasing it.
Following Thein Sein's first ever visit to the UK and a meeting with Prime Minister David Cameron, the Myanmar president declared that all of his nation's political prisoners will be released by the end of 2013, in addition to a statement of support for the well-being of the Rohingya Muslim community. In a speech at Chatham House, he revealed that "We [Myanmar government] are reviewing all cases. I guarantee to you that by the end of this year, there will be no prisoners of conscience in Myanmar.", in addition to expressing a desire to strengthen links between the UK and Myanmar's military forces.
Nuclear weapons programme
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (October 2014)|
There have been reports that Burma is interested in or may be developing nuclear weapons. These reports are based on evidence gathered from anti-government Burmese and on reports that North Korea may be exporting nuclear technology to Burma. However, there has been no independent corroboration of these reports.
Burma is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology hinders Burma's economy, although recent reforms and developments carried out by the new government, in collaboration with foreign countries and organizations aim to make this a thing of the past. 
Burma lacks adequate infrastructure. Goods travel primarily across the Thai border (where most illegal drugs are exported) and along the Irrawaddy River. Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century. Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities. Energy shortages are common throughout the country including in Yangon and only 25% of the country's population has electricity.
The military government has the majority stakeholder position in all of the major industrial corporations of the country (from oil production and consumer goods to transportation and tourism).
In 2010–2011, Bangladesh exported products worth $9.65 million to Myanmar against its import of $179 million. The annual import of medicine and medical equipment to Burma during the 2000s was 160 million USD.
In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for economic benefit. Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and trade sanctions on Burma. The United States and European Union eased most of their sanctions in 2012. Foreign investment comes primarily from China, Singapore, the Philippines, South Korea, India, and Thailand.
Under British administration, Burma was the second-wealthiest country in South-East Asia. It had been the world's largest exporter of rice. Burma also had a wealth of natural and labour resources. British Burma began exporting crude oil in 1853, making it one of the earliest petroleum producers in the world. It produced 75% of the world's teak and had a highly literate population. The wealth was however, mainly concentrated in the hands of Europeans. In 1930s, agricultural production fell dramatically as international rice prices declined, and did not recover for several decades.
During World War II, the British destroyed the major government buildings, oil wells and mines for tungsten, tin, lead and silver to keep them from the Japanese. Burma was bombed extensively by both sides. After independence, the country was in ruins with its major infrastructure completely destroyed. After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime Minister U Nu embarked upon a policy of nationalisation and the state was declared the owner of all land. The government also tried to implement a poorly considered Eight-Year plan. By the 1950s, rice exports had fallen by two thirds and mineral exports by over 96% (as compared to the pre-World War II period). Plans were partly financed by printing money, which led to inflation.
The 1962 coup d'état was followed by an economic scheme called the Burmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalise all industries, with the exception of agriculture. The catastrophic programme turned Burma into one of the world's most impoverished countries. Burma's admittance to least developed country status by the UN in 1987 highlighted its economic bankruptcy.
The major agricultural product is rice, which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight. Through collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute 52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19 million tons in 1996. By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country's ricelands, including 98 percent of the irrigated areas. In 2008 rice production was estimated at 50 million tons.
Burma is also the world's second largest producer of opium, accounting for 8% of entire world production and is a major source of illegal drugs, including amphetamines. Opium bans implemented since 2002 after international pressure have left ex-poppy farmers without sustainable sources of income in the Kokang and Wa regions. They depend on casual labour for income.
Burma produces precious stones such as rubies, sapphires, pearls, and jade. Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world's rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of the country's gems. Burma's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (120 mi) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires.
Many US and European jewellery companies, including Bulgari, Tiffany, and Cartier, refuse to import these stones based on reports of deplorable working conditions in the mines. Human Rights Watch has encouraged a complete ban on the purchase of Burmese gems based on these reports and because nearly all profits go to the ruling junta, as the majority of mining activity in the country is government-run. The government of Burma controls the gem trade by direct ownership or by joint ventures with private owners of mines.
Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas.
Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country; however, fewer than 270,000 tourists entered the country in 2006 according to the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board. Burma's Minister of Hotels and Tourism Saw Lwin has stated that the government receives a significant percentage of the income of private sector tourism services.
The most popular available tourist destinations in Burma include big cities such as Yangon and Mandalay; religious sites in Mon State, Pindaya, Bago and Hpa-An; nature trails in Inle Lake, Kengtung, Putao, Pyin Oo Lwin; ancient cities such as Bagan and Mrauk-U; as well as beaches in Nabule. Ngapali, Ngwe-Saung, Mergui. Nevertheless, much of the country is off-limits to tourists, and interactions between foreigners and the people of Burma, particularly in the border regions, are subject to police scrutiny. They are not to discuss politics with foreigners, under penalty of imprisonment and, in 2001, the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued an order for local officials to protect tourists and limit "unnecessary contact" between foreigners and ordinary Burmese people.
The most common way for travellers to enter the country seems to be by air. According to the website Lonely Planet, getting into Burma (Myanmar) is problematic: "No bus or train service connects Myanmar with another country, nor can you travel by car or motorcycle across the border – you must walk across.", and states that, "It is not possible for foreigners to go to/from Myanmar by sea or river." There are a small number of border crossings that allow the passage of private vehicles, such as the border between Ruili (China) to Mu-se, the border between Htee Kee (Burma) and Ban Phu Nam Ron (Thailand) (the most direct border between Dawei and Kanchanaburi), and the border between Myawaddy (Burma) and Mae Sot (Thailand). At least one tourist company has successfully run commercial overland routes through these borders since 2013. "From Mae Sai (Thailand) you can cross to Tachileik, but can only go as far as Kengtung. Those in Thailand on a visa run can cross to Kawthaung but cannot venture farther into Myanmar."
Flights are available from most countries, though direct flights are limited to mainly Thai and other ASEAN airlines. According to Eleven magazine, "In the past, there were only 15 international airlines and increasing numbers of airlines have began launching direct flights from Japan, Qatar, Taiwan, South Korea, Germany and Singapore." Expansions were expected in September 2013, but yet again are mainly Thai and other Asian-based airlines according to Eleven Media Group's Eleven, "Thailand-based Nok Air and Business Airlines and Singapore-based Tiger Airline".
The Government of Burma was under economic sanctions by the US Treasury Department (31 CFR Part 537, 16 August 2005) and by Executive orders 13047 (1997), 13310 (2003), 13448 (2007), 13464 (2008), and the most recent, 13619 (2012). There exists debate as to the extent to which the American-led sanctions have had more adverse effects on the civilian population rather than on the military rulers.
From May 2012 to February 2013, the United States began to lift its economic sanctions on Burma "in response to the historic reforms that have been taking place in that country." Sanctions remain in place for blocked banks and for any business entities that are more than 50% owned by persons on "OFAC's Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons list (SDN list)".
Government stakeholders in business
Economic liberalisation, post–2011
In March 2012, a draft foreign investment law emerged, the first in more than 2 decades. Foreigners will no longer require a local partner to start a business in the country, and will be able to legally lease but not own property. The draft law also stipulates that Burmese citizens must constitute at least 25% of the firm's skilled workforce, and with subsequent training, up to 50–75%.
In 2012, the Asian Development Bank formally began re-engaging with the country, to finance infrastructure and development projects in the country. The United States, Japan, and the European Union countries have also begun to reduce or eliminate economic sanctions to allow foreign direct investment which will provide the Burmese government with additional tax revenue.
In December 2014, Myanmar signed an agreement to set up its first stock exchange. The Yangon Stock Exchange Joint Venture Co. Ltd will be set up with Myanma Economic Bank sharing 51 percent, Japan's Daiwa Institute of Research Ltd 30.25 percent and Japan Exchange Group 18.75 percent.
Units of measurement
According to The World Factbook, Burma is one of three countries along with Liberia and the United States of America that has not adopted the International System of Units (SI) metric system as their official system of weights and measures. The common units of measure are unique to Burma, but the government web pages use both imperial units and metric units.
In June 2011, the Burmese government's Ministry of Commerce began discussing proposals to reform the measurement system and adopt the International System of Units used by most of its trading partners. In October 2013 it was reported that Dr. Pwint San, Deputy Minister for Commerce, had announced that the country was preparing to adopt the International System of Units.
The provisional results of the 2014 Burma Census show that the total population is 51,419,420. This figure includes an estimated 1,206,353 persons in parts of northern Rakhine State, Kachin State and Kayin State who were not counted. People who were out of the country at the time of the census are not included in these figures. There are over 600,000 registered migrant workers from Burma in Thailand, and millions more work illegally. Burmese migrant workers account for 80% of Thailand's migrant workers. Population density is 76 per square kilometre (200/sq mi), among the lowest in Southeast Asia.
Burma's fertility rate as of 2011 is 2.23, which is slightly above replacement level and is low compared to Southeast Asian countries of similar economic standing, such Cambodia (3.18) and Laos (4.41). There has been a significant decline in fertility, from a rate of 4.7 children per woman in 1983, down to 2.4 in 2001, despite the absence of any national population policy. The fertility rate is much lower in urban areas.
The relatively rapid decline in fertility is attributed to several factors, including extreme delays in marriage (almost unparalleled among developing countries in the region), the prevalence of illegal abortions, and the high proportion of single, unmarried women of reproductive age, with 25.9% of women aged 30–34 and 33.1% of men and women aged 25–34 single.
These patterns stem from several cultural and economic dynamics. The first is economic hardship, which results in the delay of marriage and family-building; the average age of marriage in Burma is 27.5 for men, 26.4 for women. The second is the social acceptability of celibacy among the Burmese, who are predominantly Buddhist and value celibacy as a means of spiritual development.
Burma is ethnically diverse. The government recognises 135 distinct ethnic groups. While it is extremely difficult to verify this statement, there are at least 108 different ethnolinguistic groups in Burma, consisting mainly of distinct Tibeto-Burman peoples, but with sizeable populations of Tai–Kadai, Hmong–Mien, and Austroasiatic (Mon–Khmer) peoples.
The Bamar form an estimated 68% of the population. 10% of the population are Shan. The Kayin make up 7% of the population. The Rakhine people constitute 4% of the population. Overseas Chinese form approximately 3% of the population. Burma's ethnic minority groups prefer the term "ethnic nationality" over "ethnic minority" as the term "minority" furthers their sense of insecurity in the face of what is often described as "Burmanisation"—the proliferation and domination of the dominant Bamar culture over minority cultures.
Mon, who form 2% of the population, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer. Overseas Indians are 2%. The remainder are Kachin, Chin, Rohingya, Anglo-Indians, Gurkha, Nepali and other ethnic minorities. Included in this group are the Anglo-Burmese. Once forming a large and influential community, the Anglo-Burmese left the country in steady streams from 1958 onwards, principally to Australia and the UK. It is estimated that 52,000 Anglo-Burmese remain in Burma. As of 2009[update], 110,000 Burmese refugees were living in refugee camps in Thailand.
Refugee camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while several thousand are in Malaysia. Conservative estimates state that there are over 295,800 minority refugees from Burma, with the majority being Rohingya, Karen, and Karenni are principally located along the Thai-Burma border. There are nine permanent refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border, most of which were established in the mid-1980s. The refugee camps are under the care of the Thai-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC). Since 2006, over 55,000 Burmese refugees have been resettled in the United States.
The persecution of Burmese Indians, Burmese Chinese and other ethnic groups after the military coup headed by General Ne Win in 1962 led to the expulsion or emigration of 300,000 people. They migrated to escape racial discrimination and the wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise that took place in 1964. The Anglo-Burmese at this time either fled the country or changed their names and blended in with the broader Burmese society.
Burma is home to four major language families: Sino-Tibetan, Tai–Kadai, Austro-Asiatic, and Indo-European. Sino-Tibetan languages are most widely spoken. They include Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Chin, and Chinese. The primary Tai–Kadai language is Shan. Mon, Palaung, and Wa are the major Austroasiatic languages spoken in Burma. The two major Indo-European languages are Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, and English.
Burmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Burma, is related to Tibetan and Chinese language. It is written in a script consisting of circular and semi-circular letters, which were adapted from the Mon script, which in turn was developed from a southern Indian script in the 5th century. The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 11th century. It is also used to write Pali, the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects, and Kayah (Karenni), with the addition of specialised characters and diacritics for each language.
The Burmese language incorporates widespread usage of honorifics and is age-oriented. Burmese society has traditionally stressed the importance of education. In villages, secular schooling often takes place in monasteries. Secondary and tertiary education take place at government schools.
Many religions are practised in Burma. Religious edifices and orders have been in existence for many years. Festivals can be held on a grand scale. The Christian and Muslim populations do, however, face religious persecution and it is hard, if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the army or get government jobs, the main route to success in the country. Such persecution and targeting of civilians is particularly notable in Eastern Burma, where over 3000 villages have been destroyed in the past ten years. More than 200,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled to Bangladesh over the last 20 years to escape Islamophobic persecution.
A large majority of the population practices Buddhism; estimates range from 80% to 89%. Theravāda Buddhism is the most widespread. Other religions are practised largely without obstruction, with the notable exception of some religious minorities such as the Rohingya people, who have continued to have their citizenship status denied and treated as illegal immigrants instead, and Christians in Chin State.
Four percent of the population practices Islam; 7% Christianity; 1% traditional animistic beliefs; and 2% follow other religions, including Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism, and East Asian religions. However, according to a US State Department's 2010 international religious freedom report, official statistics are alleged to underestimate the non-Buddhist population. Independent researchers put the Muslim population at 6 to 10% of the population. A tiny Jewish community in Rangoon had a synagogue but no resident rabbi to conduct services.
Although Hinduism is practiced by 2% of the population, it was a major religion in Burma's past. Several strains of Hinduism existed alongside both Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism in the Mon and Pyu period in the first millennium CE, and down to the Pagan period (9th to 13th centuries) when "Saivite and Vaishana elements enjoyed greater elite influence than they would later do."
The general state of health care in Myanmar (Burma) is poor. The government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment.
HIV/AIDS, recognised as a disease of concern by the Burmese Ministry of Health, is most prevalent among sex workers and intravenous drug users. In 2005, the estimated adult HIV prevalence rate in Burma was 1.3% (200,000–570,000 people), according to UNAIDS, and early indicators of any progress against the HIV epidemic are inconsistent. However, the National AIDS Programme Burma found that 32% of sex workers and 43% of intravenous drug users in Burma have HIV.
Burma's government spends the least percentage of its GDP on health care of any country in the world, and international donor organisations give less to Burma, per capita, than any other country except India. According to the report named "Preventable Fate", published by Doctors without Borders, 25,000 Burmese AIDS patients died in 2007, deaths that could largely have been prevented by antiretroviral therapy drugs and proper treatment.
The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Myanmar is 240. This is compared with 219.3 in 2008 and 662 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 73 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 47.
According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Burma's official literacy rate as of 2000 was 90%. Historically, Burma has had high literacy rates. To qualify for least developed country status by the UN to receive debt relief, Burma lowered its official literacy rate from 79% to 19% in 1987. [clarification needed]
The educational system of Burma is operated by the government agency, the Ministry of Education. The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system due to nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Burma. Nearly all schools are government-operated, but there has been a recent increase in privately funded English language schools. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, approximately about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level.
There are 101 universities, 12 institutes, 9 degree colleges and 24 colleges in Burma, a total of 146 higher education institutions. There are 10 Technical Training Schools, 23 nursing training schools, 1 sport academy and 20 midwifery schools. There are 2047 Basic Education High Schools, 2605 Basic Education Middle Schools, 29944 Basic Education Primary Schools and 5952 Post Primary Schools. 1692 multimedia classrooms exist within this system.
There are four international schools acknowledged by WASC and College Board—The International School Yangon (ISY), Crane International School Yangon (CISM), Yangon International School (YIS) and International School of Myanmar (ISM) in Yangon.
In 2012, Burma had a murder rate of 15.2 per 100,000 population. There were a total of 8,044 murders in Burma in 2012. Factors influencing Burma's high murder rate include communal violence and armed conflict. Burma is one of the world's most corrupt nations. The 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country at number 171, out of 176 countries in total.
Burma is the world's second largest producer of opium after Afghanistan, producing some 25% of the world's opium, and forms part of the Golden Triangle. The opium industry was a monopoly during colonial times and has since been illegally operated by corrupt officials in the Burmese military and rebel fighters, primarily as the basis for heroin manufacture.
Burma is the largest producer of methamphetamines in the world, with the majority of Ya ba found in Thailand produced in Burma, particularly in the Golden Triangle and Northeastern Shan State, which borders Thailand, Laos and China. Burmese-produced ya ba is typically trafficked to Thailand via Laos, before being transported through the northeastern Thai region of Isan.
A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Burma, the majority culture is primarily Buddhist and Bamar. Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries. This is manifested in its language, cuisine, music, dance and theatre. The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form of Theravada Buddhism. Considered the national epic of Burma, the Yama Zatdaw, an adaptation of India's Ramayana, has been influenced greatly by Thai, Mon, and Indian versions of the play. Buddhism is practised along with nat worship, which involves elaborate rituals to propitiate one from a pantheon of 37 nats.
In a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life. Monks are venerated and supported by the lay people. A novitiation ceremony called shinbyu is the most important coming of age events for a boy, during which he enters the monastery for a short time. All male children in Buddhist families are encouraged to be a novice (beginner for Buddhism) before the age of twenty and to be a monk after the age of twenty. Girls have ear-piercing ceremonies (နားသ) at the same time. Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival. Many villages have a guardian nat, and superstition and taboos are commonplace.
British colonial rule introduced Western elements of culture to Burma. Burma's education system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom. Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such as Yangon. Many ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen in the southeast and the Kachin and Chin who populate the north and northeast, practice Christianity. According to the The World Factbook, the Burman population is 68% and the ethnic groups constitute 32%. However, the exiled leaders and organisations claims that ethnic population is 40%, which is implicitly contrasted with CIA report (official US report).
Mohinga is the traditional breakfast dish and is Burma's national dish. Seafood is a common ingredient in coastal cities such as Sittwe, Kyaukpyu, Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), Mergui (Myeik) and Dawei, while meat and poultry are more commonly used in landlocked cities like Mandalay. Freshwater fish and shrimp have been incorporated into inland cooking as a primary source of protein and are used in a variety of ways, fresh, salted whole or filleted, salted and dried, made into a salty paste, or fermented sour and pressed.
Burmese cuisine also includes a variety of salads (a thoke), centered on one major ingredient, ranging from starches like rice, wheat and rice noodles, glass noodles and vermicelli, to potato, ginger, tomato, kaffir lime, long bean, lahpet (pickled tea leaves), and ngapi (fish paste).
Burmese contemporary art has developed rather on its own terms and quite rapidly.
One of the first to study western art was Ba Nyan. Together with Ngwe Gaing and a handful of other artists, they were pioneers of western painting style in Burma. Later, most of the students learnt from masters through apprenticeship. Some well known contemporary artists are Lun Gywe, Aung Kyaw Htet, MPP Yei Myint, Myint Swe, Min Wai Aung, Aung Myint, Khin Maung Yin, Po Po and Zaw Zaw Aung.
Most of the young artists who were born in the 1980s have greater chances of art practises inside and outside the country. Performance art is a popular genre among Burmese young artists.
Media and communications
Due to Burma's political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country's population, although a certain number exists. Some are privately owned. All programming must meet with the approval of the censorship board.
The Burmese government announced on 20 August 2012 that it will stop censoring media before publication. Following the announcement, newspapers and other outlets no longer required approved by state censors; however, journalists in the country can still face consequences for what they write and say.
In April 2013, international media reports were published to relay the enactment of the media liberalisation reforms that we announced in August 2012. For the first time in numerous decades, the publication of privately owned newspapers commenced in the country.
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (June 2013)|
Internet use is estimated to be relatively low compared to other countries. There had been censorship, and authorities view e-mail and posts on Internet blogs until 2012 when government removed censorship in media. During the strict censorship days, activity at internet cafes were regulated, and one blogger named Zarganar, was sentenced to a few years in prison for publishing a video of destruction caused by the Cyclone Nargis in 2008; Zarganar was released in October 2011.
In regards to communications infrastructure, Myanmar is the last ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. With 148 countries reported on, Myanmar ranked number 146 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking. No data is currently available for previous years.
Burma's first film was a documentary of the funeral of Tun Shein — a leading politician of the 1910s, who campaigned for Burmese independence in London. The first Burmese silent film Myitta Ne Thuya (Love and Liquor) in 1920 which proved a major success, despite its poor quality due to a fixed camera position and inadequate film accessories. During the 1920s and 1930s, many Burmese-owned film companies made and produced several films. The first Burmese sound film was produced in 1932 in Bombay, India with the title Ngwe Pay Lo Ma Ya (Money Can't Buy It). After World War II, Burmese cinema continued to address political themes. Many of the films produced in the early Cold War era had a strong propaganda element to them.
In the era that followed the political events of 1988, the film industry has been increasingly controlled by the government. Film stars who had been involved in the political activities were banned from appearing in films. The government issues strict rules on censorship and largely determines who produces films, as well as who gets academy awards.
Over the years, the movie industry has also shifted to producing many lower budget direct-to-video films.
Burma is the primary subject of a 2007 graphic novel titled Chroniques Birmanes by Québécois author and animator, Guy Delisle. The graphic novel was translated into English under the title Burma Chronicles in 2008. In 2009, a documentary about Burmese videojournalists called Burma VJ was released. This film was nominated for Best Documentary Feature at the 2010 Academy Awards. The Lady had its world premiere on 12 September 2011 at the 36th Toronto International Film Festival.
The 2013 Southeast Asian Games took place in Naypyidaw, Yangon, Mandalay and Ngwesaung Beach in December representing the third occasion that the event has been staged in Burma. Burma previously hosted the Games in 1961 and 1969.
- The final "r" in "Myanmar" was not intended for pronunciation, but was added to represent the broad "ah"-sound of British English <ar>.
- "The World Factbook – Burma". cia.gov. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census Highlights of the Main Results Census Report Volume 2 – A. Department of Population Ministry of Immigration and Population. 2015.
- "Burma (Myanmar)". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2014. International Monetary Fund. September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Myanmar — Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Thackrah, J. R. "Definition of Myanmar". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Definition of Myanmar — Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Ammon, Ulrich (2004). Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Volume 3/3 (2nd ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 2012. ISBN 3-11-018418-4.
- "Myanmar". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Asian Development Bank and Myanmar: Fact Sheet" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
- O'Reilly, Dougald JW (2007). Early civilizations of Southeast Asia. United Kingdom: Altamira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0279-1.
- Lieberman, p. 152
- "Burma". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Myanmar Human Rights". Amnesty International USA. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "World Report 2012: Burma". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Madhani, Aamer (16 November 2012). "Obama administration eases Burma sanctions before visit". USA Today.
- Fuller, Thomas; Geitner, Paul (23 April 2012). "European Union Suspends Most Myanmar Sanctions". The New York Times.
- Greenwood, Faine (27 May 2013). "The 8 Stages of Genocide Against Burma's Rohingya | UN DispatchUN Dispatch". Undispatch.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "EU welcomes "measured" Myanmar response to rioting". Retuer. 11 June 2012.
- "Q&A: Communal violence in Burma". BBC. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Eleven Media (4 September 2013). "Income Gap 'world's widest'". The Nation. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- McCornac, Dennis (22 October 2013). "Income inequality in Burma". Democratic Voice of Burma. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Houtman, Gustaaf (1999). Mental culture in Burmese crisis politics. ILCAA Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series No. 33. Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. pp. 43–47. ISBN 978-4-87297-748-6.
- Steinberg, David I. (2002). Burma: The State of Myanmar. Georgetown University Press. p. xi. ISBN 1-58901-285-2.
- "Burma". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "Government of the Union of Burma". Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Dittmer, Lowell (2010). Burma Or Myanmar? The Struggle for National Identity. World Scientific. p. 2. ISBN 9789814313643.
- "Burma or Myanmar? Obama calls it both on visit" (News and blogging). Asian Correspondent (Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited). Associated Press. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
Yangon, Burma (AP) — Officially at least, America still calls this Southeast Asian nation Burma, the favored appellation of dissidents and pro-democracy activists who opposed the former military junta's move to summarily change its name 23 years ago.
- "Hosting Burma's Leader, Obama Repeatedly Calls the Country 'Myanmar'". CNS News. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
- "Burma (Myanmar)". Travel.state.gov. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Burma vs. Myanmar: What's in a Name". DW. 1 September 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Mudditt, Jassica (19 November 2012). "Burma or Myanmar: Will the US make the switch?". Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Myanmar profile". BBC News. 16 July 2013.
- "Myanmar Fast Facts — CNN.com". CNN. 30 July 2013.
- "Myanmar blast hits anti-Muslim monk's event — Asia-Pacific". Al Jazeera. 22 July 2013.
- "Myanmar". Reuters. 9 February 2009.
- "" Birmanie ou Myanmar ? Le vrai faux débat francophone " – La France en Birmanie". Ambafrance-mm.org. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Sala de Imprensa: Situação em Mianmar". Institutional website (Itamaraty). 27 September 2007.
- Bowman, John Stewart Bowman (2013). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-231-50004-3.
- Cooler, Richard M. (2002). "The Art and Culture of Burma". DeKalb: Northern Illinois University.
- Myint-U, p. 37
- Myint-U, p. 45
- Hudson, Bob (March 2005). "A Pyu Homeland in the Samon Valley: a new theory of the origins of Myanmar's early urban system" (PDF). Myanmar Historical Commission Golden Jubilee International Conference: 1.
- Coupey, A. S. (2008). Infant and child burials in the Samon valley, Myanmar. In Archaeology in Southeast Asia, from Homo Erectus to the living traditions: choice of papers from the 11th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, 25–29 September 2006, Bougon, France
- Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1.
- Moore, Elizabeth H. (2007). Early Landscapes of Myanmar. Bangkok: River Books. p. 236. ISBN 974-9863-31-3.
- Myint-U, pp. 51–52
- Lieberman, pp. 90–91
- Lieberman, p. 24
- Htin Aung, Maung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–65.
- Lieberman, p. 134
- Myint-U, pp. 64–65
- Lieberman, pp. 184–187
- Myint-U, p. 109
- Lieberman, pp. 202–206
- Collis, Maurice (1945). Trials in Burma.
- Bechert, Heinz (1984). The World of Buddhism-Buddhist Monks and Nuns in Society and Culture. New York, N.Y.: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-87196-982-8.
- Bennett, Will (20 August 1995). "Chindits remember their fallen comrades". The Independent (London). Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "China-Burma-India: Merrill's Marauders. Veterans History Project, Library of Congress". Loc.gov. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Towle, Philip; Kosuge, Margaret; Kibata, Yōichi (2000). Japanese prisoners of war. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 48. ISBN 1-85285-192-9.
- Fellowes-Gordon, Ian (1971). The Battle For Naw Seng's Kingdom: General Stilwel.
- Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556
- Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 (Werner Gruhl is former chief of NASA's Cost and Economic Analysis Branch with a lifetime interest in the study of the First and Second World Wars.)
- Moe, Kyaw Zwa (August 1977). "Author Discusses Martyrs' Day Assassination of Aung San". The Irrawaddy.
- Houtman, Gustaaf (1999). Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics: Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. ISBN 4-87297-748-3.
- "The Constitution of the Union of Burma". DVB. 1947. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
- Smith, Martin (1991). Burma -Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London and New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 42–43.
- Zaw, Aung (September 2006). "Can Another Asian Fill U Thant's Shoes?". The Irrawaddy 14 (9). Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.
- Fink, Christina (2001). Living Silence: Burma under Military Rule. Bangkok: White Lotus. ISBN 1-85649-926-X.
- Tallentire, Mark (28 September 2007). "The Burma road to ruin". The Guardian (London).
- "Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law". State Law and Order Restoration Council. iBiblio.org. 31 May 1989. Retrieved 11 July 2006.
- Han, Khin Kyaw (1 February 2003). "1990 Multi-party Democracy General Elections". National League for Democracy. iBiblio.org.
- "Burma's new capital stages parade". BBC News. 27 March 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2006.
- "Burma leaders double fuel prices". BBC News. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Booth, Jenny (24 September 2007). "Military junta threatens monks in Burma". The Times (London). Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "100,000 Protestors Flood Streets of Rangoon in "Saffron Revolution"".
- Fink, Christina (2009). "The Moment of the Monks: Burma, 2007". In Adam Roberts; Timothy Garton Ash. Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford University Press. pp. 354–70. ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6.
- "UN envoy warns of Myanmar crisis". English.aljazeera.net. Retrieved 20 November 2012.[dead link]
- Fountain, Henry (6 May 2008). "Aid arrives in Myanmar as death toll passes 22,000, but worst-hit area still cut off –". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11.
- "Official: UN plane lands in Myanmar with aid after cyclone". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Stevenson, Rachel; Borger, Julian and MacKinnon, Ian (9 May 2008). "Burma snubs foreign aid workers". The Guardian (London).
- "Burma: imperialists exploit natural disaster to promote regime change". Proletarian Online. June 2008.
- "Fighting forces up to 30,000 to flee Myanmar". MSNBC. 28 August 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "More fighting feared as thousands flee Burma". Bangkok Post. Agence France-Presse. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.[dead link]
- Fuller, Thomas (28 August 2009). "Refugees Flee to China as Fighting Breaks Out in Myanmar". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- "Thousands Flee Burma Violence". BBC News. 26 August 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Marshall, Andrew (11 April 2011). "The Slow Thaw of Burma's Notorious Military Junta". The Times (UK). Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "A Changing Ethnic Landscape: Analysis of Burma's 2010 Polls". Transnational Institute – Burma Project. TNI. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (21 October 2010). "U.N. Doubts Fairness of Election in Myanmar". The New York Times.
- Bunte, M. (2013). "Burma's Transition to Quasi-Military Rule: From Rulers to Guardians?". Armed Forces & Society 40 (4): 742. doi:10.1177/0095327X13492943.
- Loyn, David (19 November 2011). "Obstacles lie ahead in Burma's bid for reform". BBC. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Cabellero-Anthony, Mely (March 2014). ""Myanmar's Chairmanship of ASEAN: Challenges and Opportunities", Myanmar's Growing Regional Role". NBR Special report.
- Hepler, Lauren; Voorhees, Josh (1 December 2011). "Budding Friendship on Display as Clinton, Burma's Suu Kyi Meet Again". Slate. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-06-17.
Wrapping up a historic three-day visit to Myanmar [Burma], the first by a secretary of state to the Southeast Asian nation in more than 50 years
- Myers, Steven Lee (2 December 2011). "Clinton Says U.S. Will Relax Some Restrictions on Myanmar". The New York Times. p. A6. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to visit Burma". BBC. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- "Myanmar set to release some 70 prisoners". The Myanmar Times. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Weng, Lawi (24 July 2013). "Burma Govt Releases 73 Political Prisoners". Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Golluoglu, Esmer (4 February 2012). "Aung San Suu Kyi hails 'new era' for Burma after landslide victory". The Guardian (London).
- "Burma Election Is Test of Progress". Freedom House. 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Restricted Areas in Burma". Tourism Burma. 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Fuller, Thomas (4 April 2013). "Ethnic Rifts Strain Myanmar as It Moves Toward Democracy". The New York Times.
- Nadi, Nang Mya (25 September 2012). "Displaced by fighting, villagers take shelter in Hpakant". Democratic Voice of Burma. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Blood and Gold: Inside Burma's Hidden War". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2012.
- "About 75,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar camps: Refugee International". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 29 September 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Power, Samantha (9 November 2012). "Supporting Human Rights in Burma". The White House Blog. The White House. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Myanmar Shan refugees struggle at Thai border". Al Jazeera. 2 October 2012.
- Saw Khar Su Nyar (KIC) (16 March 2012). "Karen fighters and Burma Army soldiers killed over ceasefire breech". Karen News. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Myanmar: Karen groups cautious on peace initiative". IRIN. 5 March 2012.
- "Concern in India as Al Qaeda announces new India front". Myanmar News.Net. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Myanmar Muslim group rejects Al Qaeda statement". Myanmar News.Net. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.[dead link]
- "Tens of thousands flee war, airstrikes in Kokang region". DVB Multimedia Group. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Myanmar Kokang Rebels Deny Receiving Chinese Weapons". Radio Free Asia.
- Dr. Patrick Hesp et al., eds. (2000). Geographica's World Reference. Random House Australia. pp. 738, 741.
- Than, Mya (2005). Myanmar in ASEAN: Regional Co-operation Experience. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812302107.
- Thein, Myat (2005). Economic Development of Myanmar. Singapore: Inst. of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812302115.
- "Myanmar. States & Regions". Myanmar's NET.
- List of Districts, Townships, Cities/Towns, Wards, Village Groups and Villages in Union of Myanmar published by Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of Union of Myanmar on 31 December 2001
- "Myanmar's Forest Law and Rules". BurmaLibrary.org. Retrieved 15 July 2006.
- Reid, Robert; Bindloss, Joseph; Butler, Stuart (2009). "Environment: National Parks". Myanmar (Burma) (10th ed.). Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-74104-718-9.
- ""Flora and Fauna" at". Myanmars.net. Archived from the original on 2012-05-14. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Reuters, Cyclone-hit Myanmar says 92 percent back charter". Reuters. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (22 October 2010). "U.N. Doubts Fairness of Election in Myanmar". The New York Times.
- Jha, Lalit K (21 May 2009). "2010 Burmese Election may be Illegitimate: Clinton". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Western states dismiss Burma's election". BBC. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Tisdall, Simon (4 July 2011). "Aung San Suu Kyi has to tread softly – but governments must tell it like it is". The Guardian (UK).
- Walker, Peter (12 November 2010). "Guardian report on Aung's release from house arrest". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Suu Kyi's NLD democracy party to rejoin Burma politics". BBC. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "cpi 2008 table /cpi2008/2008/in focus/news room". Transparency.org. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Burma Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003". United States Library of Congress. 4 June 2003. Retrieved 4 February 2007.[dead link]
- Myers, Steven Lee author2=Mydans, Seth (13 January 2012). "U.S. to Renew Myanmar Ties in Light of Reforms". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "The EU's relations with Burma / Myanmar". European Union. Archived from the original on 25 July 2006. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
- "Overview of Burma sanctions". BBC. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- "David Cameron calls for Burma sanctions to be suspended". BBC News. 13 April 2012.
- "Burma, India to sign accord on use of India's remote sensing satellite data". NewsLibrary.com. 9 March 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "India looks to Burma to slake growing thirst for gas". The Christian Science Monitor. 26 April 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Myanmar, India to build IT centres in Myanmar_English_Xinhua". Xinhua News Agency. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "India to develop two hydel power projects in Myanmar – 56908". Steelguru.com. 1 August 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "BBC News". BBC News. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "India and Burma: time to choose (Human Rights Watch, 14-1-2008)". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 17 April 2010.[dead link]
- "The Barefoot Diplomat: Hillary Clinton Begins Landmark Visit to Burma". Time. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and pro-democracy opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi talk prior to dinner in Rangoon, Burma, 1 Dec. 2011.
- "Burma's Suu Kyi begins landmark US visit" (News & blogging). Asian Correspondent (Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited). Associated Press. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
WASHINGTON (AP) — Burma democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi will be honored in Washington this week and presented Congress's highest award, the latest milestone in her remarkable journey from political prisoner to globe-trotting stateswoman.
- "Burma's president to make historic US visit" (News & blogging). Asian Correspondent (Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited). Associated Press. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
YANGON, Burma (AP) — Burma's reformist president is heading to the United States to tout his country's makeover and push for an end to sanctions, in the first U.S. visit by a leader of the former international pariah since 1966.
- "Obama Vows US Support As Myanmar Leader Visits". NPR. Associated Press. 20 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21.
- "Pheonix Voyages appointed travel manager for Myanmar's first major summit". TTGmice. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Cody, Edward (27 September 2007). "Caution by Junta's Asian Neighbors Reflects Their Self-Interest". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Burma to chair ASEAN in 2014". The Daily Telegraph (London). 17 November 2011.
- Ramesh, Randeep (5 November 2008). "Bangladesh sends warship to Burma in gas row". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "For Rohingya in Bangladesh, No Place is Home". Time. 19 February 2010.
- Starck, Peter (7 June 2005). "World Military Spending Topped US$1 trillion in 2004". Common Dreams NewsCenter. Reuters. Retrieved 19 July 2006.[dead link]
- "Russia and Burma in Nuclear Deal". BBC. 15 May 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Moore, Malcolm (14 January 2011). "Nuclear Watchdog asks Burma to Open Up Suspect Sites". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Alleged North Korean Involvement in Missile Assembly and Underground Facility Construction in Burma". Wikileaks.ch. 27 August 2004.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 54 Verbotim Report 83. A/54/PV.83 page 30. The President 17 December 1999 at 10:00. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 55 Verbotim Report 81. A/55/PV.81 page 22. The President 4 December 2000 at 15:00. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 56 Verbotim Report 92. A/56/PV.92 page 7. 24 December 2001 at 11:00. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 60 Verbotim Report 69. A/60/PV.69 page 19. The President 23 December 2005 at 10:00. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- United Nations General Assembly Session 61 Verbotim Report 84. A/61/PV.84 page 14. 22 December 2006 at 10:00. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- United Nations Security Council Document 14. S/2007/14 12 January 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- United Nations Security Council Verbotim Report 5619. S/PV/5619 page 3. Mr. Kumalo South Africa 12 January 2007 at 16:00. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "The World's Most Repressive Regimes 2013" (PDF). Geneva: Freedom House. 2003. pp. vii–7.
Burma continues to be ruled by one of the world's most repressive regimes.
- Howse, Robert; Jared M. Genser. "Are EU Trade Sanctions On Burma Compatible With WTO Law?" (PDF). Are EU Trade Sanctions on Burma Compatible with WTO Law?: 166 ff. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-07. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
repressive and abusive military regime
- "List of UN General Assembly Resolutions On Burma". Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "UN General Assembly Resolution: Time for Concrete Action" (Press release). International Federation for Human Rights. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Adams, Brad (1 September 2004). "Statement to the EU Development Committee". Human Rights Watch.
- Adams, Brad. "Amnesty International 2009 Report on Human Rights in Myanmar". Amnesty International. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Satellite Images Verify Myanmar Forced Relocations, Mounting Military Presence". ScienceMode. 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-02-26.
- "Myanmar: Final push on political prisoners needed". 27 September 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Burma Frees 56 Political Prisoners". Voice of America. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- "2013 UNHCR country operations profile – Thailand". Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Guardia, Anton La (24 June 2005). "Burma's 'slow genocide' is revealed through the eyes of its child victims". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Taylor, Jerome (19 June 2012). "Two Burmese children a week conscripted into military". The Independent, (London). Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Press Conference on Action Plan to End Recruitment of Child Soldiers in Myanmar". United Nations. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Weng, Lawi (5 September 2012). "ILO in Talks with Kachins over Child Soldiers". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "No end in sight amid season of slaughter". Bangkok Post. 23 December 2012.
- "Myanmar: 10th anniversary of military repression". Amnesty International. 7 August 1998. Archived from the original on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 14 July 2006.
- "State of Terror report" (PDF). Women's League of Burma. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2007.
- "Trapped inside Burma's refugee camps, the Rohingya people call for recognition". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "US Holocaust Museum highlights plight of Myanmar's downtrodden Rohingya Muslims". Fox News. Associated Press. 6 November 2013.
- Head, Jonathan (5 February 2009). "What drive the Rohingya to sea?". BBC. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- 2000 Human Rights Report III. Discrimination in Arakan, Human Rights Watch, retrieved 14 December 2014
- Islam, Syed; Islam, Serajul (2007). "Chapter 16, State Terrorism in Arakan". In Tan, Andrew T. H. A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in South East Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 342. ISBN 978-1-84542-543-2.
- Hindstrom, Hanna (25 July 2012). "Burma's monks call for Muslim community to be shunned". The Independent. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Dummett, Mark (18 February 2010). "Bangladesh accused of 'crackdown' on Rohingya refugees". BBC. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Myanmar, Bangladesh leaders 'to discuss Rohingya'". Agence France-Presse. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- Bento, Lucas and Yusuf, Guled (9 October 2012). "The Rohingya: Unwanted at Home, Unwelcome Abroad". The Diplomat.
- Tim MclaughLin (8 July 2013). "Origin of ‘most persecuted minority’ statement unclear".
- "Rohingyas are not citizens: Myanmar minister". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 30 July 2012.
- Bassam, T (2007). Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: Democratic Peace and EuroIslam versus Global Jihad. New York: Routledge.
- Slim, William (2009). Defeat Into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942–1945. London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-50997-7.
- "Exodus grows as Muslim Rohigya flee persecution in Myanmar homeland,". Japan Times. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "'Brutal efficiency' in Myanmar attacks: UN". The Australian. Australian Associated Press. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Myanmar violence abetted by army". The Australian. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "2015 Report on Myanmar". UNHCR. 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Four killed as Rohingya Muslims riot in Myanmar: government". Reuters. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
- "UN Reports Increase in Boat People Fleeing Myanmar, Bangladesh". Voice of America. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "Burma unrest: UN body says 90,000 displaced by violence". BBC News. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Lauras, Didier (15 September 2012). "Myanmar stung by global censure over unrest". Agence France-Presse in the Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- Hindstorm, Hanna (28 June 2012). "Burmese authorities targeting Rohingyas, UK parliament told". Democratic Voice of Burma. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "UN refugee agency redeploys staff to address humanitarian needs in Myanmar". UN News. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Htet, Linn (11 June 2012). "အ႘ရး႘ပၚအ႘ျခအ႘န ႘ၾကညာခ်က႙ ႏုိင႙ငံ႘ရးသမားမ်ား ႘ထာက႙ခံ". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- Keane, Fergal (11 June 2012). "Old tensions bubble in Burma". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "UN focuses on Myanmar amid Muslim plight". Press TV. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- Hindstorm, Hanna (25 July 2012). "Burma's monks call for Muslim community to be shunned". The Independent (London). Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Copyright © 1998-2011, Radio Free Asia (RFA). Used with the permission of Radio Free Asia, 2025 M St. NW, Suite 300, Washington DC 20036. Re-use, republication, and distribution is allowed on condition that RFA is credited by including the preceding copyright notice and permission.
- Roughneen, Simon (15 August 2012). "MediaShift. In Burma, a Delicate Balance for New Freedoms of Speech". PBS. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Report on chemical weapons earn Myanmar journalists jail term with hard labour". Myanmar News.Net. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Major Reform Underway". Crisis Group. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Freedom in the World 2012: Burma". Freedom House. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Freedom House (2013). "Burma". Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Burma gets rights commission". Australia Network News. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.[dead link]
- Kyaw Hsu (19–25 September 2011). "Anyeint group returns from exile in Thailand". MM Times. Retrieved 29 August 2011.[dead link]
- Murdoch, Lindsay (29 September 2011). "Burma flags mass release of political prisoners". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- "Free press is the key to Myanmar reform". Agence France-Presse. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.[dead link]
- Buncombe, Andrew (17 September 2011). "Burmese junta relaxes access to foreign websites". The Independent (London). Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Working Through Ambiguity: International NGOs in Myanmar. Soubhik Ronnie Saha The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations Harvard University September 2011
- Woodcock, Andrew (16 July 2013). "No more political prisoners: Myanmar". The Australian. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- "Expert says Burma 'planning nuclear bomb'". Democratic Voice of Burma. 3 June 2010.
- Burma's nuclear secrets, The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 August 2009.
- "Burma 'trying to build nuclear weapon'". BBC News. 4 June 2010.
- Revealed: Burma's nuclear bombshell, The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 August 2009.
- Brown, Ian (2005). A Colonial Economy In Crisis. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-30580-2.
- "Challenges to Democratization in Burma" (PDF). International IDEA. November 2001. Retrieved 12 July 2006.
- Roughneen, Simon (20 October 2012). "Burma just opened up after 50 years. But where are all the tourists?". The Christian Science Monitor.
- McCartan, Brian (28 February 2012). "Myanmar military in the money". Asia Times. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- Brady, Brendan (7 September 2012). "Boom Days In Burma". Newsweek. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Index of Economic Freedom: Burma". 2009.
- Ahmed, Hafez (25 June 2012). "Myanmar President due July 15". Thefinancialexpress-bd.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Only under-license medicine to be produced in Myanmar". Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Hargreaves, Steve (18 June 2013). "Myanmar: Tales from the last business frontier". CNN. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Fullbrook, David (4 November 2004). "So long US, hello China, India". Asia Times. Retrieved 14 July 2006.
- Booth, Anne (Spring 2003). "The Burma Development Disaster in Comparative Historical Perspective" (PDF). SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 1 (1). ISSN 1479-8484.
- Watkins, Thayer. "Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) Economics". San Jose State University. Retrieved 8 July 2006.
- "List of Least Developed Countries". UN-OHRLLS. 2005. Archived from the original on 2013-10-26.
- PDF (21.2 KB), Facts About Cooperation, International Rice Research Institute. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Faostat". Faostat.fao.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Myanmar Country Profile" (PDF). Office on Drugs and Crime. United Nations. December 2005. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 9 July 2006.
- Drug Policy Briefing nr.29 of the Transnational Institute.
- "Gems of Burma and their Environmental Impact". Uvm.edu. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Burma: Gem Trade Bolsters Military Regime, Fuels Atrocities". Human Rights Watch. 11 November 2007.
- Ferro, Shane (19 July 2011). "Burmese Gem Emporium Rakes in $1.5 Billion Despite Human Rights Abuse Concerns". Blouin ARTINFO. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "Visitors By Nationalities". myanmar-tourism.com. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Enescu, Raluca (24 December 2006). "Burma Digest". Tayzathuria.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30.
- "Southern Myanmar". southernmyanmar.com. p. Tourist Destinations. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Myanmar Travel Agency". birma.com. p. Tourist Destinations. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "The Tourism Campaign – Campaigns". The Burma Campaign UK. Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Getting there & away". lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "International airlines to open direct flights to Myanmar". 2 August 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10.
- Federal Register August 16, 2005 (PDF) (31 CFR Part 537 ed.). U.S. Department of the Treasury. 16 August 2005. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Burma Sanctions". Resource Center. U.S. Department of the Treasury. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma" (PDF). Federal Register 77 (135): 41243–41245. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Hiatt, Fred (23 June 2003). "How Best to Rid the World of Monsters". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2006.[dead link]
- "Reuters Belgian group seeks Total boycott over Myanmar". Ibiblio. Reuters. 10 May 1999. Retrieved 24 June 2006.
- "Frequently Asked Questions and Answers". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Frequently Asked Questions and Answers". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- "Frequently Asked Questions and Answers". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Aung Hla Htun (16 March 2012). "Exclusive: Myanmar drafts new foreign investment rules". Reuters. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Yap, Karl Lester M. (1 March 2012). "ADB Preparing First Myanmar Projects in 25 Years as Thein Opens". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Holmes, Sam (28 September 2012). "Myanmar Awaits Sanction-Lift Effect — WSJ.com". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "The World Factbook, Appendix G: Weights and Measures". Web Pages. Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "Ministry of Agriculture and Information". Web Page. Myanmar Agriculture. 2009–2010. Archived from the original on 2013-06-13. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "About Myanmar : Geography". Web Page. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Gyi, Ko Ko (18 July 2011). "Ditch the viss, govt urges traders".[dead link]
- "Myanmar to adopt metric system". elevenmyanmar.com. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Spoorenberg, Thomas (2015). "Provisional results of the 2014 census of Myanmar: The surprise that wasn't". Asian Population Studies (Taylor & Francis) 11 (1): 4–6. doi:10.1080/17441730.2014.972084.
- "Thailand: The Plight of Burmese Migrant Workers". Amnesty International. 8 June 2006. Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
- Jones, Gavin W. (2007). "Delayed Marriage and Very Low Fertility in Pacific Asia" (PDF). Population and Development Review (The Population Council, Inc.) 33 (33): 453–478. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00180.x.
- Spoorenberg, Thomas (2013). "Demographic changes in Myanmar since 1983: An examination of official data". Population and Development Review (Population Council) 39 (2): 309–324. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00593.x.
- Myat (2008). "The Economic Position of Women in Burma". Asian Studies Review (Wiley) 24 (2): 243–255. doi:10.1111/1467-8403.00076.
- WorldMarriage Patterns 2000. United Nations
- Nyi, Nyi (2005). "V: Conclusion and Recommendation". The Determinants of Age at First Marriage in Myanmar (PDF) (Master's thesis). Mahidol University. Retrieved 20 September 2010.[dead link]
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Languages of Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. SIL International. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
- "Background Note: Burma". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. U.S. Department of State. August 2005. Retrieved 7 July 2006.
- Than, Mya (1997). Suryadinata, Leo, ed. Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians.
- Kato, Mariko (18 February 2009). "Myanmar refugees to try resettling". Japan Times. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Myanmar Refugees in South East Asia" (PDF). UNHCR. April 2006. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
- "From tropical Burma to Syracuse, refugees adjust". CBS News. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Office Of Refugee Resettlement: Data". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- Smith, Martin (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London, New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 43–44, 98, 56–57, 176.
- "Asians v. Asians.". Time. 17 July 1964. Retrieved 20 November 2012.(subscription required)
- Macan-Markar, Marwaan. "Burma's Muslim Rohingyas – The New Boat People.". Ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Ford, Peter (12 June 2012). "Why deadly race riots could rattle Myanmar's fledgling reforms". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Languages of Myanmar". SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2006.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Language Family Trees: Sino-Tibetan". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. SIL International. Retrieved 9 July 2006.
- "Proposal for encoding characters for Myanmar minority languages in the UCS" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization. 2 April 2006. Retrieved 9 July 2006.
- Tsaya (1886). Myam-ma, the home of the Burman. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. pp. 36–37.
- Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Burma. Pew Research Center. 2010.
- "Ethnic and Religious Diversity: Myanmar's Unfolding Nemesis", Matthews, Bruce, Institute of South East Asian Studies, Visiting Researcher Series, Volume 2001, No. 3. 2001.
- Thailand Burma Border Consortium (2007). "Internal Displacement in Eastern Burma 2006 Survey". Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2007.
- Priestly, Harry (17 January 2006). "The Outsiders". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19.
- Ling, Samuel Ngun (2003). "The Encounter of Missionary Christianity and Resurgent Buddhism in Post-colonial Myanmar" (PDF). Payap University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2006. Retrieved 14 July 2006.
- Zatko, Martin (2015). The Rough Guide to Myanmar. p. 357.
- Dummett, Mark (29 September 2007). "Burmese exiles in desperate conditions". BBC News. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "Buddhanet.net". Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "Burma-International Religious Freedom Report 2007". U.S. Department of State.
- "CIA Factbook – Burma". Cia.gov. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Burma". State.gov. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs – Background Note: Burma". State.gov. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Burma—International Religious Freedom Report 2010". U.S. Department of State. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Aung-Thwin, Michael A. (2005). The Mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 31–34. ISBN 978-0-8248-2886-8.
- Lieberman, pp. 115–116
- "PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United States". 17 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2011-04-27.
- Anwar, Yasmin (28 June 2007). "Burma junta faulted for rampant diseases". UC Berkeley News.
- "At a glance: Myanmar – statistics". UNICEF. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
- "A scaled-up response to AIDS in Asia and the Pacific" (PDF). UNAIDS. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
- "Asia" (PDF). UNAIDS. December 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
- A preventable fate: The failure of ART scale-up in Myanmar. Médecins Sans Frontières. November 2008
- "Adult (15+) Literacy Rates and Illiterate Population by Region and Gender for". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. April 2006. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2007-06-25. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
- Robert I Rotberg, ed. (1998). Burma: Prospects for a Democratic Future.
- Chronicle of National Development Comparison Between Period Preceding 1988 and after (up to 31 December 2006).
- Global Study on Homicide. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013.
- Calderon, Justin (3 July 2013). "ASEAN: As safe as we think?". Inside Investor. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Myanmar still near bottom of corruption rankings in 2012 despite reforms". Thomson Reuters Foundation. 5 December 2012.
- "UN report: Opium cultivation rising in Burma". BBC. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Thornton, Phil (12 February 2012). "Myanmar's rising drug trade". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- McCartan, Brian (13 July 2010). "Holes in Thailand's drug fences". Asia Times. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- "Ramayana in Myanmar's heart". Goldenland Pages. 13 September 2003. Retrieved 13 July 2006.
- Temple, R. C. (1906). The Thirty-seven Nats-A Phase of Spirit-Worship prevailing in Burma.
- "The Worshipping of Nats – The Special Festival of Mount Popa". Myanmar Travel Information. Archived from the original on 23 June 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Chit, Khin Myo (1980). Flowers and Festivals Round the Burmese Year.
- Yoe, Shway (1882). The Burman – His Life and Notions. New York: Norton Library 1963. pp. 211–216, 317–319.
- Martin, Steven (March 2004). "Burma maintains bygone buildings". BBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2006.
- Scott O'Connor, V. C. (1904). The Silken East – A Record of Life and Travel in Burma. Scotland 1993: Kiscadale. p. 32.
- "Burma Abolishes Censorship". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Sukri, Azhar (1 April 2013). "Myanmar shows new signs of press freedom". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- "Internet Access and Openness: Myanmar 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "NRI Overall Ranking 2014" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- Zaw, Aung (March 2004). "Celluloid Disillusions". Irrawaddy 12 (3). Archived from the original on 2005-02-13.
- Kyi Soe Tun quoted in the Bangkok Post, 11 August 2006
- Through the Director’s Lens. Irrawaddy. 16 January 2009
- "Burma VJ – Academy Award Nominee – Best Documentary Feature". Burmavjmovie.com. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Burma VJ Nominated for the 2010 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, Rev. Danny Fisher". Dannyfisher.org. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.[dead link]
- "Myanmar prepares for the 2013 Southeast Asian Games". Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7.
- Myint-U, Thant (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps—Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6.
- Charney, Michael W. (1999). History of Modern Burma. Cambridge University Press.
- Kemp, Hans (2013). Burmese Light, Impressions of the Golden Land (illustrated with text by Tom Vater ed.). Visionary World.
- "Burma's Western Border as Reported by the Diplomatic Correspondence(1947–1975)" by Aye Chan
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members. Last Updated: 18 Oct 2012 from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- General information
- General information about Myanmar
- Burma Myanmar search Engine
- Burma entry at The World Factbook
- Burma from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Burma at DMOZ
- Burma profile from the BBC News
- Myanmar at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Wikimedia Atlas of Myanmar
- Interactive timeline of turning points in Burmese history
- Key Development Forecasts for Myanmar from International Futures
- Online Burma/Myanmar Library: Classified and annotated links to more than 17,000 full-text documents on Burma/Myanmar
- Taipei American Chamber of Commerce; Topics Magazine, Analysis, November 2012. Myanmar: Southeast Asia's Last Frontier for Investment, By David DuByne
- Myanmar Business Today; Print Edition, 27 February 2014. A Roadmap to Building Myanmar into the Food Basket of Asia, by David DuByne & Hishamuddin Koh
- Myanmar Business Today; Print Edition, 19 June 2014. Myanmar's Institutional Infrastructure Constraints and How to Fill the Gaps, by David DuByne & Hishamuddin Koh